Solid Brass Fox Vintage Wolf Dog Antique Victorian Old Golden Lustre Wild Animal

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Seller: lasvegasormonaco ✉️ (2,261) 100%, Location: Manchester, Take a look at my other items, GB, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 266366884434 Solid Brass Fox Vintage Wolf Dog Antique Victorian Old Golden Lustre Wild Animal. African civet (C. civetta). Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus). Hose's palm civet (D. hosei). Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni). Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii). Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata). Fox Brass Ornament This is a Miniature Solid brass Fox The dimensions of the Small Figurine are 50 mm x 20 mm x 15 mm It Weighs 24 grams A wonderful collectable piece for any fox lover It would be a super addition to any collection, excellent display, practical piece or authentic period prop. It is in Very Good Condition considering its age Comes from a pet and smoke free home Sorry about the poor quality photos. They don't do the piece justice which looks a lot better in real life Would make an Excellent Present or Collectable Keepsake souvenir Click Here to Check out my Other Royal Family Items & Coins Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 1200 Satisfied Customers I have over 10 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items Instant Feedback Automatically Left Immediately after Receiving Payment All Items Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. Overseas Bidders Please Note Surface Mail Delivery Times > Western Europe takes up to 2 weeks, Eastern Europe up to 5 weeks, North America up to 6 weeks, South America, Africa and Asia up to 8 weeks and Australasia up to 12 weeks Thanks for Looking and Best of Luck with the Bidding!! 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Thanks for Looking and Hope to deal soon :) I have sold items to coutries such as Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * 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Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe and major cities such as Tokyo, Yokohama, New York City, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Mexico City, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Manila, Mumbai, Delhi, Jakarta, Lagos, Kolkata, Cairo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Moscow, Shanghai, Karachi, Paris, Istanbul, Nagoya, Beijing, Chicago, London, Shenzhen, Essen, Düsseldorf, Tehran, Bogota, Lima, Bangkok, Johannesburg, East Rand, Chennai, Taipei, Baghdad, Santiago, Bangalore, Hyderabad, St Petersburg, Philadelphia, Lahore, Kinshasa, Miami, Ho Chi Minh City, Madrid, Tianjin, Kuala Lumpur, Toronto, Milan, Shenyang, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, Belo Horizonte, Khartoum, Riyadh, Singapore, Washington, Detroit, Barcelona,, Houston, Athens, Berlin, Sydney, Atlanta, Guadalajara, San Francisco, Oakland, Montreal, Monterey, Melbourne, Ankara, Recife, Phoenix/Mesa, Durban, Porto Alegre, Dalian, Jeddah, Seattle, Cape Town, San Diego, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Rome, Naples, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Tel Aviv, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lisbon, Manchester, San Juan, Katowice, Tashkent, Fukuoka, Baku, Sumqayit, St. Louis, Baltimore, Sapporo, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Taichung, Warsaw, Denver, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dubai, Pretoria, Vancouver, Beirut, Budapest, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Campinas, Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra Fox Article Talk Read View source View history Tools Page semi-protected From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the animal. For the American television network, see Fox Broadcasting Company. For other uses, see Fox (disambiguation). "Foxes", "Vixen", and "Skulk" redirect here. For other uses, see Foxes (disambiguation), Vixen (disambiguation), and Skulk (disambiguation). Foxes A red fox in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario A red fox in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario Scientific classificationEdit this classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Canidae Subfamily: Caninae Groups included Some Canini species: †Dusicyon cultridens Cerdocyon Cerdocyon thous Lycalopex Lycalopex culpaeus Lycalopex fulvipes Lycalopex griseus Lycalopex gymnocercus Lycalopex sechurae Lycalopex vetulus All Vulpini species Vulpes Vulpes lagopus Vulpes vulpes Vulpes velox Vulpes macrotis Vulpes corsac Vulpes chama Vulpes pallida Vulpes bengalensis Vulpes ferrilata Vulpes cana Vulpes rueppelli Vulpes zerda Some primitive Canidae species Urocyon Urocyon cinereoargenteus Urocyon littoralis Urocyon sp. Otocyon Otocyon megalotis Cladistically included but traditionally excluded taxa All other species in Canini Foxes are small to medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. They have a flattened skull, upright, triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned snout, and a long bushy tail ("brush"). Twelve species belong to the monophyletic "true fox" group of genus Vulpes. Approximately another 25 current or extinct species are always or sometimes called foxes; these foxes are either part of the paraphyletic group of the South American foxes, or of the outlying group, which consists of the bat-eared fox, gray fox, and island fox.[1] Foxes live on every continent except Antarctica. The most common and widespread species of fox is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with about 47 recognized subspecies.[2] The global distribution of foxes, together with their widespread reputation for cunning, has contributed to their prominence in popular culture and folklore in many societies around the world. The hunting of foxes with packs of hounds, long an established pursuit in Europe, especially in the British Isles, was exported by European settlers to various parts of the New World. Etymology The word fox comes from Old English, which derived from Proto-Germanic *fuhsaz.[nb 1] This in turn derives from Proto-Indo-European *puḱ-, meaning 'thick-haired; tail'.[nb 2] Male foxes are known as dogs, tods or reynards, females as vixens, and young as cubs, pups, or kits, though the last name is not to be confused with a distinct species called kit foxes. Vixen is one of very few words in modern English that retain the Middle English southern dialect "v" pronunciation instead of "f" (i.e. northern English "fox" versus southern English "vox").[3] A group of foxes is referred to as a skulk, leash, or earth.[4][5] Phylogenetic relationships Comparative illustration of skulls of a true fox (left) and gray fox (right), with differing temporal ridges and subangular lobes indicated Within the Canidae, the results of DNA analysis shows several phylogenetic divisions: The fox-like canids, which include the kit fox (Vulpes velox), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Cape fox (Vulpes chama), Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), and fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).[6] The wolf-like canids, (genus Canis, Cuon and Lycaon) including the dog (Canis lupus familiaris), gray wolf (Canis lupus), red wolf (Canis rufus), eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), coyote (Canis latrans), golden jackal (Canis aureus), Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis), black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), dhole (Cuon alpinus), and African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).[6] The South American canids, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), hoary fox (Lycalopex uetulus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).[6] Various monotypic taxa, including the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).[6] Biology Fox skeleton General morphology Foxes are generally smaller than some other members of the family Canidae such as wolves and jackals, while they may be larger than some within the family, such as raccoon dogs. In the largest species, the red fox, males weigh on average between 4.1 and 8.7 kilograms (9 and 19+1⁄4 pounds),[7] while the smallest species, the fennec fox, weighs just 0.7 to 1.6 kg (1+1⁄2 to 3+1⁄2 lb).[8] Fox features typically include a triangular face, pointed ears, an elongated rostrum, and a bushy tail. They are digitigrade (meaning they walk on their toes). Unlike most members of the family Canidae, foxes have partially retractable claws.[9] Fox vibrissae, or whiskers, are black. The whiskers on the muzzle, known as mystacial vibrissae, average 100–110 millimetres (3+7⁄8–4+3⁄8 inches) long, while the whiskers everywhere else on the head average to be shorter in length. Whiskers (carpal vibrissae) are also on the forelimbs and average 40 mm (1+5⁄8 in) long, pointing downward and backward.[2] Other physical characteristics vary according to habitat and adaptive significance. Pelage Fox species differ in fur color, length, and density. Coat colors range from pearly white to black-and-white to black flecked with white or grey on the underside. Fennec foxes (and other species of fox adapted to life in the desert, such as kit foxes), for example, have large ears and short fur to aid in keeping the body cool.[2][9] Arctic foxes, on the other hand, have tiny ears and short limbs as well as thick, insulating fur, which aid in keeping the body warm.[10] Red foxes, by contrast, have a typical auburn pelt, the tail normally ending with a white marking.[11] A fox's coat color and texture may vary due to the change in seasons; fox pelts are richer and denser in the colder months and lighter in the warmer months. To get rid of the dense winter coat, foxes moult once a year around April; the process begins from the feet, up the legs, and then along the back.[9] Coat color may also change as the individual ages.[2] Dentition A fox's dentition, like all other canids, is I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 4/4, M 3/2 = 42. (Bat-eared foxes have six extra molars, totalling in 48 teeth.) Foxes have pronounced carnassial pairs, which is characteristic of a carnivore. These pairs consist of the upper premolar and the lower first molar, and work together to shear tough material like flesh. Foxes' canines are pronounced, also characteristic of a carnivore, and are excellent in gripping prey.[12] Behaviour Arctic fox curled up in snow In the wild, the typical lifespan of a fox is one to three years, although individuals may live up to ten years. Unlike many canids, foxes are not always pack animals. Typically, they live in small family groups, but some (such as Arctic foxes) are known to be solitary.[2][9] Foxes are omnivores.[13][14] Their diet is made up primarily of invertebrates such as insects and small vertebrates such as reptiles and birds. They may also eat eggs and vegetation. Many species are generalist predators, but some (such as the crab-eating fox) have more specialized diets. Most species of fox consume around 1 kg (2.2 lb) of food every day. Foxes cache excess food, burying it for later consumption, usually under leaves, snow, or soil.[9][15] While hunting, foxes tend to use a particular pouncing technique, such that they crouch down to camouflage themselves in the terrain and then use their hind legs to leap up with great force and land on top of their chosen prey.[2] Using their pronounced canine teeth, they can then grip the prey's neck and shake it until it is dead or can be readily disemboweled.[2] The gray fox is one of only two canine species known to regularly climb trees; the other is the raccoon dog.[16] Sexual characteristics The male fox's scrotum is held up close to the body with the testes inside even after they descend. Like other canines, the male fox has a baculum, or penile bone.[2][17][18] The testes of red foxes are smaller than those of Arctic foxes.[19] Sperm formation in red foxes begins in August–September, with the testicles attaining their greatest weight in December–February.[20] Vixens are in heat for one to six days, making their reproductive cycle twelve months long. As with other canines, the ova are shed during estrus without the need for the stimulation of copulating. Once the egg is fertilized, the vixen enters a period of gestation that can last from 52 to 53 days. Foxes tend to have an average litter size of four to five with an 80 percent success rate in becoming pregnant.[2][21] Litter sizes can vary greatly according to species and environment – the Arctic fox, for example, can have up to eleven kits.[22] The vixen usually has six or eight mammae.[23] Each teat has 8 to 20 lactiferous ducts, which connect the mammary gland to the nipple, allowing for milk to be carried to the nipple.