Vegetius 5th Century Roman Legion Training Manual Weapons Tactics De Re Militari

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Seller: ancientgifts (4,620) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 123086800951 On Roman Military Matters: A 5th Century Training Manual in Organization, Weapons and Tactics, as Practiced by the Roman Legions by Flavius Vegetius Renatus. NOTE: We have 75,000 books in our library, almost 10,000 different titles. Odds are we have other copies of this same title in varying conditions, some less expensive, some better condition. We might also have different editions as well (some paperback, some hardcover, oftentimes international editions). If you don’t see what you want, please contact us and ask. We’re happy to send you a summary of the differing conditions and prices we may have for the same title. DESCRIPTION: Softcover. Publisher: Red & Black Publishers (2013). Pages: 102. Size: 9 x 6 inches. The only Latin art of war to survive, Vegetius' treatise was for long an essential part of the medieval prince's military education. The core of his proposals, the maintenance of a highly-trained professional standing army and navy, was revolutionary for medieval Europe, while his theory of deterrence through strength remains the foundation of modern Western defense policy. The work was written just before the fall of the Roman Empire in the West, at a time when economic weakness and political disintegration threatened to undermine the strategic defensive structure that had underpinned the Roman State for so long. The main thrust of his reforms was to confront the problems of the fragmentation of the army, the barbarization of its personnel, the loss of professional skills, and the substitution of mercenaries for standing forces. The accent of the work is on the practicalities of recruiting and training new model armies (and navies) starting from scratch, and on the strategies appropriate to their use against the barbarian invaders of the period. CONDITION: NEW. New oversized softcover. Red & Black Publishers (2013) 102 pages. Unblemished, unmarked, pristine in every respect. Pages are pristine; clean, crisp, unmarked, unmutilated, tightly bound, unambiguously unread. Satisfaction unconditionally guaranteed. In stock, ready to ship. No disappointments, no excuses. PROMPT SHIPPING! HEAVILY PADDED, DAMAGE-FREE PACKAGING! Meticulous and accurate descriptions! Selling rare and out-of-print ancient history books on-line since 1997. We accept returns for any reason within 14 days! #8036a. PLEASE SEE DESCRIPTIONS AND IMAGES BELOW FOR DETAILED REVIEWS AND FOR PAGES OF PICTURES FROM INSIDE OF BOOK. PLEASE SEE PUBLISHER, PROFESSIONAL, AND READER REVIEWS BELOW. PUBLISHER REVIEWS: REVIEW: Concerning Military Matters ("De Re Militari" in Latin), is a treatise by the late Latin writer Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus about Roman warfare and military principles as a presentation of methods and practices in use during the height of Rome's power, and responsible for that power. The extant text dates to the 5th century. REVIEW: The Roman military machine displayed a force never before seen in the world, and it catapulted Rome into a position of extraordinary influence. Here is how it worked. This is a practical manual about selecting and training men and preparing them for battle. REVIEW: De Re Militari (Latin "Concerning Military Matters"), also Epitoma Rei Militaris, is a treatise by the late Latin writer Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus about Roman warfare and military principles as a presentation of methods and practices in use during the height of Rome's power, and responsible for that power. The extant text dates to the 5th century. Vegetius emphasized things such as training of soldiers as a disciplined force, orderly strategy, maintenance of supply lines and logistics, quality leadership and use of tactics and even deceit to ensure advantage over the opposition. He was concerned about selection of good soldiers and recommended hard training of at least four months before the soldier was accepted into the ranks. The leader of the army (dux or duke) had to take care of the men under his command and keep himself informed about the movements of the enemy to gain advantage in the battle. De Re Militari became a military guide in the Middle Ages. Even after the introduction of gunpowder to Europe, it was carried by general officers and their staffs as a field guide to methods. Friends and subordinates customarily presented embellished copies as gifts to leaders. It went on into the 18th and 19th centuries as a source of policy and strategy to the major states of Europe. In that sense De Re Militari is a projection of Roman civilization into modern times and a continuation of its influence on its cultural descendants. REVIEW: Little is known about the life of Publius Flavius Vegetius, despite the fact that his military manual, On Roman Military Matters, was used by military leaders for several centuries, and is still read today. Knowing more about Vegetius as a person would help historians to understand why he wrote the manual. The manual