Westmorland Antique Map 1793-John Cary's Engraved Hand Coloured Map

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Seller: chapelstile (4,235) 100%, Location: Redhill, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 163682021205 VINTAGE MAP- SOLD FOR £30 ONLY- NO AUCTION- NO POSTAGE FEE FOR 2ND CLASS UK. seller's code: 080520191 Here is a most important English County Map: JOHN CARY’S ORIGINAL SMALLER COPPER PLATE ENGRAVED MAP OF WESTMORLAND PUBLISHED IN JANUARY 1793 This map is dated on the print surface at bottom centre to 1st of January 1793 and the sold from the Strand where Cary was an engraver and map seller The cartography, therefore must have been undertaken in the years prior to 1793 and the plate having been published, could be pulled, as ordered, after that date. In this case one knows exactly when the plate was pulled because the paper is watermarked to 1802. It is good paper, without tramlines and plain on the verso with impress marks visible. The ink is more black than sepia and there is no fold. It may once have been in a folio produced by Mr Stockdale. THIS MAP IN ITS HSTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. Westmorland was engraved by Saxton in late Tudor Age say 1590-1605. Then Morden engraved it- and John Speed did a flamboyant map probably in the main pirated from Saxton with embellishes. The Tudor maps were instigated by Beaumont and others to held the court of Elizabeth and her spies keep a close grip on the country: So the impetus here was the same as the Ordnance Survey in the early 19th century and the GSGS-War Office in the 2nd War: It was military/ political control. There was a hiatus in cartography caused by the chaos of the Civil War and the decadence of the Late Stewart Court and then in the 18th century map makers started to cater for a civilian marked. But the real impetus for improvement was the Ordnance Survey and the Admiralty in the late 18th century and early 19th century and Cary was one of these professional cartographers who worked for both. Proper land cartography probably seeped across the country from Admiralty charts because those were mathematical, formal and accurate long before that science was completely adopted by land cartographers. The first accurate base line established for triangulating the country was at Hounslow set up by Capt. Roy in the late 18th century and Cary is the first generation of cartographers to use that information. This differs from a Ordnance Map in that it retains the slightly anachronistic manner of showing a county alone. The OS was not interested in that; they produced a rolling survey. The OS were essentially an arm of the Royal Engineers and military operations do not respect county borders. Also, this is Westmorland in the North West of the Country and the Ordnance has always rolled out its surveys from the south east (Kent- Hounslow etc) to the North and West. This would have been about the last county in England to have a full Ordnance Map. So it is a little ambiguous how much of the work here is Ordnance inspired, from his own ground work, or adapted from Admiralty and older sources. It will be noticed on this map that Westmorland does have a coast on the mouth of the River Kent: with Furness in Lancashire to its west and detached with the rest of Lancashire to its south. The county is also contiguous with Cumberland to the north west, Yorkshire to the east and Durham to the north east. The Tees River is seen there. WESTMORLAND GENERAL The name of this county is intriguing: what does it mean? It implies the “western moors of the Pennines”, or the Western Moors of Yorkshire and Durham. From a Cumberland perspective it might have been called “Eastmorland”. The name implies another historical subtlety: The North East was settled by Danes- speaking Old Danish. The North West of England was settled, like Galloway, the Hebrides and Ireland, by Norwegians speaking Old Western Norse. There should be a toponym isoglot across Northern England where these two languages met. But which side of that isoglot is Westmoreland?: Old Western Norse side or Danish side? Of course the land was already settled by Saxons and so all placed have many Anglo Saxon place names too. And earlier, Northern England had been British- Kingdom of Strathclyde, Rheged, Hen Ogledd, Elmet: to there would be a sub-stratum of that old Welsh language too. THIS MAP Cary maps Georgian Westmorland. I am sure he looks at Morden and Saxton so no doubt some information is Tudor or Commonwealth of England in date. There are no railways in 1805-1809 and the main roads may represent the early turnpikes. It is interesting on this map how a turnpike gives way to a