[citation needed] Vocalization The fox's vocal repertoire is vast, and includes: Whine Made shortly after birth. Occurs at a high rate when kits are hungry and when their body temperatures are low. Whining stimulates the mother to care for her young; it also has been known to stimulate the male fox into caring for his mate and kits. Yelp Made about 19 days later. The kits' whining turns into infantile barks, yelps, which occur heavily during play. Explosive call At the age of about one month, the kits can emit an explosive call which is intended to be threatening to intruders or other cubs; a high-pitched howl. Combative call In adults, the explosive call becomes an open-mouthed combative call during any conflict; a sharper bark. Growl An adult fox's indication to their kits to feed or head to the adult's location. Bark Adult foxes warn against intruders and in defense by barking.[2][24] In the case of domesticated foxes, the whining seems to remain in adult individuals as a sign of excitement and submission in the presence of their owners.[2] Classification Canids commonly known as foxes include the following genera and species:[2] Genus Species Picture Canis Ethiopian wolf, sometimes called the Simien fox or Simien jackal Ethiopian wolf, native to the Ethiopian highlands Cerdocyon Crab-eating fox Crab-eating fox, a South American species † Dusicyon Extinct genus, including the Falkland Islands wolf, sometimes known as the Falklands Islands fox Falkland Islands wolf Illustration by John Gerrard Keulemans (1842–1912) Lycalopex Culpeo or Andean fox Darwin's fox South American gray fox Pampas fox Sechuran fox Hoary fox A pampas fox in Departamento de Flores, Uruguay Otocyon Bat-eared fox Bat-eared fox in Kenya Urocyon Gray fox Island fox Cozumel fox (undescribed) Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), in Midtown, Palo Alto, California Vulpes Arctic fox Bengal fox Blanford's fox Cape fox Corsac fox Fennec fox Kit fox Pale fox Rüppell's fox Red fox Swift fox Tibetan sand fox The fennec fox is the smallest species of fox Red fox Conservation The island fox is a near-threatened species. Several fox species are endangered in their native environments. Pressures placed on foxes include habitat loss and being hunted for pelts, other trade, or control.[25] Due in part to their opportunistic hunting style and industriousness, foxes are commonly resented as nuisance animals.[26] Contrastingly, foxes, while often considered pests themselves, have been successfully employed to control pests on fruit farms while leaving the fruit intact.[27] Urocyon littoralis The island fox, though considered a near-threatened species throughout the world, is becoming increasingly endangered in its endemic environment of the California Channel Islands.[28] A population on an island is smaller than those on the mainland because of limited resources like space, food and shelter.[29] Island populations are therefore highly susceptible to external threats ranging from introduced predatory species and humans to extreme weather.[29] On the California Channel Islands, it was found that the population of the island fox was so low due to an outbreak of canine distemper virus from 1999 to 2000[30] as well as predation by non-native golden eagles.[31] Since 1993, the eagles have caused the population to decline by as much as 95%.[30] Because of the low number of foxes, the population went through an Allee effect (an effect in which, at low enough densities, an individual's fitness decreases).[28] Conservationists had to take healthy breeding pairs out of the wild population to breed them in captivity until they had enough foxes to release back into the wild.[30] Nonnative grazers were also removed so that native plants would be able to grow back to their natural height, thereby providing adequate cover and protection for the foxes against golden eagles.[31] Pseudalopex fulvipes Darwin's fox is considered critically endangered because of their small known population of 250 mature individuals as well as their restricted distribution.[32] On the Chilean mainland, the population is limited to Nahuelbuta National Park and the surrounding Valdivian rainforest.[32] Similarly on Chiloé Island, their population is limited to the forests that extend from the southernmost to the northwesternmost part of the island.[32] Though the Nahuelbuta National Park is protected, 90% of the species live on Chiloé Island.[33] A major issue the species faces is their dwindling, limited habitat due to the cutting and burning of the unprotected forests.[32] Because of deforestation, the Darwin's fox habitat is shrinking, allowing for their competitor's (chilla fox) preferred habitat of open space, to increase; the Darwin's fox, subsequently, is being outcompeted.[34] Another problem they face is their inability to fight off diseases transmitted by the increasing number of pet dogs.[32] To conserve these animals, researchers suggest the need for the forests that link the Nahuelbuta National Park to the coast of Chile and in turn Chiloé Island and its forests, to be protected.[34] They also suggest that other forests around Chile be examined to determine whether Darwin's foxes have previously existed there or can live there in the future, should the need to reintroduce the species to those areas arise.[34] And finally, the researchers advise for the creation of a captive breeding program, in Chile, because of the limited number of mature individuals in the wild.[34] Relationships with humans A red fox on the porch of a house Dead foxes in Carbunup Foxes are often considered pests or nuisance creatures for their opportunistic attacks on poultry and other small livestock. Fox attacks on humans are not common.[35] Many foxes adapt well to human environments, with several species classified as "resident urban carnivores" for their ability to sustain populations entirely within urban boundaries.[36] Foxes in urban areas can live longer and can have smaller litter sizes than foxes in non-urban areas.[36] Urban foxes are ubiquitous in Europe, where they show altered behaviors compared to non-urban foxes, including increased population density, smaller territory, and pack foraging.[37] Foxes have been introduced in numerous locations, with varying effects on indigenous flora and fauna.[38] In some countries, foxes are major predators of rabbits and hens. Population oscillations of these two species were the first nonlinear oscillation studied and led to the derivation of the Lotka–Volterra equation.[39][40] Hunting Main article: Fox hunting Fox hunting originated in the United Kingdom in the 16th century. Hunting with dogs is now banned in the United Kingdom,[41][42][43][44] though hunting without dogs is still permitted. Red foxes were introduced into Australia in the early 19th century for sport, and have since become widespread through much of the country. They have caused population decline among many native species and prey on livestock, especially new lambs.[45] Fox hunting is practiced as recreation in several other countries including Canada, France, Ireland, Italy, Russia, United States and Australia. Domestication A tame fox in Talysarn, Wales See also: Domesticated silver fox and Red fox § Taming and domestication There are many records of domesticated red foxes and others, but rarely of sustained domestication. A recent and notable exception is the Russian silver fox,[46] which resulted in visible and behavioral changes, and is a case study of an animal population modeling according to human domestication needs. The current group of domesticated silver foxes are the result of nearly fifty years of experiments in the Soviet Union and Russia to domesticate the silver morph of the red fox. This selective breeding resulted in physical and behavioral traits appearing that are frequently seen in domestic cats, dogs, and other animals, such as pigmentation changes, floppy ears, and curly tails.[47] Notably, the new foxes became more tame, allowing themselves to be petted, whimpering to get attention and sniffing and licking their caretakers.[48] Attack Main article: Animal attack In 2018, a Clapham fox bit a woman on the arm after she had left the door to her flat open.[49] Urban settings See also: Red fox § Urban red foxes Foxes are among the comparatively few mammals which have been able to adapt themselves to a certain degree to living in urban (mostly suburban) human environments. Their omnivorous diet allows them to survive on discarded food waste, and their skittish and often nocturnal nature means that they are often able to avoid detection, despite their larger size. Urban foxes have been identified as threats to cats and small dogs, and for this reason there is often pressure to exclude them from these environments.[50] The San Joaquin kit fox is a highly endangered species that has, ironically, become adapted to urban living in the San Joaquin Valley and Salinas Valley of southern California. Its diet includes mice, ground squirrels, rabbits, hares, bird eggs, and insects, and it has claimed habitats in open areas, golf courses, drainage basins, and school grounds.[50] In popular culture Plate in the shape of two peaches depicting two foxes, Tang dynasty Main article: Foxes in popular culture, films and literature The fox appears in many cultures, usually in folklore. There are slight variations in their depictions. In Western and Persian folklore, foxes are symbols of cunning and trickery—a reputation derived especially from their reputed ability to evade hunters. This is usually represented as a character possessing these traits. These traits are used on a wide variety of characters, either making them a nuisance to the story, a misunderstood hero, or a devious villain. In Asian folklore, foxes are depicted as familiar spirits possessing magic powers. Similar to in Western folklore, foxes are portrayed as mischievous, usually tricking other people, with the ability to disguise as an attractive female human. Others depict them as mystical, sacred creatures who can bring wonder and/or ruin.[51] Nine-tailed foxes appear in Chinese folklore, literature, and mythology, in which, depending on the tale, they can be a good or a bad omen.[52] The motif was eventually introduced from Chinese to Japanese and Korean cultures.[53] The constellation Vulpecula represents a fox.[54] Notes Cf. West Frisian foks, Dutch vos, and German Fuchs. Cf. Hindi pū̃ch 'tail', Tocharian B päkā 'tail; chowrie', and Lithuanian paustìs 'fur'. The bushy tail also forms the basis for the fox's Welsh name, llwynog, literally meaning 'bushy', from llwyn meaning 'bush'. Likewise, Portuguese: raposa from rabo 'tail', Lithuanian uodẽgis from uodegà 'tail', and Ojibwa waagosh from waa, which refers to the up and down "bounce" or flickering of an animal or its tail. References Macdonald, David W.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio, eds. (2004). The biology and conservation of wild canids (Nachdr. d. Ausg. 2004. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0198515562. Lloyd, H.G. (1981). The red fox (2. impr. ed.). London: Batsford. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7134-11904. "Episode 113: A Zouthern Accent - The History of English Podcast". historyofenglishpodcast.com. Fellows, Dave. "Animal Congregations, or What Do You Call a Group of.....?". Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. USGS. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2014. "Fox Cubs and the breeding cycle". New Forest Explorers Guide. Retrieved 29 July 2016. Wayne, Robert K. (June 1993). "Molecular evolution of the dog family". Trends in Genetics. 9 (6): 218–224. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90122-x. PMID 8337763. Larivière, S.; Pasitschniak-Arts, M. (1996). "Vulpes vulpes". Mammalian Species (537): 1–11. doi:10.2307/3504236. JSTOR 3504236. Nobleman, Marc Tyler (2007). Foxes. Benchmark Books (NY). pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0-7614-2237-2. Burrows, Roger (1968). Wild fox. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 9780715342176. "Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus)". ARKive. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2 October 2014. Fox, David. "Vulpes vulpes, red fox". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2 October 2014. "Canidae". The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 23 September 2014. Fedriani, J.M.; T. K. Fuller; R. M. Sauvajot; E. C. York (2000-07-05). "Competition and intraguild predation among three sympatric carnivores" (PDF). Oecologia. 125 (2): 258–270. Bibcode:2000Oecol.125..258F. doi:10.1007/s004420000448. hdl:10261/54628. PMID 24595837. S2CID 24289407. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-06. Fox, David L. (2007). "Vulpes vulpes (red fox)". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Macdonald, David W. (26 April 2010). "Food Caching by Red Foxes and Some Other Carnivores". Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie. 42 (2): 170–185. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1976.tb00963.x. PMID 1007654. Lavigne, Guillaume de (2015-03-19). Free Ranging Dogs – Stray, Feral or Wild?. Lulu Press, Inc. ISBN 9781326219529. Čanády, Alexander. "Variability of the baculum in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Slovakia." Zoology and Ecology 23.3 (2013): 165–170. Bijlsma, Rob G. "Copulatory lock of wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in broad daylight." Naturalist 80: 45–67. Heptner, V. G.; Naumov, N. P. (1998). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Leiden u.a.: Brill. p. 341. ISBN 978-1886106819. Heptner & Naumov 1998, p. 537 Parkes, I. W. Rowlands and A. S. (21 August 2009). "The Reproductive Processes of certain Mammals.-VIII. Reproduction in Foxes (Vulpes spp.)". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 105 (4): 823–841. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1935.tb06267.x. Hildebrand, Milton (1952). "The Integument in Canidae". Journal of Mammalogy. 33 (4): 419–428. doi:10.2307/1376014. JSTOR 1376014. Ronald M. Nowak (2005). Walker's Carnivores of the World. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8032-2. Tembrock, Günter (1976). "Canid vocalizations". Behavioural Processes. 1 (1): 57–75. doi:10.1016/0376-6357(76)90007-3. PMID 24923545. S2CID 205107627. Ginsburg, Joshua Ross and David Whyte MacDonald. Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs. p.58. Bathgate, Michael. The Fox's Craft in Japanese Religion and Culture. 2004. p.18. McCandless, Linda Foxes are Beneficial on Fruit Farms. nysaes.cornell.edu (1997-04-24) ANGULO, ELENA; ROEMER, GARY W.; BEREC, LUDĚK; GASCOIGNE, JOANNA; COURCHAMP, FRANCK (29 May 2007). "Double Allee Effects and Extinction in the Island Fox" (PDF). Conservation Biology. 21 (4): 1082–1091. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00721.x. hdl:10261/57044. PMID 17650257. S2CID 16545913. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-10-20. Primack, Richard B. (2014). Essentials of conservation biology (Sixth ed.). Sinauer Associates. pp. 143–146. ISBN 9781605352893. Kohlmann, Stephan G.; Schmidt, Gregory A.; Garcelon, David K. (10 April 2005). "A population viability analysis for the Island Fox on Santa Catalina Island, California". Ecological Modelling. 183 (1): 77–94. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2004.07.022. "Channel Islands: The Restoration of the Island Fox". National Park Service. Retrieved 25 September 2014. Jiménez, J. E. (2006). "Ecology of a coastal population of the critically endangered Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes) on Chiloé Island, southern Chile". Journal of Zoology. 271 (1): 63–77. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00218.x. Jiménez, J.E.; Lucherini, M. & Novaro, A.J. (2008). "Pseudalopex fulvipes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2014. Yahnke, Christopher J.; Johnson, Warren E.; Geffen, Eli; Smith, Deborah; Hertel, Fritz; Roy, Michael S.; Bonacic, Cristian F.; Fuller, Todd K.; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K. (1996). "Darwin's Fox: A Distinct Endangered Species in a Vanishing Habitat". Conservation Biology. 10 (2): 366–375. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10020366.x. Barratt, Sarah and Martin Barratt. Practical Quail-keeping. 2013. Iossa, G. et al. A Taxonomic Analysis of Urban Carnivore Ecology, from Urban Carnivores. Stanley Gehrt et al. eds. 2010. p.174. Francis, Robert and Michael Chadwick. Urban Ecosystems 2013. p.126. See generally Long, John. Introduced Mammals of the World. 2013. Sprott, Julien. Elegant Chaos 2010. p.89. Komarova, Natalia. Axiomatic Modeling in Life Sciences, from Mathematics and Life Sciences. Alexandra Antoniouk and Roderick Melnik, eds. pp.113–114. "Hunt campaigners lose legal bid". BBC News Online. 2006-06-23. Singh, Anita (2009-09-18). "David Cameron 'to vote against fox hunting ban'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-02. Fox Hunting. North West League Against Cruel Sports Support Group. nwlacs.co.uk "Fox Hunting: For and Against" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-03-31. Retrieved 2009-12-12. Fact Sheet: European Red Fox, Department of the Environment, Australian Government "The most affectionate foxes are bred in Novosibirsk". Redhotrussia. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-08. Trut, Lyudmila N. (1999). "Early Canid Domestication: The Fox Farm Experiment" (PDF). American Scientist. 87 (2): 160. Bibcode:1999AmSci..87.....T. doi:10.1511/1999.2.160. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2003-03-13. Kenneth Mason, Jonathan Losos, Susan Singer, Peter Raven, George Johnson(2011)Biology Ninth Edition, p. 423. McGraw-Hill, New York.ISBN 978-0-07-353222-6. Dunne, John; Moore-Bridger, Benedict; Powell, Tom (2018-06-21). "Woman mauled in bed by fox in Clapham flat: I'm traumatised and feared I would contract rabies". Evening Standard. London. Retrieved 2018-06-22. Clark E. Adams (15 June 2012). Urban Wildlife Management, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-1-4665-2127-8. Uther, Hans-Jörg (2006). "The Fox in World Literature: Reflections on a "Fictional Animal"". Asian Folklore Studies. 65 (2): 133–160. JSTOR 30030396. Kang, Xiaofei (2006). The cult of the fox: Power, gender, and popular religion in late imperial and modern China. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 15–21. ISBN 978-0-231-13338-8. Wallen, Martin (2006). Fox. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 69–70. ISBN 9781861892973. "Constellation Names". Constellation Guide. Retrieved October 1, 2014. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fox. Look up fox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to Fox. BBC Wales Nature: Fox videos The fox website Texts on Wikisource: "Fox". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Fox". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 9 (9th ed.). 1879. "The Badger and the Fox". Popular Science Monthly. Vol. 38. April 1891. Reprinted from Cornhill Magazine. "Fox". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Fox". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. "Fox". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. "Fox". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. "Fox". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. vte Extant Carnivora species Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaInfraclass: EutheriaSuperorder: Laurasiatheria Suborder Feliformia Nandiniidae Nandinia African palm civet (N. binotata) Herpestidae (Mongooses) Atilax Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus) Bdeogale Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda)Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni)Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes) Crossarchus Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri)Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei)Common kusimanse (C. obscurus)Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus) Cynictis Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata) Dologale Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii) Helogale Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula)Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula) Herpestes Angolan slender mongoose (H. flavescens)Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon)Somalian slender mongoose (H. ochracea)Cape gray mongoose (H. pulverulenta)Common slender mongoose (H. sanguinea) Ichneumia White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda) Liberiictus Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni) Mungos Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus)Banded mongoose (M. mungo) Paracynictis Selous's mongoose (P. selousi) Rhynchogale Meller's mongoose (R. melleri) Suricata Meerkat (S. suricatta) Urva Small Indian mongoose (U. auropunctata)Short-tailed mongoose (U. brachyura)Indian grey mongoose (U. edwardsii)Indian brown mongoose (U. fusca)Javan mongoose (U. javanica)Collared mongoose (U. semitorquata)Ruddy mongoose (U. smithii)Crab-eating mongoose (U. urva)Stripe-necked mongoose (U. vitticolla) Xenogale Long-nosed mongoose (X. naso) Hyaenidae (Hyenas) Crocuta Spotted hyena (C. crocuta) Hyaena Striped hyena (H. hyaena) Parahyaena Brown hyena (P. brunnea) Proteles Aardwolf (P. cristata) Felidae Large family listed below Viverridae Large family listed below Eupleridae Small family listed below Family Felidae Felinae Acinonyx Cheetah (A. jubatus) Caracal African golden cat (C. aurata)Caracal (C. caracal) Catopuma Bay cat (C. badia)Asian golden cat (C. temminckii) Felis Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti)Domestic cat (F. catus)Jungle cat (F. chaus)African wildcat (F. lybica)Sand cat (F. margarita)Black-footed cat (F. nigripes)European wildcat (F. silvestris) Herpailurus Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi) Leopardus Pampas cat (L. colocola)Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)Kodkod (L. guigna)Southern tiger cat (L. guttulus)Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)Ocelot (L. pardalis)Oncilla (L. tigrinus)Margay (L. wiedii)Nariño cat (L. narinensis) Leptailurus Serval (L. serval) Lynx Canada lynx (L. canadensis)Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)Bobcat (L. rufus) Otocolobus Pallas's cat (O. manul) Pardofelis Marbled cat (P. marmorata) Prionailurus Leopard cat (P. bengalensis)Sunda leopard cat (P. javanensis)Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps)Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)Fishing cat (P. viverrinus) Puma Cougar (P. concolor) Pantherinae Panthera Lion (P. leo)Jaguar (P. onca)Leopard (P. pardus)Tiger (P. tigris)Snow leopard (P. uncia) Neofelis Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa) Prionodontidae Prionodon Banded linsang (P. linsang)Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor) Family Viverridae Paradoxurinae Arctictis Binturong (A. binturong) Arctogalidia Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata) Macrogalidia Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii) Paguma Masked palm civet (P. larvata) Paradoxurus Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)Brown palm civet (P. jerdoni)Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis) Hemigalinae Chrotogale Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni) Cynogale Otter civet (C. bennettii) Diplogale Hose's palm civet (D. hosei) Hemigalus Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus) Viverrinae Civettictis African civet (C. civetta) Viverra Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina)Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)Large Indian civet (V. zibetha) Viverricula Small Indian civet (V. indica) Genettinae Genetta (Genets) Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica)Angolan genet (G. angolensis)Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni)Crested servaline genet (G. cristata)Common genet (G. genetta)Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni)Letaba genet (G. letabae)Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata)Pardine genet (G. pardina)Aquatic genet (G. piscivora)King genet (G. poensis)Servaline genet (G. servalina)Hausa genet (G. thierryi)Cape genet (G. tigrina)Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)South African small-spotted genet (G. felina) Poiana Central African oyan (P. richardsonii)West African oyan (P. leightoni) Family Eupleridae Euplerinae Cryptoprocta Fossa (C. ferox) Eupleres Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii)Western falanouc (E. major) Fossa Malagasy civet (F. fossana) Galidiinae Galidia Ring-tailed vontsira (G. elegans) Galidictis Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata)Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri) Mungotictis Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata) Salanoia Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor)Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli) Suborder Caniformia (cont. below) Ursidae (Bears) Ailuropoda Giant panda (A. melanoleuca) Helarctos Sun bear (H. malayanus) Melursus Sloth bear (M. ursinus) Tremarctos Spectacled bear (T. ornatus) Ursus American black bear (U. americanus)Brown bear (U. arctos)Polar bear (U. maritimus)Asian black bear (U. thibetanus) Mephitidae (Skunks) Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks) Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga)Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii)American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus)Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus) Mephitis Hooded skunk (M. macroura)Striped skunk (M. mephitis) Mydaus Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis)Palawan stink badger (M. marchei) Spilogale (Spotted skunks) Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons)Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis)Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius)Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea) Procyonidae (Raccoons, coatis, olingos) Bassaricyon (Olingos) Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni)Northern olingo (B. gabbii)Western lowland olingo (B. medius)Olinguito (B. neblina) Bassariscus Ringtail (B. astutus)Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti) Nasua (Coatis inclusive) White-nosed coati (N. narica)South American coati (N. nasua) Nasuella (Coatis inclusive) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Potos Kinkajou (P. flavus) Procyon Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus)Raccoon (P. lotor)Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus) Ailuridae Ailurus Red panda (A. fulgens) Suborder Caniformia (cont. above) Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) (Pinniped inclusive) Arctocephalus South American fur seal (A. australis)Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri)Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis)Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella)Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii)Brown fur seal (A. pusillus)Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi)Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis) Callorhinus Northern fur seal (C. ursinus) Eumetopias Steller sea lion (E. jubatus) Neophoca Australian sea lion (N. cinerea) Otaria South American sea lion (O. flavescens) Phocarctos New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri) Zalophus California sea lion (Z. californianus)Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki) Odobenidae (Pinniped inclusive) Odobenus Walrus (O. rosmarus) Phocidae (Earless seals) (Pinniped inclusive) Cystophora Hooded seal (C. cristata) Erignathus Bearded seal (E. barbatus) Halichoerus Grey seal (H. grypus) Histriophoca Ribbon seal (H. fasciata) Hydrurga Leopard seal (H. leptonyx) Leptonychotes Weddell seal (L. weddellii) Lobodon Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus) Mirounga (Elephant seals) Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris)Southern elephant seal (M. leonina) Monachus Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus) Neomonachus Hawaiian monk seal (N. schauinslandi) Ommatophoca Ross seal (O. rossi) Pagophilus Harp seal (P. groenlandicus) Phoca Spotted seal (P. largha)Harbor seal (P. vitulina) Pusa Caspian seal (P. caspica)Ringed seal (P. hispida)Baikal seal (P. sibirica) Canidae Large family listed below Mustelidae Large family listed below Family Canidae (includes dogs) Atelocynus Short-eared dog (A. microtis) Canis Golden jackal (C. aureus)Domestic dog (C. familiaris)Coyote (C. latrans)African wolf (C. lupaster)Wolf (C. lupus)Eastern wolf (C. lycaon)Red wolf (C. rufus)Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis) Cerdocyon Crab-eating fox (C. thous) Chrysocyon Maned wolf (C. brachyurus) Cuon Dhole (C. alpinus) Lupulella Side-striped jackal (L. adustus)Black-backed jackal (L. mesomelas) Lycalopex Culpeo (L. culpaeus)Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes)South American gray fox (L. griseus)Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus)Sechuran fox (L. sechurae)Hoary fox (L. vetulus) Lycaon African wild dog (L. pictus) Nyctereutes Common raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)Japanese raccoon dog (N. viverrinus) Otocyon Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis) Speothos Bush dog (S. venaticus) Urocyon Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus)Island fox (U. littoralis) Vulpes (Foxes) Bengal fox (V. bengalensis)Blanford's fox (V. cana)Cape fox (V. chama)Corsac fox (V. corsac)Tibetan fox (V. ferrilata)Arctic fox (V. lagopus)Kit fox (V. macrotis)Pale fox (V. pallida)Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli)Swift fox (V. velox)Red fox (V. vulpes)Fennec fox (V. zerda) Family Mustelidae Authority control Edit this at Wikidata National FranceBnF dataGermanyIsraelUnited StatesJapanCzech Republic Other NARA Categories: FoxesMammal common names Wolf Article Talk Read View source View history Tools Featured article Page semi-protected From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the wolf within the species Canis lupus. For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation). "Grey Wolf" and "Gray Wolf" redirect here. For other uses, see Grey Wolf (disambiguation). Wolf Temporal range: Middle Pleistocene – present (810,000–0 YBP)[1] Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus) at Polar Park in Bardu, Norway Conservation status Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)[2] CITES Appendix II (CITES)[3][a] Scientific classificationEdit this classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Canidae Genus: Canis Species: C. lupus Binomial name Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758[4] Subspecies See Subspecies of Canis lupus Global wolf range based on IUCN's 2018 assessment.[2] The wolf (Canis lupus;[b] pl: wolves), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine native to Eurasia and North America. More than thirty subspecies of Canis lupus have been recognized, including the dog and dingo, though gray wolves, as popularly understood, only comprise naturally-occurring wild subspecies. The wolf is the largest extant member of the family Canidae, and is further distinguished from other Canis species by its less pointed ears and muzzle, as well as a shorter torso and a longer tail. The wolf is nonetheless related closely enough to smaller Canis species, such as the coyote and the golden jackal, to produce fertile hybrids with them. The wolf's fur is usually mottled white, brown, gray, and black, although subspecies in the arctic region may be nearly all white. Of all members of the genus Canis, the wolf is most specialized for cooperative game hunting as demonstrated by its physical adaptations to tackling large prey, its more social nature, and its highly advanced expressive behaviour, including individual or group howling. It travels in nuclear families consisting of a mated pair accompanied by their offspring. Offspring may leave to form their own packs on the onset of sexual maturity and in response to competition for food within the pack. Wolves are also territorial, and fights over territory are among the principal causes of mortality. The wolf is mainly a carnivore and feeds on large wild hooved mammals as well as smaller animals, livestock, carrion, and garbage. Single wolves or mated pairs typically have higher success rates in hunting than do large packs. Pathogens and parasites, notably the rabies virus, may infect wolves. The global wild wolf population was estimated to be 300,000 in 2003 and is considered to be of Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Wolves have a long history of interactions with humans, having been despised and hunted in most pastoral communities because of their attacks on livestock, while conversely being respected in some agrarian and hunter-gatherer societies. Although the fear of wolves exists in many human societies, the majority of recorded attacks on people have been attributed to animals suffering from rabies. Wolf attacks on humans are rare because wolves are relatively few, live away from people, and have developed a fear of humans because of their experiences with hunters, farmers, ranchers, and shepherds. Etymology See also: Wolf (name) The English "wolf" stems from the Old English wulf, which is itself thought to be derived from the Proto-Germanic *wulfaz. The Proto-Indo-European root *wĺ̥kʷos may also be the source of the Latin word for the animal lupus (*lúkʷos).[5][6] The name "gray wolf" refers to the grayish colour of the species.[7] Since pre-Christian times, Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons took on wulf as a prefix or suffix in their names. Examples include Wulfhere ("Wolf Army"), Cynewulf ("Royal Wolf"), Cēnwulf ("Bold Wolf"), Wulfheard ("Wolf-hard"), Earnwulf ("Eagle Wolf"), Wulfstān ("Wolf Stone") Æðelwulf ("Noble Wolf"), Wolfhroc ("Wolf-Frock"), Wolfhetan ("Wolf Hide"), Scrutolf ("Garb Wolf"), Wolfgang ("Wolf Gait") and Wolfdregil ("Wolf Runner").[8] Taxonomy Canine phylogeny with ages of divergence Gray wolf Coyote 1.10 mya African wolf 1.32 mya Ethiopian wolf 1.62 mya Golden jackal 1.92 mya Dhole 2.74 mya African wild dog 3.06 mya Side-striped jackal Black-backed jackal 2.62 mya 3.50 mya Cladogram and divergence of the gray wolf (including the domestic dog) among its closest extant relatives[9] In 1758, the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae the binomial nomenclature.[4] Canis is the Latin word meaning "dog",[10] and under this genus he listed the doglike carnivores including domestic dogs, wolves, and jackals. He classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris, and the wolf as Canis lupus.[4] Linnaeus considered the dog to be a separate species from the wolf because of its "cauda recurvata" (upturning tail) which is not found in any other canid.[11] Subspecies Main article: Subspecies of Canis lupus Further information: Pleistocene wolf In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under C. lupus 36 wild subspecies, and proposed two additional subspecies: familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) and dingo (Meyer, 1793). Wozencraft included hallstromi—the New Guinea singing dog—as a taxonomic synonym for the dingo. Wozencraft referred to a 1999 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) study as one of the guides in forming his decision, and listed the 38 subspecies of C. lupus under the biological common name of "wolf", the nominate subspecies being the Eurasian wolf (C. l. lupus) based on the type specimen that Linnaeus studied in Sweden.[12] Studies using paleogenomic techniques reveal that the modern wolf and the dog are sister taxa, as modern wolves are not closely related to the population of wolves that was first domesticated.[13] In 2019, a workshop hosted by the IUCN/Species Survival Commission's Canid Specialist Group considered the New Guinea singing dog and the dingo to be feral Canis familiaris, and therefore should not be assessed for the IUCN Red List.[14] Evolution Main article: Evolution of the wolf Further information: Origin of the domestic dog Life restoration of Canis mosbachensis, the wolf's immediate ancestor The phylogenetic descent of the extant wolf C. lupus from C. etruscus through C. mosbachensis is widely accepted.[15] The earliest fossils of C. lupus were found in what was once eastern Beringia at Old Crow, Yukon, Canada, and at Cripple Creek Sump, Fairbanks, Alaska. The age is not agreed upon but could date to one million years ago. Considerable morphological diversity existed among wolves by the Late Pleistocene. They had more robust skulls and teeth than modern wolves, often with a shortened snout, a pronounced development of the temporalis muscle, and robust premolars. It is proposed that these features were specialized adaptations for the processing of carcass and bone associated with the hunting and scavenging of Pleistocene megafauna. Compared with modern wolves, some Pleistocene wolves showed an increase in tooth breakage similar to that seen in the extinct dire wolf. This suggests they either often processed carcasses, or that they competed with other carnivores and needed to consume their prey quickly. Compared with those found in the modern spotted hyena, the frequency and location of tooth fractures in these wolves indicates they were habitual bone crackers.[16] Genomic studies suggest modern wolves and dogs descend from a common ancestral wolf population[17][18][19] that existed 20,000 years ago.[17] A 2021 study found that the Himalayan wolf and the Indian plains wolf are part of a lineage that is basal to other wolves and split from them 200,000 years ago.[20] Other wolves appear to have originated in Beringia in an expansion that was driven by the huge ecological changes during the close of the Late Pleistocene.[21] A study in 2016 indicates that a population bottleneck was followed by a rapid radiation from an ancestral population at a time during, or just after, the Last Glacial Maximum. This implies the original morphologically diverse wolf populations were out-competed and replaced by more modern wolves.[22] A 2016 genomic study suggests that Old World and New World wolves split around 12,500 years ago followed by the divergence of the lineage that led to dogs from other Old World wolves around 11,100–12,300 years ago.[19] An extinct Late Pleistocene wolf may have been the ancestor of the dog,[23][16] with the dog's similarity to the extant wolf being the result of genetic admixture between the two.[16] The dingo, Basenji, Tibetan Mastiff and Chinese indigenous breeds are basal members of the domestic dog clade. The divergence time for wolves in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia is estimated to be fairly recent at around 1,600 years ago. Among New World wolves, the Mexican wolf diverged around 5,400 years ago.