is broken up into three parts: Book One is “The Selection and Training of New Levies,” Book Two is “The Organization of the Legion”, and Book Three is “Dispositions for Action.” He dedicates each section to the Emperor Valentinian as it is “…an old custom for authors to offer to their Princes the fruits of their studies…” The recommendations in the manual were collected from “the instructions and observations of our old historians of military affairs, or those who wrote expressly concerning them.” Since he wrote this work in the 5th century, and using observations of older historians, then we can conclude that this manual is a good military representation of the early Roman Empire. REVIEW: A 5th Century training manual for the organization, weapons and tactics of the Roman Legions. Vegetius's "De Re Militari" was the only major work of Roman military science to survive from classical times. It was widely studied in the Middle Ages and was a key source for Medieval warfare and siege tactics. Illustrated. REVIEW: TABLE OF CONTENTS. Introduction. Preface to Book I. Book I: The Selection and Training of New Levies. The Roman Discipline the Cause of Their Greatness. The Selection of Recruits. The Proper Age for Recruits. Their Size. Signs of Desirable Qualities. The Trades Proper for New Levies. The Military Mark. Initial Training. To Learn to Swim. The Post Exercise. Not to Cut, But to Thrust with the Sword. The Drill Called Armatura. The Use of Missile Weapons. The Use of the Bow. The Sling. The Loaded Javelin. To be Taught to Vault. And To Carry Burdens. The Arms of the Ancients. Entrenched Camps. Evolutions. Monthly Marches. Conclusion. Preface to Book II. Book II: The Organization of the Legion. The Military Establishment. The Difference between the Legions and Auxiliaries. Causes of Decay of the Legion. The Organization of the Legion. The Officers of the Legion. The Praefect of the Workmen. The Tribune of the Soldiers. Centuries and Ensigns of the Foot. Legionary Troops of Horse. Drawing up a Legion in Order of Battle. Names of Soldiers Inscribed on their Shields. Records and Accounts. Soldier's Deposits. Promotion in the Legion. Legionary Music. The Drilling of the Troops. Machines and Tools of the Legion. Preface to Book III. Book III: Dispositions for Action. The Number which Should Compose an Army. Means of Preserving it in Health. Care to Provide Forage and Provisions. Methods to Prevent Mutiny in an Army. Marches in the Neighborhood of the Enemy. Passages of Rivers. Rules for Encamping an Army. Motives for the Plan of Operations of a Campaign. How to Manage Raw and Undisciplined Troops. Preparations for a General Engagement. The Sentiments of the Troops should be Determined before Battle. The Choice of the Field of Battle. Order of Battle. Proper Distances and Intervals. Disposition of the Cavalry. Reserves. The Post of the General and of the Second and Third in Command. Maneuvers in Action. Various Formations for Battle. The Flight of an Enemy should not be Prevented, but Facilitated. Manner of Conducting a Retreat. Armed Chariots and Elephants. Resources in Case of Defeat. General Maxims. REVIEW: Flavius Vegetius Renatus wrote an instruction manual for the Roman military. He was well qualified as a soldier and author. PROFESSIONAL REVIEWS: REVIEW: De Re Militari (Concerning Military Affairs), written in the 5th century by Vegetius and translated from the original Latin, is a treatise on warfare in the Roman world and is vital reading for any modern student of the subject as it clearly outlines the methods and practices of the type of warfare waged by the Roman Empire at the height of its power. So influential was Vegetius' book that it was considered as an essential field-guide well into the age of gunpowder. The author covers a broad range of military topics including the selection of personnel suitable for military service, training, logistics and supply, the qualities of leadership and command as well as tactical and strategic matters. READER REVIEWS: REVIEW: The Roman Army - How It Worked By An Ancient Roman. "He who desires peace should prepare for war.", Book III, page 2. The book has been described as the most influential military treatise in the western world from Roman times to the 19th Century. Historians report that this famous Roman work was carried by Richard the Lion Heart and was a favorite of Henry II. It was also prized in the armies of Charlemagne. Vegetius dedicates his work to the Emperor Valentinian (probably Valentinian II) in hopes, apparently, of restoring the Roman military to its ancient standards. It is evident from his description of conditions in his time that the Roman army had declined substantially. Indeed, it was not many years later that Rome was sacked and the Roman Empire fell - - at least the Western part. Vegetius says that he drew upon many ancient experts while preparing his brief account of what a proper Roman army should be. One of his chief contentions is that the army must be disciplined, trained arduously in all arms, and exercised and drilled often. That advice applies even to modern armies as Robert Graves mentions in passing when writing of his