Syracuse Agathocles King of Sicily 295BC Artemis Thunderbolt Greek Coin i54096

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Seller: highrating_lowprice (20,566) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 231838045708 Item: i54096 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Greek city of Syracuse in Sicily under Agathocles : Tyrant of Syracuse 317-289, King of Sicily 304-289 B.C. Bronze 22mm (8.72 grams) Struck circa 295-289 B.C. Reference: HGC 2, 1537; Sear 1200; CNS II, nos. 142-145 ΣΩTЄIPA, head of Artemis right, in triple-pendant earring & necklace, quiver over shoulder. Winged thunderbolt, AΓAΘOKΛEOΣ / BAΣIΛEOΣ above and below. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. Artemis was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. Some scholars believe that the name, and indeed the goddess herself, was originally pre-Greek. Homer refers to her as Artemis Agrotera, Potnia Theron < Artemis of the wildland, Mistress of Animals". In the classical period of Greek mythology , Artemis (Greek: (nominative) Ἄρτεμις, (genitive) Ἀρτέμιδος) was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto , and the twin sister of Apollo . She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt, wild animals, wilderness, childbirth, virginity and young girls, bringing and relieving disease in women; she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows. The deer and the cypress were sacred to her. In later Hellenistic times, she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth. Artemis later became identified with Selene , a Titaness who was a Greek moon goddess, sometimes depicted with a crescent moon above her head. She was also identified with the Roman goddess Diana , with the Etruscan goddess Artume , and with the Greek or Carian goddess Hecate . Agathocles (361-289 BC), (Greek name Ἀγαθοκλῆς (Agathokles): derived from αγαθός (agathos) good and κλέος (kleos) glory), was tyrant of Syracuse (317-289 BC) and king of Sicily (304-289 BC). Biography Agathocles was born at Thermae Himeraeae (modern name Termini Imerese ) in Sicily. The son of a potter who had moved to Syracuse in about 343 BC, he learned his father's trade, but afterwards entered the army. In 333 BC he married the widow of his patron Damas, a distinguished and wealthy citizen. He was twice banished for attempting to overthrow the oligarchical party in Syracuse. In 317 BC he returned with an army of mercenaries under a solemn oath to observe the democratic constitution which was then set up. Having banished or murdered some 10,000 citizens, and thus made himself master of Syracuse, he created a strong army and fleet and subdued the greater part of Sicily. War with Carthage followed. In 311 BC Agathocles was besieged and defeated in Syracuse in the battle of Himera . After defeat in 310 BC he took the desperate resolve of breaking through the blockade and attacking the enemy in Africa . In Africa he concluded the treaty with Ophellas , ruler of Cyrenaica . After several victories he was at last completely defeated (307 BC) and fled secretly to Sicily. After concluding peace with Carthage in 306 BC , Agathocles styled himself king of Sicily in 304 BC , and established his rule over the Greek cities of the island more firmly than ever. A peace treaty with Carthage left him in control of Sicily east of the Halycus River . Even in his old age he displayed the same restless energy, and is said to have been contemplating a fresh attack on Carthage at the time of his death. His last years were plagued by ill-health and the turbulence of his grandson Archagathus , at whose instigation he is said to have been poisoned (by his eromenos , Menon of Ægista, who poisoned the tooth-cleaning quill);[1] according to others, he died a natural death. He was a born leader of mercenaries, and, although he did not shrink from cruelty to gain his ends, he afterwards showed himself a mild and popular "tyrant." Agathocles restored the Syracusan democracy on his death bed and did not want his sons to succeed him as king. The historian Justin says that Agathocles was born in poverty but very early in life parlayed his remarkable beauty into a career as a prostitute, first for men, and later, after puberty, for women, then made a living by robbery before becoming a soldier. Agathocles married Theoxena , stepdaughter of Ptolemy I of Egypt . His daughter Lanassa married King Pyrrhus of Epirus . Legacy Agathocles was cited as from the lowest, most abject condition of life and as an example of “those who by their crimes come to be princes” in Chapter VIII of Niccolò Machiavelli ’s treatise on politics, The Prince (1513). He was described as behaving as a criminal at every stage of his career. However, he came to "glory" as much as he did brutality by repelling invading Carthaginians and winning the loyalty of the denizens of his land. However, many later disapproved of his actions, including to an extent Machiavelli, who claimed "It cannot be called prowess to kill fellow-citizens, to betray friends, to be treacherous, pitiless, irreligious."