[19] Admixture with other canids Main article: Canid hybrid Photographs of two wolf–dog hybrids standing outdoors on snowy ground Wolf–dog hybrids in the wild animal park at Kadzidłowo, Poland. Left: product of a male wolf and a female spaniel; right: from a female wolf and a male West Siberian Laika In the distant past, there was gene flow between African wolves, golden jackals, and gray wolves. The African wolf is a descendant of a genetically admixed canid of 72% wolf and 28% Ethiopian wolf ancestry. One African wolf from the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula showed admixture with Middle Eastern gray wolves and dogs.[24] There is evidence of gene flow between golden jackals and Middle Eastern wolves, less so with European and Asian wolves, and least with North American wolves. This indicates the golden jackal ancestry found in North American wolves may have occurred before the divergence of the Eurasian and North American wolves.[25] The common ancestor of the coyote and the wolf admixed with a ghost population of an extinct unidentified canid. This canid was genetically close to the dhole and evolved after the divergence of the African hunting dog from the other canid species. The basal position of the coyote compared to the wolf is proposed to be due to the coyote retaining more of the mitochondrial genome of this unidentified canid.[24] Similarly, a museum specimen of a wolf from southern China collected in 1963 showed a genome that was 12–14% admixed from this unknown canid.[26] In North America, some coyotes and wolves show varying degrees of past genetic admixture.[25] In more recent times, some male Italian wolves originated from dog ancestry, which indicates female wolves will breed with male dogs in the wild.[27] In the Caucasus Mountains, ten percent of dogs including livestock guardian dogs, are first generation hybrids.[28] Although mating between golden jackals and wolves has never been observed, evidence of jackal-wolf hybridization was discovered through mitochondrial DNA analysis of jackals living in the Caucasus Mountains[28] and in Bulgaria.[29] In 2021, a genetic study found that the dog's similarity to the extant gray wolf was the result of substantial dog-into-wolf gene flow, with almost negligible wolf-into-dog gene flow since the dog's domestication. Some gray wolves were related to all ancient and modern dogs.[30] Description Photograph of a reclining North American wolf looking directly at the photographer A North American wolf The wolf is the largest extant member of the Canidae family,[31] and is further distinguished from coyotes and jackals by a broader snout, shorter ears, a shorter torso and a longer tail.[32][31] It is slender and powerfully built, with a large, deeply descending rib cage, a sloping back, and a heavily muscled neck.[33] The wolf's legs are moderately longer than those of other canids, which enables the animal to move swiftly, and to overcome the deep snow that covers most of its geographical range in winter.[34] The ears are relatively small and triangular.[33] The wolf's head is large and heavy, with a wide forehead, strong jaws and a long, blunt muzzle.[35] The skull is 230–280 mm (9–11 in) in length and 130–150 mm (5–6 in) in width.[36] The teeth are heavy and large, making them better suited to crushing bone than those of other canids, though they are not as specialized as those found in hyenas.[37][38] Its molars have a flat chewing surface, but not to the same extent as the coyote, whose diet contains more vegetable matter.[39] Females tend to have narrower muzzles and foreheads, thinner necks, slightly shorter legs, and less massive shoulders than males.[40] Photograph of a wolf skeleton A wolf skeleton housed in the Wolf Museum, Abruzzo National Park, Italy Adult wolves measure 105–160 cm (41–63 in) in length and 80–85 cm (31–33 in) at shoulder height.[35] The tail measures 29–50 cm (11–20 in) in length, the ears 90–110 mm (3+1⁄2–4+3⁄8 in) in height, and the hind feet are 220–250 mm (8+5⁄8–9+7⁄8 in).[41] The size and weight of the modern wolf increases proportionally with latitude in accord with Bergmann's rule.[42] The mean body mass of the wolf is 40 kg (88 lb), the smallest specimen recorded at 12 kg (26 lb) and the largest at 79.4 kg (175 lb).[43][35] On average, European wolves weigh 38.5 kg (85 lb), North American wolves 36 kg (79 lb), and Indian and Arabian wolves 25 kg (55 lb).[44] Females in any given wolf population typically weigh 2.3–4.5 kg (5–10 lb) less than males. Wolves weighing over 54 kg (119 lb) are uncommon, though exceptionally large individuals have been recorded in Alaska and Canada.[45] In central Russia, exceptionally large males can reach a weight of 69–79 kg (152–174 lb).[41] Pelage Picture of a wolf standing on snowy terrain, turning its head at the camera Wolf in Spiti Valley, northern India The wolf has very dense and fluffy winter fur, with a short undercoat and long, coarse guard hairs.[35] Most of the undercoat and some guard hairs are shed in spring and grow back in autumn.[44] The longest hairs occur on the back, particularly on the front quarters and neck. Especially long hairs grow on the shoulders and almost form a crest on the upper part of the neck. The hairs on the cheeks are elongated and form tufts. The ears are covered in short hairs and project from the fur. Short, elastic and closely adjacent hairs are present on the limbs from the elbows down to the calcaneal tendons.[35] The winter fur is highly resistant to the cold. Wolves in northern climates can rest comfortably in open areas at −40 °C (−40 °F) by placing their muzzles between the rear legs and covering their faces with their tail. Wolf fur provides better insulation than dog fur and does not collect ice when warm breath is condensed against it.[44] In cold climates, the wolf can reduce the flow of blood near its skin to conserve body heat. The warmth of the foot pads is regulated independently from the rest of the body and is maintained at just above tissue-freezing point where the pads come in contact with ice and snow.[46] In warm climates, the fur is coarser and scarcer than in northern wolves.[35] Female wolves tend to have smoother furred limbs than males and generally develop the smoothest overall coats as they age. Older wolves generally have more white hairs on the tip of the tail, along the nose, and on the forehead. Winter fur is retained longest by lactating females, although with some hair loss around their teats.[40] Hair length on the middle of the back is 60–70 mm (2+3⁄8–2+3⁄4 in), and the guard hairs on the shoulders generally do not exceed 90 mm (3+1⁄2 in), but can reach 110–130 mm (4+3⁄8–5+1⁄8 in).[35] Photograph showing one black and one white wolf standing alongside each other Wolves in the La Boissière-du-Doré Zoo, France A wolf's coat colour is determined by its guard hairs. Wolves usually have some hairs that are white, brown, gray and black.[47] The coat of the Eurasian wolf is a mixture of ochreous (yellow to orange) and rusty ochreous (orange/red/brown) colours with light gray. The muzzle is pale ochreous gray, and the area of the lips, cheeks, chin, and throat is white. The top of the head, forehead, under and between the eyes, and between the eyes and ears is gray with a reddish film. The neck is ochreous. Long, black tips on the hairs along the back form a broad stripe, with black hair tips on the shoulders, upper chest and rear of the body. The sides of the body, tail, and outer limbs are a pale dirty ochreous colour, while the inner sides of the limbs, belly, and groin are white. Apart from those wolves which are pure white or black, these tones vary little across geographical areas, although the patterns of these colours vary between individuals.[48] In North America, the coat colours of wolves follow Gloger's rule, wolves in the Canadian arctic being white and those in southern Canada, the U.S., and Mexico being predominantly gray. In some areas of the Rocky Mountains of Alberta and British Columbia, the coat colour is predominantly black, some being blue-gray and some with silver and black.[47] Differences in coat colour between sexes is absent in Eurasia;[49] females tend to have redder tones in North America.[50] Black-coloured wolves in North America acquired their colour from wolf-dog admixture after the first arrival of dogs across the Bering Strait 12,000 to 14,000 years ago.[51] Research into the inheritance of white colour from dogs into wolves has yet to be undertaken.[52] Ecology Distribution and habitat Main article: Wolf distribution Photograph of a wolf standing on snowy ground An Italian wolf in a mountainous habitat in the Apennines in Sassoferrato, Italy Wolves occur across Eurasia and North America. However, deliberate human persecution because of livestock predation and fear of attacks on humans has reduced the wolf's range to about one-third of its historic range; the wolf is now extirpated (locally extinct) from much of its range in Western Europe, the United States and Mexico, and completely in the British Isles and Japan. In modern times, the wolf occurs mostly in wilderness and remote areas. The wolf can be found between sea level and 3,000 m (9,800 ft). Wolves live in forests, inland wetlands, shrublands, grasslands (including Arctic tundra), pastures, deserts, and rocky peaks on mountains.[2] Habitat use by wolves depends on the abundance of prey, snow conditions, livestock densities, road densities, human presence and topography.[39] Diet Photograph of a wolf carrying a caribou leg in its mouth A wolf carrying a caribou hindquarter, Denali National Park, Alaska Like all land mammals that are pack hunters, the wolf feeds predominantly on wild herbivorous hoofed mammals that can be divided into large size 240–650 kg (530–1,430 lb) and medium size 23–130 kg (51–287 lb), and have a body mass similar to that of the combined mass of the pack members.[53][54] The wolf specializes in preying on the vulnerable individuals of large prey,[39] with a pack of 15 able to bring down an adult moose.[55] The variation in diet between wolves living on different continents is based on the variety of hoofed mammals and of available smaller and domesticated prey.[56] In North America, the wolf's diet is dominated by wild large hoofed mammals (ungulates) and medium-sized mammals. In Asia and Europe, their diet is dominated by wild medium-sized hoofed mammals and domestic species. The wolf depends on wild species, and if these are not readily available, as in Asia, the wolf is more reliant on domestic species.[56] Across Eurasia, wolves prey mostly on moose, red deer, roe deer and wild boar.[57] In North America, important range-wide prey are elk, moose, caribou, white-tailed deer and mule deer.[58] Wolves can digest their meal in a few hours and can feed several times in one day, making quick use of large quantities of meat.[59] A well-fed wolf stores fat under the skin, around the heart, intestines, kidneys, and bone marrow, particularly during the autumn and winter.[60] Nonetheless, wolves are not fussy eaters. Smaller-sized animals that may supplement their diet include rodents, hares, insectivores and smaller carnivores. They frequently eat waterfowl and their eggs. When such foods are insufficient, they prey on lizards, snakes, frogs, and large insects when available.[61] Wolves in some areas may consume fish and even marine life.[62][63][64] Wolves also consume some plant material. In Europe, they eat apples, pears, figs, melons, berries and cherries. In North America, wolves eat blueberries and raspberries. They also eat grass, which may provide some vitamins, but is most likely used mainly to induce vomiting to rid themselves of intestinal parasites or long guard hairs.[65] They are known to eat the berries of mountain-ash, lily of the valley, bilberries, cowberries, European black nightshade, grain crops, and the shoots of reeds.[61] In times of scarcity, wolves will readily eat carrion.[61] In Eurasian areas with dense human activity, many wolf populations are forced to subsist largely on livestock and garbage.[57] As prey in North America continue to occupy suitable habitats with low human density, North American wolves eat livestock and garbage only in dire circumstances.[66] Cannibalism is not uncommon in wolves during harsh winters, when packs often attack weak or injured wolves and may eat the bodies of dead pack members.[61][67][68] Interactions with other predators Wolves typically dominate other canid species in areas where they both occur. In North America, incidents of wolves killing coyotes are common, particularly in winter, when coyotes feed on wolf kills. Wolves may attack coyote den sites, digging out and killing their pups, though rarely eating them. There are no records of coyotes killing wolves, though coyotes may chase wolves if they outnumber them.