experiences as an officer in the trenches in WW I. "Goodby To All That". The Greek historian, Polybius, noted during Republican times that part of the success of the Roman army was due to the fact that it trained as it fought and fought as it trained. Some of the detail Vegetius provides is fascinating. He says that Roman legionaries had their names on their shields and also the identification of their century and cohort to lessen confusion during the chaos of battle. One often reads that the heavy javelin used by Roman soldiers, the pilum, was designed with a point that would bend easily so that if an enemy recovered it he could not throw it back effectively. Adrian Goldsworthy, a superb historian, says that isn't true and Vegetius appears to support him. If the point of the pilum were easily bent, Vegetius surely would have said since he is good at describing weapons. What he does say is that the heavy pilum could easily bury itself so deeply in an enemy shield it could not be removed and that it could pierce the cuirass of an enemy and kill him. It is hard to imagine a soft point doing either of these. A Roman army on the march was an extraordinary machine. Scouts went ahead of the army to choose the best ground for the night's encampment. The spot was laid out on the same street pattern every time and then protected with ditches and barricades and other defensive works. It carried pontoons for crossing rivers. It had the men and equipment to make and repair weapons. It could build roads and towns. It could kill with marvelous efficiency even when outnumbered. It could take losses and setbacks and still return to the war. It is possible to think that Rome may not have fallen in 476AD if Vegetius had been heeded and the Roman army restored to its ancient strength and ability. But the political will was not strong enough to counter the deep rot that had set in over the ages. One cannot read Vegetius without wondering what the social engineering being shoved into our American military will do to destroy cohesion and discipline. I suspect the politicians behind those schemes don't care any more than did the politicians who destroyed the Roman army before the barbarians showed up in town. REVIEW: The late Roman author, Flavius Vegetius Renatus composed his work "The Military Institutions of the Romans" as a handbook for Emperor Valentinian. Vegetius admits he is not an experienced military leader. Rather, he is a scholar who has sifted ancient texts to find evidence of skills and practices of earlier times to reform contemporary Roman forces. As noted in the introduction, Vegetius failed as a reformer of the late Roman Empire, but his work survived to become the military manual of choice for European military leaders in the 14th and 15th centuries. One might ask what this ancient text has to say for readers in the 21st century. Military officers are strongly encouraged throughout their professional education to read and ponder military history, to understand how people react to the stresses of combat. Apart from this, however, reading Vegetius has value for leaders in other spheres as well. One of the values for me in re-reading this classic was the recognition of the long pedigree of current nuggets of wisdom. To cite one example only: current management gurus chant the mantra of corporate leaders being accessible, to solicit feedback and promote workers' welfare throughout the organization. Read Vegetius on the duties of a military commander: "A commander-in-chief . . . should not only consult the good of the army in general, but extend his care to every private soldier in it." Professional military officers should read Vegetius to trace the origins of Clausewitz, Jomini, and other military theorists. Corporate leaders would do well to read Vegetius for timeless nuggets of business sense. Reformers could read Vegetius to gain an appreciation for the challenges of transforming a bureaucratic organization. Remember that Vegetius failed in his near term goal, but his work outlasted the Roman Empire to help shape Europe in the Renaissance. REVIEW: This is a short but indispensable book for anyone interested in military history. Although the subject matter is the Roman Army's organization and tactics in perhaps the second century AD, the book survived the fall of the Roman Empire and was influential through the Middle Ages, and even beyond. Scholars in more recent times have questioned the organizational details of the Roman legions described by the author, but the differences are not very great and the legions themselves evolved slowly through the centuries. Vegetius does however give a clear description of the artillery of each legion, as well as of its bridging train. The size and deployment of each legion's cavalry has also been questioned. This book was written for the ruling emperor hundreds of years after the legions were broken up into independent battalions and in the wake of a string of military defeats. Its aim was to convince the emperor of the need to reorganize the Empire's military along the lines of the early Empire, while pointing out the deficiencies of the then current forces (.e.g lack