road and that to a track and that to nothing. In this fell county the passes are of particular interest and it is surprising what was possible- such as the Little Langdale route west to Whitehaven. This map is of the reign of George III; technically, it is not Regency because the dates for that were 1811-1820- but many people call the first 20 years of the 19th century “The Regency”. On a wider canvas this is the age of the Watt Steam Engine and the Napoleonic Period in France. It is contemporary to period between the execution of Louis XVI and the Consulate under napoleon. It is roughly contemporary to the early life of Wordsworth at Hawkeshead and Grasmere. His poem “Daffodils” relates to an experience at Ullswater ( on this map) which divides Westmorland from Cumberland on its northern border. LAKES "Winander Meer" is the large southern lake and this name was to remain until the railways arrived from Oxenholm via Kendal and to Lakeside via Ulveston. I wonder it the railways were instrumental in the name change to Windermere: as they were at Brighthelmstone/Brighton. Ulles Water is spelt thus. On old maps by Saxon it was called Ulls Water Flu: so he saw it as a river not a lake: that is a broad reach of the River Emont. (Waeter meant river in Anglo Saxon) so perhaps many Lakes are still technically called "rivers". Winander Meer is fed by the Rothay and Brathay in the north and drained by the Leven in the south: these are not named, but the nearby Winster River is. It is interesting how the rivers which enter lakes are not those which leave them, in this district. The Lune is the main river passing Kirkby Lonsdale to Lancaster off the map. One old maps you see : Lone, Lune, Lan, Lane. It is said to mean “Healthy River”: and be cognate with the Irish Gaelic “Slan”: I find that very hard to believe. Why should a Welsh- Anglo Saxon then Norse speaking region have a name cognate with Gaelic? The Kent runs down from a tarn not yet dammed to make Kentmere. But here those names are not seen and "Skeggles Water" is marked as the source tarn in Sled Dale. I don't think i have seen that name before. “Kent”is a British word and means border or rim: it must have been a border once (Kingdom of Strathclyde?) Kendal is “Kent Dale” and is a contraction of that name. The main river in the north east is the Eden and this is named: its headwaters are in Stainmoor Forest and “Wild Boar Fell”, with one tributary starting further south over the county border. Note that you can usually define a county or country by catchment areas: streams rarely cross their borders. I suppose this makes sense because you do not want an enemy or rival to compromise your water supply: so springs, wells and sources are more important to national and sub national borders than hill ridges. Winander Meer is entirely in Westmorland but 3/4 of its shore is in Lancashire: this, I think, must have had something to do with fishing rights- The local fishery would probably have been Char. Esthwaite Water is seen to its west, but not named. Grasmere and Rydal are seen as a village and a house and in Langdale, Elterwater village is called Elder and Chapelstile is just a Chapel: the mining village about it has not been built. And the lake is seen- perhaps larger than today’s.Perhaps the chapel at Chapelstile was the original Elterwater church. Elter Water means Swan Lake if you see it as Norse (Elter Vattn) but Swan River if you read it as Saxon. "Elder" is a misreading or perhaps evidence of a different place name origin. Maybe Cary is right with Elder Water being the old name and modern maps wrong with their later assumption of a Norse origin. Nearby, over High Close and Red Bank (unnamed) Grasmere and Rydal water are not named lakes but are both drawn. People say they were one lake once- but they are definitely two here. Following the turnpike up from there over Dunmail Raise, you have to pay a toll after Town Head. And there the road runs into Cumberland. The mileage is marked to Cockermouth, not Keswick. Dunmail Raise is a famous triple tautology, but is not actually named her. Too the east lies Horns Water. I have also seen Hallswater: this is now Hawes Water draining with the Swinedale Beck to the Emont near Penrith. But again which is etymologically right Horn’s. Hall’s or Hawes ? Horns Water became Haweswater reservoir and Mardale was flooded. On this map you see the old road to Mardale village on the north of the lake which is now underwater and replaced by a southern road. The only named place at Upper Mardale head here is Chapel Hill. And two houses stand by the old road leading south to Sled Dale. The island now seen in the lake was built by the water board and