[69] According to a press release by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1921, the infamous Custer Wolf relied on coyotes to accompany him and warn him of danger. Though they fed from his kills, he never allowed them to approach him.[70] Interactions have been observed in Eurasia between wolves and golden jackals, the latter's numbers being comparatively small in areas with high wolf densities.[35][69][71] Wolves also kill red, Arctic and corsac foxes, usually in disputes over carcasses, sometimes eating them.[35][72] Photograph of a wolf, a bear, coyotes and ravens competing over a kill A wolf, a bear, coyotes and ravens compete over a kill Brown bears typically dominate wolf packs in disputes over carcasses, while wolf packs mostly prevail against bears when defending their den sites. Both species kill each other's young. Wolves eat the brown bears they kill, while brown bears seem to eat only young wolves.[73] Wolf interactions with American black bears are much rarer because of differences in habitat preferences. Wolves have been recorded on numerous occasions actively seeking out American black bears in their dens and killing them without eating them. Unlike brown bears, American black bears frequently lose against wolves in disputes over kills.[74] Wolves also dominate and sometimes kill wolverines, and will chase off those that attempt to scavenge from their kills. Wolverines escape from wolves in caves or up trees.[75] Wolves may interact and compete with felids, such as the Eurasian lynx, which may feed on smaller prey where wolves are present[76] and may be suppressed by large wolf populations.[77] Wolves encounter cougars along portions of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent mountain ranges. Wolves and cougars typically avoid encountering each other by hunting at different elevations for different prey (niche partitioning). In winter, when snow accumulation forces their prey into valleys, interactions between the two species become more likely. Wolves in packs usually dominate cougars and can steal their kills or even kill them,[78] while one-to-one encounters tend to be dominated by the cat. There are several documented cases of cougars killing wolves.[79] Wolves more broadly affect cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominating territory and prey opportunities and disrupting the feline's behaviour.[80] Wolf and Siberian tiger interactions are well-documented in the Russian Far East, where tigers significantly depress wolf numbers, sometimes to the point of localized extinction. Only human depletion of tiger numbers appears to protect wolves from competitive exclusion from them. With perhaps only four proven records of tigers killing wolves, these cases are rare; attacks appear to be competitive rather than predatory in nature.[81][76] In Israel, Palestine, Central Asia and India wolves may encounter striped hyenas, usually in disputes over carcasses. Striped hyenas feed extensively on wolf-killed carcasses in areas where the two species interact. One-to-one, hyenas dominate wolves, and may prey on them,[82] but wolf packs can drive off single or outnumbered hyenas.[83][84] There is at least one case in Israel of a hyena associating and cooperating with a wolf pack. It is proposed that the hyena could benefit from the wolves' superior ability to hunt large, agile prey. The wolves could benefit from the hyena's superior sense of smell, to locate and dig out tortoises, to crack open large bones, and to tear open discarded food containers like tin cans.[85] Behaviour See also: Dog behaviour Social structure See also: Pack (canine) § Pack behavior in grey wolves Photograph of three wolves running and biting each other Indian wolves at the Mysore Zoo The wolf is a social animal.[35] Its populations consist of packs and lone wolves, most lone wolves being temporarily alone while they disperse from packs to form their own or join another one.[86] The wolf's basic social unit is the nuclear family consisting of a mated pair accompanied by their offspring.[35] The average pack size in North America is eight wolves and in Europe 5.5 wolves.[42] The average pack across Eurasia consists of a family of eight wolves (two adults, juveniles, and yearlings),[35] or sometimes two or three such families,[39] with examples of exceptionally large packs consisting of up to 42 wolves being known.[87] Cortisol levels in wolves rise significantly when a pack member dies, indicating the presence of stress.[88] During times of prey abundance caused by calving or migration, different wolf packs may join together temporarily.[35] Offspring typically stay in the pack for 10–54 months before dispersing.[89] Triggers for dispersal include the onset of sexual maturity and competition within the pack for food.[90] The distance travelled by dispersing wolves varies widely; some stay in the vicinity of the parental group, while other individuals may travel great distances of upwards of 206 km (128 mi), 390 km (240 mi), and 670 km (420 mi) from their natal (birth) packs.[91] A new pack is usually founded by an unrelated dispersing male and female, travelling together in search of an area devoid of other hostile packs.[92] Wolf packs rarely adopt other wolves into their fold and typically kill them. In the rare cases where other wolves are adopted, the adoptee is almost invariably an immature animal of one to three years old, and unlikely to compete for breeding rights with the mated pair. This usually occurs between the months of February and May. Adoptee males may mate with an available pack female and then form their own pack. In some cases, a lone wolf is adopted into a pack to replace a deceased breeder.[87] Wolves are territorial and generally establish territories far larger than they require to survive assuring a steady supply of prey. Territory size depends largely on the amount of prey available and the age of the pack's pups. They tend to increase in size in areas with low prey populations,[93] or when the pups reach the age of six months when they have the same nutritional needs as adults.[94] Wolf packs travel constantly in search of prey, covering roughly 9% of their territory per day, on average 25 km/d (16 mi/d). The core of their territory is on average 35 km2 (14 sq mi) where they spend 50% of their time.[93] Prey density tends to be much higher on the territory's periphery. Except out of desperation, wolves tend to avoid hunting on the fringes of their range to avoid fatal confrontations with neighbouring packs.[95] The smallest territory on record was held by a pack of six wolves in northeastern Minnesota, which occupied an estimated 33 km2 (13 sq mi), while the largest was held by an Alaskan pack of ten wolves encompassing 6,272 km2 (2,422 sq mi).[94] Wolf packs are typically settled, and usually leave their accustomed ranges only during severe food shortages.[35] Territorial fights are among the principal causes of wolf mortality, one study concluding that 14–65% of wolf deaths in Minnesota and the Denali National Park and Preserve were due to other wolves.[96] Communication Main article: Wolf communication Wolves howling 0:29 Rallying cry 0:19 Problems playing these files? See media help. Wolves communicate using vocalizations, body postures, scent, touch, and taste.[97] The phases of the moon have no effect on wolf vocalization, and despite popular belief, wolves do not howl at the moon.[98] Wolves howl to assemble the pack usually before and after hunts, to pass on an alarm particularly at a den site, to locate each other during a storm, while crossing unfamiliar territory, and to communicate across great distances.[99] Wolf howls can under certain conditions be heard over areas of up to 130 km2 (50 sq mi).[39] Other vocalizations include growls, barks and whines. Wolves do not bark as loudly or continuously as dogs do in confrontations, rather barking a few times and then retreating from a perceived danger.[100] Aggressive or self-assertive wolves are characterized by their slow and deliberate movements, high body posture and raised hackles, while submissive ones carry their bodies low, flatten their fur, and lower their ears and tail.[101] Scent marking involves urine, feces, and anal gland scents. This is more effective at advertising territory than howling and is often used in combination with scratch marks. Wolves increase their rate of scent marking when they encounter the marks of wolves from other packs. Lone wolves will rarely mark, but newly bonded pairs will scent mark the most.[39] These marks are generally left every 240 m (260 yd) throughout the territory on regular travelways and junctions. Such markers can last for two to three weeks,[94] and are typically placed near rocks, boulders, trees, or the skeletons of large animals.[35] Raised leg urination is considered to be one of the most important forms of scent communication in the wolf, making up 60–80% of all scent marks observed.[102] Reproduction See also: Canine reproduction Photograph of a pair of mating wolves Korean wolves mating in the Tama Zoological Park, Japan Wolves are monogamous, mated pairs usually remaining together for life. Should one of the pair die, another mate is found quickly.[103] With wolves in the wild, inbreeding does not occur where outbreeding is possible.[104] Wolves become mature at the age of two years and sexually mature from the age of three years.[103] The age of first breeding in wolves depends largely on environmental factors: when food is plentiful, or when wolf populations are heavily managed, wolves can rear pups at younger ages to better exploit abundant resources. Females are capable of producing pups every year, one litter annually being the average.[105] Oestrus and rut begin in the second half of winter and lasts for two weeks.[103] Photograph of wolf pups stimulating their mother to regurgitate some food Iberian wolf pups stimulating their mother to regurgitate some food Dens are usually constructed for pups during the summer period. When building dens, females make use of natural shelters like fissures in rocks, cliffs overhanging riverbanks and holes thickly covered by vegetation. Sometimes, the den is the appropriated burrow of smaller animals such as foxes, badgers or marmots. An appropriated den is often widened and partly remade. On rare occasions, female wolves dig burrows themselves, which are usually small and short with one to three openings. The den is usually constructed not more than 500 m (550 yd) away from a water source. It typically faces southwards where it can be better warmed by sunlight exposure, and the snow can thaw more quickly. Resting places, play areas for the pups, and food remains are commonly found around wolf dens. The odor of urine and rotting food emanating from the denning area often attracts scavenging birds like magpies and ravens. Though they mostly avoid areas within human sight, wolves have been known to nest near domiciles, paved roads and railways.[106] During pregnancy, female wolves remain in a den located away from the peripheral zone of their territories, where violent encounters with other packs are less likely to occur.[107] The gestation period lasts 62–75 days with pups usually being born in the spring months or early summer in very cold places such as on the tundra. Young females give birth to four to five young, and older females from six to eight young and up to 14. Their mortality rate is 60–80%.[108] Newborn wolf pups look similar to German Shepherd Dog pups.[109] They are born blind and deaf and are covered in short soft grayish-brown fur. They weigh 300–500 g (10+1⁄2–17+3⁄4 oz) at birth and begin to see after nine to 12 days. The milk canines erupt after one month. Pups first leave the den after three weeks. At one-and-a-half months of age, they are agile enough to flee from danger. Mother wolves do not leave the den for the first few weeks, relying on the fathers to provide food for them and their young. Pups begin to eat solid food at the age of three to four weeks. They have a fast growth rate during their first four months of life: during this period, a pup's weight can increase nearly 30 times.[108][110] Wolf pups begin play-fighting at the age of three weeks, though unlike young coyotes and foxes, their bites are gentle and controlled. Actual fights to establish hierarchy usually occur at five to eight weeks of age. This is in contrast to young coyotes and foxes, which may begin fighting even before the onset of play behaviour.[111] By autumn, the pups are mature enough to accompany the adults on hunts for large prey.[107] Hunting and feeding Main article: Hunting behavior of gray wolves Aerial photograph a bull elk in winter being pursued by four wolves Wolves pursuing a bull elk Single wolves or mated pairs typically have higher success rates in hunting than do large packs; single wolves have occasionally been observed to kill large prey such as moose, bison and muskoxen unaided.