of training, fitness, shortage of good infantry). There are also chapters on tactics and a collection tactical and strategic maxims, some of which survived to out day (.e.g. "vincit pace, para bellum"). On a list for military historians, this is a five star book and it is required reading. REVIEW: Full of clarifying logic. No huge magic wand to win wars, lots of little necessities and some not so little, that made me say, “of course.” The play between Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus the author (c 450 AD) lamenting and identifying the declining military, and perhaps the Roman Empire as well, and Lieutenant John Clarke’s soldierly translation (published 1767,) is worth noting. Both Clarke and Vegetius were under severe scrutiny in their respective times, Clarke by any offense ending his career and Vegetius, his life. Perhaps Clarke let Vegetius speak for him. By the end, I was reflecting on our own military and political similarities, while our technology is increasing, it seems we are doomed to repeat, but Vegetius says it better than I do. By the bye, if you are a gamer, this book should help your strategy. REVIEW: An easy to read but fascinating insight into late antiquity. This book was written at a time when the Roman Empire in the West was in steady decline. Under continuous pressure from barbarian tribes, Roman military men of the time were seeking ways to reform the Roman army, hearkening back to the glory days of the late Republic and early Imperial periods, when the Roman military machine had no equal in the known world. Flavius Vegetius wrote this book as a set of recommended military reforms for the emperor. Alas, while it proved a matter of "too little, too late" for the Western Roman Empire, it still offers us a very telling window into the past. REVIEW: Although written far too late to influence most Roman soldiers, "The Military Institutions of the Romans" does offer a clear and interesting insight into the structure, training and employment of the Roman army. The discussion of tactics and what we might call today 'principles of employment' may be a bit of 'tactics for dummies' compared to, say, The Civil War of Caesar, and there is little in the way of contemporary examples, but this is still an interesting read in its own right and a useful adjunct to other works on Roman military history. REVIEW: The Bible of European soldiers for a thousand years. Vegetius' compilation of the military wisdom and customs of the Romans has been the most influential military work written in the western world. Compiled for the Emperor Valentinian II about 390AD, just before Rome was captured and burned by Alaric, King of the Goths, it was circulated for a thousand years in manuscript form. First printed in English in 1489. This work helped to bring back discipline and cadenced marching. "Discipline is superior to strength; but if that discipline is neglected there is no longer any difference between the soldier and the peasant". REVIEW: This is an excellent insight into a mind of a person of late empire as well as military philosophy. In addition it gives pretty good insights into the military attitudes (or lack of them) in the late Empire. Vegetius doesn't really preach anything new, and didn't set out to write another "Art of War" matching that of Sun Tzu or Machiavelli. What he tried to do is convince the current Roman Emperor (whom that was exactly is open for debate) to bring back discipline, and ancient military practice. He tried to show that current military failures were not due to decline in man themselves, but rather in lack of discipline and proper attention to war. Finally in a rather subtle way he tried to show that empire was in decline, and without bringing back the ancient military prowess it is doomed to fail. It came too late to have any impact, but it became must read for all those interested in military matters. REVIEW: The best scholarly edition available in English. I won't comment on the work itself except to say that this late Roman work was the Medieval bible on the Art of War at least until the mid-fifteenth century. The footnotes and the work unpacking what pieces of Vegetius might come from Cato and other authors is extremely helpful to an amateur classicist of a re-enactor. REVIEW: The Great Field Marshall de Saxe said when you study about war study the Romans for they are the true masters of war. Vegetius writes eloquently about the "ancients" during the last days of the great empire. He writes on what made the Roman Army the greatest way machine in history. He reviews the unmatched discipline of the Romans and their tactics which were centuries ahead of their time. Vegetius is right, "Si vis pacem, para bellum" or "if you want peace prepare for war." Another great quote from Vegetius, "Igitur qui desiderat pacem, praeparet bellum" or "therefore, he who wishes peace, should prepare war; he who desires victory, should carefully train his soldiers; he who wants favorable results, should fight relying on skill, not on chance." REVIEW: It is of great benefit and education for one to read this book written by a military man, whose extensive knowledge of