called something like Bird Howe: it was not existent on this map. Going Down Langdale one seen Place Side, Blean Tarn and Mill Hall. Here is Mickelden and Oxendale but the cary map des not suggest them and seens not to know Crincle Crags of Bow Fell and the many steams mapped here may well be guess worm by a cartographer who just wanted to round off that western edge of Westmorland, but who had neither been there nor mapped it. An interesting phenomenon is seen on this map: usually a farm or mine turns to a hamlet, then to a village then a church appears; but here some chapels are shown before their attendant villages have been built. Chapelstile and Mardale are examples. Perhaps here small monastic communities predated some villages. FELLSFell is cognate to Feld in Saxon or Fjeld in Norwegian. It implies not just a hill, but one with pasture- Summer pasture perhaps in such a northern region. These are very interesting for they change. In 1793 many would have been private and out of bounds. It must be remembered that the democratisation of the English Highlands started with the Kinder Scout mass trespass in the Peak District- organised by the Manchester Young Communist League as late as the 1930’s. So even the trenches of the Great War did not shame the English Establishment into granting public access to the high fells. The big fell on the eastern marches is Mickle Fell- which means “big fell” and Scardale Head is on its west side. Other large hills are Wildboar Fell, Ash Fell Crosby Fell, Barbon Fell in the south east; Lythe Fell over in the west by the Winster River, Claybarrow Heath overlooking Winander Meer, Silver How and Lough Rigg near Langdale are the same as today. The border fell on the Keswick road is Helvelein, now Helvellyn and the second highest of the local fells.There are as many opinions as people regarding the meaning of this mountain. The last part seems to have either a Wesh "lake" or the Welsh word "Yellow" in it.Harter fell and High Street with Place Fell are named but they are not geographically drawn: they are more like small round volcanoes. There is seldom a notion of a mountain ridge.So Cary sits between the symbolic map maker- such as Saxton and the geographical map makers such as the early OS cartographers. Bownes (Bowness) stands by Winander Meer but there is no town named after that lake: perhaps Windermere the town was caused by the railway from Oxenholme. Kendal is the largest town and the only coloured one (maybe then being the county town- rather than Appleby which is shown small and uncoloured). Kendal is drawn here as slightly larger than Penrith, which is seen just out of county in the north. The village of Sawry is called Saw Bay- which might even have been its meaning once. Appleby has two stars by it which shows that it returned two members to Parliament.The map pre-dates the Reform Acts. Hawkeshead is named, though a Lancashire town- that was where Wordsworth went to school. In th west it dsays “from Whitehaven” but the named track must have climbed the Eden Vallen and then crossed Hardnott and Wrynose passes so it can have been little more than a droving track. Kirkstone seems to be the only pass on this map which is traversable by horse and carriage: from Ambleside to Broad Water and Ulles Water: Broad Water probably being today’s Brother’s Water. "Brad" is probably the origin as a Scandinavian word , that sounded like "Broad" to a Geogian and "Brothers' " is a translation with the original sense. The road south west is marked “from Ulveston”. Here is an interesting implication shown on the map: the traffic is implied as being west to east: so roads in the west are “from…..” and roads in the east are “to….”. The implication is that this is the direction of travel from the Cumberland ports towards the centre of the country. The largest two estates of gentlemen, coloured green are at Lowther and Wharton Park. The smaller ones being Killington, Troutbeck, Rydal and a cluster in the lower Kent at Briggs Steer, Sedgwick and Levens Park. SUMMARY Cary uses no grid but ticks off the edge in degrees of latitude and Latitude. Loughrigg is exactly 3 degrees west of Greenwich, He does not use Archer’s expression “from the best sources” suggesting the map is not generic and recycled from other surveys. One feels that the coast and rivers are surveyed and the high fells are interpolated from observation without theodolite. Perhaps they just had names to work with and guessed th shapes of most hills. Distances are maked along the turnpikes. He likes naming fells but uses local names which may not have stuck. He does not like naming rivers . Village names are often spelt in an unusual way