[112][113] This contrasts with the commonly held belief that larger packs benefit from cooperative hunting to bring down large game.[113] The size of a wolf hunting pack is related to the number of pups that survived the previous winter, adult survival, and the rate of dispersing wolves leaving the pack. The optimal pack size for hunting elk is four wolves, and for bison a large pack size is more successful.[114] Wolves move around their territory when hunting, using the same trails for extended periods. After snowfalls, wolves find their old trails and continue using them. These follow the banks of rivers, the shorelines of lakes, ravines overgrown with shrubs, plantations, or roads and human paths.[115] Wolves are nocturnal predators. During the winter, a pack will commence hunting in the twilight of early evening and will hunt all night, traveling tens of kilometres. Sometimes hunting large prey occurs during the day. During the summer, wolves generally tend to hunt individually, ambushing their prey and rarely giving pursuit.[116] When hunting large gregarious prey, wolves will try to isolate an individual from its group.[117] If successful, a wolf pack can bring down game that will feed it for days, but one error in judgement can lead to serious injury or death. Most large prey have developed defensive adaptations and behaviours. Wolves have been killed while attempting to bring down bison, elk, moose, muskoxen, and even by one of their smallest hoofed prey, the white-tailed deer. With smaller prey like beaver, geese, and hares, there is no risk to the wolf.[118] Although people often believe wolves can easily overcome any of their prey, their success rate in hunting hoofed prey is usually low.[119] Photograph of two wolves eating a deer carcass at night Two wolves feeding on a white-tailed deer The wolf must give chase and gain on its fleeing prey, slow it down by biting through thick hair and hide, and then disable it enough to begin feeding.[118] After chasing and then confronting a large prey animal, the wolf makes use of its 6 cm (2+1⁄2 in) fangs and its powerful masseter muscles to deliver a bite force of 28 kg/cm2 (400 lbf/in2), which is capable of breaking open the skulls of many of its prey animals. The wolf leaps at its quarry and tears at it. One wolf was observed being dragged for dozens of metres attached to the hind leg of a moose; another was seen being dragged over a fallen log while attached to a bull elk's nose.[114] Wolves may wound large prey and then lie around resting for hours before killing it when it is weaker due to blood loss, thereby lessening the risk of injury to themselves.[120] With medium-sized prey, such as roe deer or sheep, wolves kill by biting the throat, severing nerve tracks and the carotid artery, thus causing the animal to die within a few seconds to a minute. With small, mouselike prey, wolves leap in a high arc and immobilize it with their forepaws.[121] Once prey is brought down, wolves begin to feed excitedly, ripping and tugging at the carcass in all directions, and bolting down large chunks of it.[122] The breeding pair typically monopolizes food to continue producing pups. When food is scarce, this is done at the expense of other family members, especially non-pups.[123] The breeding pair typically eats first. They usually work the hardest at killing prey, and may rest after a long hunt and allow the rest of the family to eat undisturbed. Once the breeding pair has finished eating, the rest of the family tears off pieces of the carcass and transports them to secluded areas where they can eat in peace. Wolves typically commence feeding by gorging on the larger internal organs, like the heart, liver, lungs, and stomach lining. The kidneys and spleen are eaten once they are exposed, followed by the muscles.[124] A wolf can eat 15–19% of its body weight in one sitting.[60] Infections Viral and bacterial Footage of a wolf taken from Abruzzo Natural Park showing advanced signs of canine distemper Viral diseases carried by wolves include: rabies, canine distemper, canine parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis, papillomatosis, and canine coronavirus.[125] Wolves are a major host for rabies in Russia, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq and India.[126] In wolves, the incubation period is eight to 21 days, and results in the host becoming agitated, deserting its pack, and travelling up to 80 km (50 mi) a day, thus increasing the risk of infecting other wolves. Infected wolves do not show any fear of humans, most documented wolf attacks on people being attributed to rabid animals. Although canine distemper is lethal in dogs, it has not been recorded to kill wolves, except in Canada and Alaska. The canine parvovirus, which causes death by dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and endotoxic shock or sepsis, is largely survivable in wolves, but can be lethal to pups. Wolves may catch infectious canine hepatitis from dogs, though there are no records of wolves dying from it. Papillomatosis has been recorded only once in wolves, and likely does not cause serious illness or death, though it may alter feeding behaviours. The canine coronavirus has been recorded in Alaskan wolves, infections being most prevalent in winter months.[125] Bacterial diseases carried by wolves include: brucellosis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, tularemia, bovine tuberculosis,[127] listeriosis and anthrax.[126] Wolves can catch Brucella suis from wild and domestic reindeer. While adult wolves tend not to show any clinical signs, it can severely weaken the pups of infected females. Although lyme disease can debilitate individual wolves, it does not appear to significantly affect wolf populations. Leptospirosis can be contracted through contact with infected prey or urine, and can cause fever, anorexia, vomiting, anemia, hematuria, icterus, and death. Wolves living near farms are more vulnerable to the disease than those living in the wilderness, probably because of prolonged contact with infected domestic animal waste. Wolves may catch tularemia from lagomorph prey, though its effect on wolves is unknown. Although bovine tuberculosis is not considered a major threat to wolves, it has been recorded to have killed two wolf pups in Canada.[127] Parasitic Photograph of a wolf with mange eating at a kill In Yellowstone National Park Wolves carry ectoparasites and endoparasites; those in the former Soviet Union have been recorded to carry at least 50 species.[126] Most of these parasites infect wolves without adverse effects, though the effects may become more serious in sick or malnourished specimens.[128] Parasitic infection in wolves is of particular concern to people. Wolves can spread them to dogs, which in turn can carry the parasites to humans. In areas where wolves inhabit pastoral areas, the parasites can be spread to livestock.[126] Wolves are often infested with a variety of arthropod exoparasites, including fleas, ticks, lice, and mites. The most harmful to wolves, particularly pups, is the mange mite (Sarcoptes scabiei),[128] though they rarely develop full-blown mange, unlike foxes.[35] Lice, such as Trichodectes canis, may cause sickness in wolves, but rarely death. Ticks of the genus Ixodes can infect wolves with Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.[128] The tick Dermacentor pictus also infests wolves. Other ectoparasites include chewing lice, sucking lice and the fleas Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides canis.[35] Endoparasites known to infect wolves include: protozoans and helminths (flukes, tapeworms, roundworms and thorny-headed worms). Of 30,000 protozoan species, only a few have been recorded to infect wolves: Isospora, Toxoplasma, Sarcocystis, Babesia, and Giardia.[128] Some wolves carry Neospora caninum, which can be spread to cattle and is correlated with bovine miscarriages.[129] Among flukes, the most common in North American wolves is Alaria, which infects small rodents and amphibians which are eaten by wolves. Upon reaching maturity, Alaria migrates to the wolf's intestine, but does little harm. Metorchis conjunctus, which enters wolves through eating fish, infects the wolf's liver or gall bladder, causing liver disease, inflammation of the pancreas, and emaciation. Most other fluke species reside in the wolf's intestine, though Paragonimus westermani lives in the lungs. Tapeworms are commonly found in wolves, as their primary hosts are ungulates, small mammals, and fish, which wolves feed upon. Tapeworms generally cause little harm in wolves, though this depends on the number and size of the parasites, and the sensitivity of the host. Symptoms often include constipation, toxic and allergic reactions, irritation of the intestinal mucosa, and malnutrition. Infections by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in ungulate populations tend to increase in areas with high wolf densities, as wolves can shed Echinoccocus eggs in their feces onto grazing areas.[128] Wolves can carry over 30 roundworm species, though most roundworm infections appear benign, depending on the number of worms and the age of the host. Ancylostoma caninum attaches itself on the intestinal wall to feed on the host's blood, and can cause hyperchromic anemia, emaciation, diarrhea, and possibly death. Toxocara canis, a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in the uterus, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea. Wolves may catch Dioctophyma renale from minks, which infects the kidneys, and can grow to lengths of 100 cm (40 in). D. renale causes the complete destruction of the kidney's functional tissue and can be fatal if both kidneys are infected. Wolves can tolerate low levels of Dirofilaria immitis for many years without showing any ill effects, though high levels can kill wolves through cardiac enlargement and congestive hepatopathy. Wolves probably become infected with Trichinella spiralis by eating infected ungulates. Although T. spiralis is not known to produce clinical signs in wolves, it can cause emaciation, salivation, and crippling muscle pains in dogs. Thorny-headed worms rarely infect wolves, though three species have been identified in Russian wolves: Nicolla skrjabini, Macracanthorhynchus catulinus, and Moniliformis moniliformis.[128] Status and conservation Further information: List of gray wolf populations by country The global wild wolf population in 2003 was estimated at 300,000.[130] Wolf population declines have been arrested since the 1970s. This has fostered recolonization and reintroduction in parts of its former range as a result of legal protection, changes in land use, and rural human population shifts to cities. Competition with humans for livestock and game species, concerns over the danger posed by wolves to people, and habitat fragmentation pose a continued threat to the wolf. Despite these threats, the IUCN classifies the wolf as Least Concern on its Red List due to its relatively widespread range and stable population. The species is listed under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), meaning international trade in the species (including parts and derivatives) is regulated. However, populations of Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan are listed in Appendix I which prohibits commercial international trade in wild-sourced specimens.[2] North America Photograph of a wolf running on a grassy plain with enclosing fence in background Captive Mexican wolf at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico, as part of reintroduction In Canada, 50,000–60,000 wolves live in 80% of their historical range, making Canada an important stronghold for the species.[39] Under Canadian law, First Nations people can hunt wolves without restrictions, but others must acquire licenses for the hunting and trapping seasons. As many as 4,000 wolves may be harvested in Canada each year.[131] The wolf is a protected species in national parks under the Canada National Parks Act.[132] In Alaska, 7,000–11,000 wolves are found on 85% of the state's 1,517,733 km2 (586,000 sq mi) area. Wolves may be hunted or trapped with a license; around 1,200 wolves are harvested annually.[133] In the contiguous United States, wolf declines were caused by the expansion of agriculture, the decimation of the wolf's main prey species like the American bison, and extermination campaigns.[39] Wolves were given protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, and have since returned to parts of their former range thanks to both natural recolonizations and reintroductions in Yellowstone and Idaho.[134] The repopulation of wolves in Midwestern United States has been concentrated in the Great Lakes states of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan where wolves number over 4,000 as of 2018.[135] Wolves also occupy much of the northern Rocky Mountains region and the northwest, with a total population over 3,000 as of the 2020s.