military matters and experience combined with acumen provide a rare insight into the secrets of a true war machine that managed to conquer the entire known world. A book noted for precision, to the point language and written for soldiers! Valuable advice, that still holds true, on what empowers an army (or nation!) or weakens it. Great read for the student of war!! REVIEW: This work gives an interesting insight into the later organization of the Roman army. The work also illustrates how hard it is to step outside one's environment to describe the "obvious" that everyone knows. Why explain how a rotary dial phone works and now we have a whole generation with no clue how to use one. The book is a fine starting place for further study. It is interesting to have an author from almost 2000 years ago seem so similar to people we know today. REVIEW: Since I am interested in the organization and tactics of the Roman legions I thought this book was pretty informative. Apparently Vegetius wrote this at the order of the ruling emperor who wanted to know how to bring back the success of the legions as they enjoyed in the golden years of the empire. He sets forth many examples of how the old legions functioned in many scenarios. Vegetius gives many interesting insights as to how the legion was organized. I found the book fascinating. REVIEW: This is a concise insight into Roman military tactics. The appeals to the emperor Valentinian (II?) will make you roll your eyes, but you will understand that Romans were well aware that their empire was declining well before it fell. The malaise is very apparent here. REVIEW: I've been reading Roman history from the original sources ever since I took a Roman History course in college, but somehow I missed this little gem. It's a fast, easy read and very informative. A glimpse into the daily life of the legions. The book itself is a history book from the later empire, gleaned I suspect from earlier sources and written in the hopes that it would initiate military reforms. REVIEW: This book is a classic. I couldn't put it down. It has a no-nonsense approach to winning in war yet, at the same time, has a touch of diplomatic humility. On top of it, it was written from days long gone. It's the basics of any current day military. REVIEW: I had seen this guide referred to on an English television show and decided I had to have it. It comes from the 5th century author Vegetius. It is a very interesting read and make me wish someone had bothered to write a guide from the time of Augustus. REVIEW: Amazing book, and insight to the Roman Military through the eyes of one who was around and observed and never was in the military. It is history and the only (so far) surviving text of how the Roman military played out day to day. REVIEW: If only he had followed, he would have saved the Roman Empire. It is a classic of military tactics and it is very easy to read. The advises given by Vegetius are valid still and every would be General should read this book. Unfortunately, books IV and V were not translated. REVIEW: A concise and clearly translated summary of the military tactics and strategies of the Romans. As I understand it, this was required reading for medieval strategists, and was interesting to read from that perspective. REVIEW: Excellent reading. Great insight into the organization of the ancient Roman legions as well as strategies. Although written well past the fall of the western empire, it remains the best treatise on the subject. REVIEW: Short and concise. Apparently many commanders during the medieval times possessed a copy of this. If you're a student of war and martial arts, it wouldn't hurt to own a copy of this. Not only as a remainder of the importance of discipline in war and combat, but also in life. 'Discipline was the only road to victory...and thereby recovered their superiority (Vegetius on Rome's eventual destruction of Hannibal). REVIEW: Great book about tactics and military plans during the Roman times. Very easy to read and informative. Using it as research and has been a wonderful source. Recommended. REVIEW: Great book on the structure, formation, and discipline that was the Roman Empire's Army at the peak of its existence. REVIEW: Eats Sun Tzu for Breakfast! So much better than Sun Tzu, no annoying no-brainers. REVIEW: I enjoy reading ancient history books, especially of places during the Bible times. Sometimes the books are too deep and difficult for me to grasp--which means they get unread and deleted. This was not the case with this book. I found it an easy read and great insight into the Roman military. I would recommend this book to anyone who enjoys reading about ancient history--it will keep one interested. REVIEW: If only his advice had been followed, it would have saved the Roman Empire. It is a classic of military tactics and it is very easy to read. The advises given by Vegetius are valid still and every would be General should read this book. REVIEW: Insightful regarding what a good military strategist back in the roman era took into consideration when preparing for war, not only about tactics while in the battlefield, but ranging from the selection