[2]. Machiavelli, though, merely means that Agathocle's actions do not exemplify prowess, as he does with many other examples in Chapter XV. He actually admired Agothocles for his brutality, but criticized him for being so cruel in public and thus losing the people's trust. Syracuse pronounced, Sicilian : Sarausa, Ancient Greek : Συράκουσαι – transliterated: Syrakousai) is a historic city in southern Italy , the capital of the province of Syracuse . The city is famous for its rich Greek history, culture , amphitheatres , architecture and association to Archimedes , playing an important role in ancient times as one of the top powers of the Mediterranean world; it is over 2,700 years old. Syracuse is located in the south-east corner of the island of Sicily , right by the Gulf of Syracuse next to the Ionian Sea . The city was founded by Ancient Greek Corinthians and became a very powerful city-state . Syracuse was allied with Sparta and Corinth , exerting influence over the entire Magna Grecia area of which it was the most important city. Once described by Cicero as "the greatest Greek city and the most beautiful of them all", it later became part of the Roman Republic and Byzantine Empire . After this Palermo overtook it in importance, as the capital of the Kingdom of Sicily . Eventually the kingdom would be united with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Two Sicilies until the Italian unification of 1860. In the modern day, the city is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site along with the Necropolis of Pantalica . In the central area, the city itself has a population of around 125,000 people. The inhabitants are known as Siracusans, and the local language spoken by its inhabitants is the Sicilian language . Syracuse is mentioned in the Bible in the Acts of the Apostles book at 28:12 as Paul stayed there.[2] The patron saint of the city is Saint Lucy ; she was born in Syracuse and her feast day, Saint Lucy's Day , is celebrated on 13 December. Greek period Syracuse and its surrounding area have been inhabited since ancient times, as shown by the findings in the villages of Stentinello, Ognina, Plemmirio, Matrensa, Cozzo Pantano and Thapsos, which already had a relationship with Mycenaean Greece . Syracuse was founded in 734 or 733 BC by Greek settlers from Corinth and Tenea , led by the oecist (colonizer) Archias , who called it Sirako, referring to a nearby salt marsh. The nucleus of the ancient city was the small island of Ortygia. The settlers found the land fertile and the native tribes to be reasonably well-disposed to their presence. The city grew and prospered, and for some time stood as the most powerful Greek city anywhere in the Mediterranean . Colonies were founded at Akrai (664 BC), Kasmenai (643 BC), Akrillai (VII century BC), Helorus (VII century BC) and Kamarina (598 BC). The descendants of the first colonist, called Gamoroi, held the power until they were expelled by the Killichiroi, the lower class of the city. The former, however, returned to power in 485 BC, thanks to the help of Gelo, ruler of Gela. Gelo himself became the despot of the city, and moved many inhabitants of Gela, Kamarina and Megera to Syracuse, building the new quarters of Tyche and Neapolis outside the walls. His program of new constructions included a new theater, designed by Damocopos , which gave the city a flourishing cultural life: this in turn attracted personalities as Aeschylus , Ario of Metimma , Eumelos of Corinth and Sappho , who had been exiled here from Mytilene . The enlarged power of Syracuse made unavoidable the clash against the Carthaginians , who ruled western Sicily. In the Battle of Himera , Gelo, who had allied with Theron of Agrigento , decisively defeated the African force led by Hamilcar . A temple , entitled to Athena (on the site of the today's Cathedral), was erected in the city to commemorate the event Gelon was succedeed by his brother Hiero , who fought against the Etruscans at Cumae in 474 BC. His rule was eulogized by poets like Simonides of Ceos , Bacchylides and Pindar , who visited his court. A democratic regime was introduced by Thrasybulos (467 BC). The city continued to expand in Sicily , fighting against the rebellious Siculi , and on the Tyrrhenian Sea , making expeditions up to Corsica and Elba. In the late 5th century BC, Syracuse found itself at war with Athens , which sought more resources to fight the Peloponnesian War . The Syracusans enlisted the aid of a general from Sparta , Athens' foe in the war, to defeat the Athenians, destroy their ships, and leave them to starve on the island (see Sicilian Expedition ). In 401 BC, Syracuse contributed a force of 3,000 hoplites and a general to Cyrus the Younger 's Army of the Ten Thousand . Then in the early 4th century BC, the tyrant Dionysius the Elder was again at war against Carthage and, although losing Gela and Camarina, kept that power from capturing the whole of Sicily. After the end of the conflict Dionysius built a massive fortress on the Ortygia island of the city and 22 km-long walls around all of Syracuse. Another period of expansion saw the destruction of Naxos , Catania and Lentini , then Syracuse entered again in war against Carthage (397 BC). After various changes of fortune, the Carthaginians managed to besiege Syracuse itself, but were eventually pushed back by a pestilence. A treaty in 392 BC allowed