suggesting that he was not working with the OS: because modern names were probbal;y fixed with their inclusion on OS maps. High Street is drawn as a hill but not a road. Generally, I would say, his toponyms are more Anglo Saxon and less Norse than those of today. It is almost as if some academic, at some later date after Cary, went round and corrected the used names of the Lakes to those which he thought they should be: and he defaulted to a purer for of Old Western Norse: which, this map suggests, might actually have been wrong. . Detail is best on and near a turnpike because here measuring is accurate. He does not divide Westmorland into its 4 Wards: East, West, Kendal and Lonsdale. Today this county is a part of the made up region of “Cumbria”, though that name is not accepted by locals. Appleby is a small size on this map- and perhaps not the County Town for it is not coloured. This engraved map is pulled from a copper plate and the colour is added by hand. A MOST IMPORTANT MAP JOHN’ CARY’S ORIGINAL SMALLER COPPER PLATE ENGRAVING OF WESTMORLAND DRAWN 1793 PUBLISHED FROM THE STRAND IN LONDON AND HERE ON 1802 WATERMARKED PAPER: MAP STATS: OLDMAPSHOP: IS MY SOURCE ONLINE FOR MAP & CARTOGRAPHIC HISTORY TITLE: John Cary’s Westmorland DATES: 1793- 1802 on watermark for pull- date PUBLISHER: John Cary the Strand 1793 EDITION: 1802 bound in folio then PRINTER: Cary PRINTING CODE: NOT SEEN PRINTING PROCESS: Copper Plate engraving SCALE: maybe 5 miles to one inch. 69 1/4 miles to a degree of latitude GRID: no grid OVERALL DIMENSIONS: about 12 inches by 10 inches COVER DIMENSIONS: no cover COVER DETAIL: no cover COVER CONDITION: no cover MAP PAPER OR LINEN BACKED: period paper, not tram lines, watermarked, no fold PIN HOLES AT FOLD JUNCTIONS: no folds VERSO: plain paper FOXING: no REINFORCING: no SURFACE MARKING: very little FOLDED INTO: not folded ANNOTATION: not seen, except hand tinted colours INTEREST: considerable: Greatest of Recency and Late GeorgianCartographers- Pre Railway: early fell names, Early lake names, turnpikes and relief shaded copper plate: rare, antique and important GENERAL CONDITION: good NORTH WEST OF THIS MAP IS AT: Helvellyn spelt Helvelein THE NORTH EAST OF THIS MAP IS AT: Milborn Forest THE SOUTH EAST OF THIS MAP IS AT: Scale, compass and unmapped Yorkshire THE SOUTH WEST OF THIS MAP IS AT: unmapped Lancashire Furness and mouth of the kent River THE CENTRE OF THIS MAP IS AT: Borrowdale: the Westmorland one, not the Cumberland one up near Keswick XXXXXXXXXX JOHN CARY John Cary 1754 – 1835 English Cartographer. Cary is known by a mass of publishing detail and very few facts. He seems to have come from a London family which settled in Chelsea and in his will he bequeathed a house in Chelsea to his daughter until she married. He was not poor by the standards of the day. His father William left three of the brothers, George, John and Francis £1000 each in his will. He was apprenticed in New Street Square and worked nearly all his life in The Strand which runs between Westminster and the City of London. Two of his working addresses were 181 the Strand and 188 the Strand “At the Corner of Arundel Street”; of course these might have been the same if numbers were altered. He seems to have worked with his brother Francis and John paid for Francis’s apprenticeship which was not to the same man- but to an engraver from St Pancras- then in Middlesex. John Cary styled himeslf “Map Chart and Print seller”. It will be seen from the dates of his publications that his famous County maps are early- often circa 1805 and probably made in parallel with work for the very first Ordnance Survey. Although of immense importance he was more or less ignored by the state as a mere artisan and his only public recognition was the receipt of a Gold Medal from the Society of Arts in 1804- the subject of that award was a map of Cardigan. He was apprentices to William Palmer of New Street Square London as an engraver in 1770. His younger brother Francis was apprenticed to Mr James Taylor of St Pancras in 1772, also as an engraver and the fee was paid by John Cary so perhaps they had lost their parents by then. He had an older Brother George and two younger brothers, Francis and William, but only worked with Francis. William is not cited in the will of his father, so may have died early. He married Anne Jackson in 1779 at St Bride’s Fleet Street. He made many road books but also canal plans, astronomical charts and celestial globes. And was known for very specific charts and maps: a Roman Fort, a Hundred, a source of a river etc. In 1800 he was also a plaintiff in a case for the protection of copright: the work in question was his “New