of soldiers, to fortification, food, etc. REVIEW: A fascinating text that provides detailed insight into the functioning of the Roman military. Many of its lessons remain relevant to the present day, particularly in the realm of defense and security. REVIEW: This book is a wonderful reference for someone who wants to have a quick look at Roman military organization and its supporting institutions. REVIEW: Fascinating to see how the legions were managed in ancient times and how they should be managed when this treatise was written. REVIEW: It absolutely blows my mind that these works were written so long ago. A lot of the information here is still relevant today. It was very interesting to read who the Romans chose as Soldiers and how they trained them. Great read for any Rome enthusiasts and history buffs alike. REVIEW: A great primary source containing a magnificent collection of Roman military procedures and tactics. It is equally as valuable and important as the Art of War by Sun Tzu, sharing some similarities. I learned a lot from reading this. REVIEW: Informative on a subject not covered by most authors to such a degree of detail. It seems the author was not a military man but was still well versed in the subject matter. An interesting read. REVIEW: I enjoyed reading this book. Good history on how the Romans did it, or should have been doing it at the end. Reading something written a couple of thousand years ago added to the intrigue. REVIEW: It gives one an understanding of how the Roman Army worked, and it worked very well. REVIEW: A real eye opener. Many same strategies in our military and the NFL too! Great read! REVIEW: I enjoyed reading this treatise on the Roman military and how it still relates to military maneuvers today. REVIEW: One of the must reads regarding Roman Military institutions. A five out of five laurels. REVIEW: It's a captivating reading, a must for everyone who is interested in ancient warfare. REVIEW: I am an adult student studying Roman history and I am finding this book such a wealth of information. I can highly recommend this book to anyone interested in the Roman military. REVIEW: Great background information for watching the time team. A fascinating history of thinking around Romain military history, tactics and strategy. REVIEW: REVIEW: A very interesting book on the art of war and the methods used by the Roman Empire to accomplish their military discipline and conquests. REVIEW: Easy and quick read. Great perspective on military life and operations in the ancient and medieval world. REVIEW: Wish I'd read this before reading any other accounts of ancient or medieval military history. I always ship books Media Mail in a padded mailer. This book is shipped FOR FREE via USPS INSURED media mail (“book rate”). All domestic shipments and most international shipments will include free USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site) and free insurance coverage. A small percentage of international shipments may require an additional fee for tracking and/or delivery confirmation. If you are concerned about a little wear and tear to the book in transit, I would suggest a boxed shipment - it is an extra $1.00. Whether via padded mailer or box, we will give discounts for multiple purchases. International orders are welcome, but shipping costs are substantially higher. Most international orders cost an additional $9.99 to $37.99 for an insuredshipment in a heavily padded mailer, and typically includes some form of rudimentary tracking and/or delivery confirmation (though for some countries, this is only available at additional cost). There is also a discount program which can cut postage costs by 50% to 75% if you’re buying about half-a-dozen books or more (5 kilos+). Rates and available services vary a bit from country to country. You can email or message me for a shipping cost quote, but I assure you they are as reasonable as USPS rates allow, and if it turns out the rate is too high for your pocketbook, we will cancel the sale at your request. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per book (for each additional book after the first) so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. All of our shipments are sent via insured mail so as to comply with PayPal requirements. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. That’s why all of our domestic shipments (and most international) shipments include a USPS delivery confirmation tag; or are trackable or traceable, and all shipments (international and domestic) are insured. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world - but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the "business" of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly - even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE." TRANSLATE Arabic Chinese French German Greek Indonesian Italian Hindi Japanese Korean Swedish Portuguese Russian Spanish Condition: NEW. See detailed condition description below., Material: Paper, Provenance: Ancient Rome, Publisher: Red & Black Publishers (2013), Format: Softcover, Length: 102 pages, Size: 9 x 6 inches

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