Syracuse to enlarge further its possessions, founding the cities of Adrano, Ancona , Adria , Tindari and Tauromenos, and conquering Reggio Calabria on the continent. Apart from his battle deeds, Dionysius was famous as a patron of art, and Plato himself visited Syracuse several times. His successor was Dionysius the Younger , who was however expelled by Dion in 356 BC. But the latter's despotic rule led in turn to his expulsion, and Dionysius reclaimed his throne in 347 BC. A democratic government was installed by Timoleon in 345 BC. The long series of internal struggles had weakened Syracuse's power on the island, and Timoleon tried to remedy this, defeating the Carthaginians in 339 BC near the Krimisos river. But the struggle among the city's parties restarted after his death and ended with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles , who seized power with a coup in 317 BC. He resumed the war against Carthage, with alternate fortunes. He however scored a moral success, bringing the war to the Carthaginians' native African soil, inflicting heavy losses to the enemy. The war ended with another treaty of peace which did not prevent the Carthaginians interfering in the politics of Syracuse after the death of Agathocles (289 BC). The citizens called Pyrrhus of Epirus for help. After a brief period under the rule of Epirus, Hiero II seized power in 275 BC. Hiero inaugurated a period of 50 years of peace and prosperity, in which Syracause became one of the most renowned capitals of Antiquity. He issued the so-called Lex Hieronica, which was later adopted by the Romans for their administration of Sicily; he also had the theater enlarged and a new immense altar , the "Hiero's Ara", built. Under his rule lived the most famous Syracusan, the natural philosopher Archimedes . Among his many inventions were various military engines including the claw of Archimedes , later used to resist the Roman siege of 214 BC–212 BC. Literary figures included Theocritus and others. Hiero's successor, the young Hieronymus (ruled from 215 BC), broke the alliance with the Romans after their defeat at the Battle of Cannae and accepted Carthage 's support. The Romans, led by consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus , besieged the city in 214 BC. The city held out for three years, but fell in 212 BC. It is believed to have fallen due to a peace party opening a small door in the wall to negotiate a peace, but the Romans charged through the door and took the city, killing Archimedes in the process. From Roman domination to the Middle Ages Though declining slowly by the years, Syracuse maintained the status of capital of the Roman government of Sicily and seat of the praetor . It remained an important port for the trades between the Eastern and the Western parts of the Empire. Christianity spread in the city through the efforts of Paul of Tarsus and Saint Marziano, the first bishop of the city, who made it one of the main centres of proselytism in the West. In the age of the persecutions massive catacombs were carved, whose size is second only to those of Rome. After a period of Vandal rule, Syracuse and the island was recovered by Belisarius for the Byzantine Empire (31 December 535). From 663 to 668 Syracuse was the seat of Emperor Constans II , as well as metropolis of the whole Sicilian Church. Another siege in 878, resulted in the city coming under two centuries of Muslim rule. The capital was moved from Syracuse to Palermo . The Cathedral was converted into a mosque and the quarter on the Ortygia island was gradually rebuilt along Islamic styles. The city, nevertheless, maintained important trade relationships, and housed a relatively flourishing cultural and artistic life: several Arab poets, including Ibn Hamdis , the most important Sicilian poet of the 12th century, flourished in the city. In 1038, the Byzantine general George Maniaces reconquered the city, sending the relics of St. Lucy to Constantinople . The eponymous castle on the cape of Ortygia bears his name, although it was built under the Hohenstaufen rule. In 1085 the Normans entered Syracuse, one of the last Arab strongholds, after a summer-long siege by Roger I of Sicily and his son Jordan of Hauteville , who was given the city as count. New quarters were built, and the cathedral was restored, as well as other churches. In 1194 Henry VI of Swabia occupied Syracuse. After a short period of Genoese rule (1205–1220), which favoured a rise of trades, Syracuse was conquered back by emperor Frederick II . He began the construction of the Castello Maniace , the Bishops' Palace and the Bellomo Palace. Frederick's death brought a period of unrest and feudal anarchy. In the struggle between the Anjou and Aragonese monarchies, Syracuse sided with the Aragonese and defeated the Anjou in 1298, receiving from the Spanish sovereigns great privileges in reward. The pre-eminence of baronal families is also shown by the construction of the palaces of Abela , Chiaramonte , Nava , Montalto . Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped?: Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped?: After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. 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