Itinerary”. His greatest succes was probably his The New and Correct English Atlas published in 1787, becoming a standard reference work in England. This was the source of many of his county maps. In 1794 Cary was commissioned by the Postmaster General to survey England's roads. This resulted in Cary's New Itinerary(1798), a map of all the major roads in England and Wales. He also produced Ordnance Survey maps prior to 1805. In his later life he collaborated on geological maps with the geologist William Smith. His business was eventually taken over by G. F. Cruchley (1822–1875). Here is an important topic for his plates were used and re-used throughout the 19th century – pulled, electrotyped, copied in letterpress or lithography and usually used as a base for later maps on which roads for “tourists” or “cyclists” or railways and their stations, were super imposed. The interest here- on these cheap commercial works is twofold. One is that they only existed because of a gap in the market created by the Ordnance Survey who did not survey railways to any great extent until the 1870s and whose maps were expensive. Secondly the cycle and tour roads or railways of such a later map had an interesting disconnect with the country mapped by Cary. Unwittinglt they provide extra information for an historian Roads and towns of 1805 but cycle roads recommended in 1880 or railway stations built in 1870. John Cary died in August 1835 aged 81 and was buried in Kensington. So he must have been born in 1754. In his will he left three children houses: George and John were given houses in The Strand: Nos. 279 and 280, and his daughter Mary-Ann was bequested a house in the King’s Road Chelsea for 2 years followed by £30 rent until she was married. She was also bequeather £6000 pounds and his brother Francis was left £100 – as a mark of “brotherly affection” which obviously contradicts some biographies which assert that Francis died circa 1809. Catalogue - random and not in chronological order - One of his publication addresses was 181 The Strand and from here came A New Atlas of Africa in 1814. 4 Maps of the Quarters of the World 1812. Of these Europe and Afric are known but the plates of Asia and America are not known and would be a most important find. A New Geographical Map of Enbgland and Wales 1820 Cary’s New Map of London and its Vicinity 1820. The Hundred of Mere 1822. A Plan of the Sources of the Rivers Stour Brew and Wily 1822+. Roman Station at Bishopstrow 1831. Actual Survey of the country fifteen miles around London (1786) New and Correct English Atlas (1787) Camden's Britannia (1789) - maps for 1789 and 1806 editions Cary's Survey of the High Roads from London (1790) Cary's Traveller's Companion (1790) New Maps of England and Wales with part of Scotland (1794) Inland Navigation; or Select Plans of the Several Navigable Canals throughout Britain (1795) Cary's New Itinerary (1798) A New Map of Scotland (1801) New British Atlas (1805), with John Stockdale A New map of chinese & independent Tartary (1806) His Battle maps included actions at Guadaloupe, Belle Ile, Zorndorf, Anrat, Ellenbach near Cassel, Fellinghaussen, Harbour of Brest, Cadiz, Rochefort and Rochel, Toulon, Battle of Ramillies, Hochset or Blenheim: these were in a publication called “Field of Mars”. Astrarium Improves. (a star chart) Portrait of the Heavens. Cary's English Atlas (1809) New Elementary Atlas (1813) Cary's New Itinerary (1817) Cary's New Universal Atlas (1808) Map of the Countries between India and Europe 1824. Condition: SHEET, NOT FOLDED, COPPER PLATE ENGRAVED AND PLATE OR IMPRESS MARKS ARE VISIBLE. HAND COLOURED IN GREEN YELLOW AND MADDER RED IN PLACES, DATED ON THE PLATE TO 1793 AND ALSO ON THE WATERMARK TO 1802, NOT FOXED, PLAIN VERSO, PUBLISHED FROM STRAND IN LONDON, CARY'S WORKSHOP- COMPASS AND DEGREES ON EDGE, SCALE SHOWN. VERY IMPORTANT MAP MAKER- PERHAPS ONE OF THE BEST OF THE LATE GEORGIAN AGE. THE MAP WILL HAVE TO BE ROLLED FOR POSTING, NOT FOLDED., County: Westmorland, Cartographer/Publisher: JOHN CARY OF THE STRAND, LONDON, Printing Technique: COPPER PLATE ENGRAVING, Original/Reproduction: Antique Original, Format: SHEET, PLAIN VERSO COPPER PLATE MONO + HAND COLOUR, Type: ANTIQUE ENGRAVED COUNTY MAP, Year: 1793 PLATE, 1802 PAPER, Date Range: 1793-1802- MAP PLATE TO PAPER WATER MARK, City: PENRISTH, APPLEBY, KENDAL, AMBLESIDE, Country/Region: England, State: LAKE DISTRICT CUMBRIAN MOUNTAINS, Era: GEORGE III PERIOD JUST BEFORE REGENCY, CARY'S IMPORTANT 1793 SMALLER COUNTY MAP: OLD NAMES, LAKES, FELLS 18TH CENTURY LAKE DISTRICT, GEORGIAN LAKE DISTRICT MAP: WESTMNORLAND IN 1793- ANTIQUE ORIGINAL

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