[136] In Mexico and parts of the southwestern United States, the Mexican and U.S. governments collaborated from 1977 to 1980 in capturing all Mexican wolves remaining in the wild to prevent their extinction and established captive breeding programs for reintroduction.[137] As of 2023, the reintroduced Mexican wolf population numbers over 200 individuals.[138] Eurasia Map showing the wolf's range in Europe and surrounding areas Europe, excluding Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, has 17,000 wolves in more than 28 countries.[139] In many countries of the European Union, the wolf is strictly protected under the 1979 Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Appendix II) and the 1992 Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora (Annex II and IV). There is extensive legal protection in many European countries, although there are national exceptions.[2][140] Wolves have been persecuted in Europe for centuries, having been exterminated in Great Britain by 1684, in Ireland by 1770, in Central Europe by 1899, in France by the 1930s, and in much of Scandinavia by the early 1970s. They continued to survive in parts of Finland, Eastern Europe and Southern Europe.[141] Since 1980, European wolves have rebounded and expanded into parts of their former range. The decline of the traditional pastoral and rural economies seems to have ended the need to exterminate the wolf in parts of Europe.[131] As of 2016, estimates of wolf numbers include: 4,000 in the Balkans, 3,460–3,849 in the Carpathian Mountains, 1,700–2,240 in the Baltic states, 1,100–2,400 in the Italian peninsula, and around 2,500 in the northwest Iberian peninsula as of 2007.[139] In the former Soviet Union, wolf populations have retained much of their historical range despite Soviet-era large scale extermination campaigns. Their numbers range from 1,500 in Georgia, to 20,000 in Kazakhstan and up to 45,000 in Russia.[142] In Russia, the wolf is regarded as a pest because of its attacks on livestock, and wolf management means controlling their numbers by destroying them throughout the year. Russian history over the past century shows that reduced hunting leads to an abundance of wolves.[143] The Russian government has continued to pay bounties for wolves and annual harvests of 20–30% do not appear to significantly affect their numbers.[144] Image of a wolf at night with glowing eyes A wolf in southern Israel In the Middle East, only Israel and Oman give wolves explicit legal protection.[145] Israel has protected its wolves since 1954 and has maintained a moderately sized population of 150 through effective enforcement of conservation policies. These wolves have moved into neighboring countries. Approximately 300–600 wolves inhabit the Arabian Peninsula.[146] The wolf also appears to be widespread in Iran.[147] Turkey has an estimated population of about 7,000 wolves.[148] Outside of Turkey, wolf populations in the Middle East may total 1,000–2,000.[145] In southern Asia, the northern regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan are important strongholds for wolves. The wolf has been protected in India since 1972.[149] The Indian wolf is distributed across the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.[150] As of 2019, it is estimated that there are around 2,000–3,000 Indian wolves in the country.[151] In East Asia, Mongolia's population numbers 10,000–20,000. In China, Heilongjiang has roughly 650 wolves, Xinjiang has 10,000 and Tibet has 2,000.[152] 2017 evidence suggests that wolves range across all of mainland China.[153] Wolves have been historically persecuted in China[154] but have been legally protected since 1998.[155] The last Japanese wolf was captured and killed in 1905.[156] Relationships with humans In culture In folklore, religion and mythology Main article: Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology See also: Wolves in heraldry Photograph of the sculpture Capitoline Wolf showing of the mythical she-wolf feeding the twins Romulus and Remus The Capitoline Wolf, sculpture of the mythical she-wolf feeding the twins Romulus and Remus, from the legend of the founding of Rome, Italy, 13th century AD. (The twins are a 15th-century addition.) The wolf is a common motif in the mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout its historical range. The Ancient Greeks associated wolves with Apollo, the god of light and order.[157] The Ancient Romans connected the wolf with their god of war and agriculture Mars,[158] and believed their city's founders, Romulus and Remus, were suckled by a she-wolf.[159] Norse mythology includes the feared giant wolf Fenrir,[160] and Geri and Freki, Odin's faithful pets.[161] In Chinese astronomy, the wolf represents Sirius and guards the heavenly gate. In China, the wolf was traditionally associated with greed and cruelty and wolf epithets were used to describe negative behaviours such as cruelty ("wolf's heart"), mistrust ("wolf's look") and lechery ("wolf-sex"). In both Hinduism and Buddhism, the wolf is ridden by gods of protection. In Vedic Hinduism, the wolf is a symbol of the night and the daytime quail must escape from its jaws. In Tantric Buddhism, wolves are depicted as inhabitants of graveyards and destroyers of corpses.[160] In the Pawnee creation myth, the wolf was the first animal brought to Earth. When humans killed it, they were punished with death, destruction and the loss of immortality.[162] For the Pawnee, Sirius is the "wolf star" and its disappearance and reappearance signified the wolf moving to and from the spirit world. Both Pawnee and Blackfoot call the Milky Way the "wolf trail".[163] The wolf is also an important crest symbol for clans of the Pacific Northwest like the Kwakwakaʼwakw.[160] The concept of people turning into wolves, and the inverse, has been present in many cultures. One Greek myth tells of Lycaon being transformed into a wolf by Zeus as punishment for his evil deeds.[164] The legend of the werewolf has been widespread in European folklore and involves people willingly turning into wolves to attack and kill others.[165] The Navajo have traditionally believed that witches would turn into wolves by donning wolf skins and would kill people and raid graveyards.[166] The Dena'ina believed wolves were once men and viewed them as brothers.[157] In fable and literature See also: List of fictional wolves Aesop featured wolves in several of his fables, playing on the concerns of Ancient Greece's settled, sheep-herding world. His most famous is the fable of "The Boy Who Cried Wolf", which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase "to cry wolf" is derived. Some of his other fables concentrate on maintaining the trust between shepherds and guard dogs in their vigilance against wolves, as well as anxieties over the close relationship between wolves and dogs. Although Aesop used wolves to warn, criticize and moralize about human behaviour, his portrayals added to the wolf's image as a deceitful and dangerous animal. The Bible uses an image of a wolf lying with a lamb in a utopian vision of the future. In the New Testament, Jesus is said to have used wolves as illustrations of the dangers his followers, whom he represents as sheep, would face should they follow him.[167] An illustration of Red Riding Hood meeting the wolf Little Red Riding Hood (1883), Gustave Doré Isengrim the wolf, a character first appearing in the 12th-century Latin poem Ysengrimus, is a major character in the Reynard Cycle, where he stands for the low nobility, whilst his adversary, Reynard the fox, represents the peasant hero. Isengrim is forever the victim of Reynard's wit and cruelty, often dying at the end of each story.[168] The tale of "Little Red Riding Hood", first written in 1697 by Charles Perrault, is considered to have further contributed to the wolf's negative reputation in the Western world. The Big Bad Wolf is portrayed as a villain capable of imitating human speech and disguising itself with human clothing. The character has been interpreted as an allegorical sexual predator.[169] Villainous wolf characters also appear in The Three Little Pigs and "The Wolf and the Seven Young Goats".[170] The hunting of wolves, and their attacks on humans and livestock, feature prominently in Russian literature, and are included in the works of Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov, Nikolay Nekrasov, Ivan Bunin, Leonid Pavlovich Sabaneyev, and others. Tolstoy's War and Peace and Chekhov's Peasants both feature scenes in which wolves are hunted with hounds and Borzois.[171] The musical Peter and the Wolf involves a wolf being captured for eating a duck, but is spared and sent to a zoo.[172] Wolves are among the central characters of Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book. His portrayal of wolves has been praised posthumously by wolf biologists for his depiction of them: rather than being villainous or gluttonous, as was common in wolf portrayals at the time of the book's publication, they are shown as living in amiable family groups and drawing on the experience of infirm but experienced elder pack members.[173] Farley Mowat's largely fictional 1963 memoir Never Cry Wolf is widely considered to be the most popular book on wolves, having been adapted into a Hollywood film and taught in several schools decades after its publication. Although credited with having changed popular perceptions on wolves by portraying them as loving, cooperative and noble, it has been criticized for its idealization of wolves and its factual inaccuracies.[174][175][176] Conflicts Human presence appears to stress wolves, as seen by increased cortisol levels in instances such as snowmobiling near their territory.[177] Predation on livestock Black and white photograph of a dead wolf with "The Allendale Wolf" written on the bottom A 1905 postcard of the Hexham wolf, an escaped wolf shot for killing livestock in England Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation. As well as causing economic losses, the threat of wolf predation causes great stress on livestock producers, and no foolproof solution of preventing such attacks short of exterminating wolves has been found.[178] Some nations help offset economic losses to wolves through compensation programs or state insurance.[179] Domesticated animals are easy prey for wolves, as they have been bred under constant human protection, and are thus unable to defend themselves very well.[180] Wolves typically resort to attacking livestock when wild prey is depleted.[181] In Eurasia, a large part of the diet of some wolf populations consists of livestock, while such incidents are rare in North America, where healthy populations of wild prey have been largely restored.[178] The majority of losses occur during the summer grazing period, untended livestock in remote pastures being the most vulnerable to wolf predation.[182] The most frequently targeted livestock species are sheep (Europe), domestic reindeer (northern Scandinavia), goats (India), horses (Mongolia), cattle and turkeys (North America).[178] The number of animals killed in single attacks varies according to species: most attacks on cattle and horses result in one death, while turkeys, sheep and domestic reindeer may be killed in surplus.[183] Wolves mainly attack livestock when the animals are grazing, though they occasionally break into fenced enclosures.[184] Competition with dogs A review of the studies on the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves.[185][186] Competition would favour the wolf, which is known to kill dogs; however, wolves usually live in pairs or in small packs in areas with high human persecution, giving them a disadvantage when facing large groups of dogs.[186][187] Wolves kill dogs on occasion, and some wolf populations rely on dogs as an important food source. In Croatia, wolves kill more dogs than sheep, and wolves in Russia appear to limit stray dog populations. Wolves may display unusually bold behaviour when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans. Wolf attacks on dogs may occur both in house yards and in forests. Wolf attacks on hunting dogs are considered a major problem in Scandinavia and Wisconsin.[178][188] The most frequently killed hunting breeds in Scandinavia are Harriers, older animals being most at risk, likely because they are less timid than younger animals, and react to the presence of wolves differently. Large hunting dogs such as Swedish Elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves.[188] Although the number of dogs killed each year by wolves is relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to prey on them. In many cultures, dogs are seen as family members, or at least working team members, and losing one can lead to strong emotional responses such as demanding more liberal hunting regulations.[186] Dogs that are employed to guard sheep help to mitigate human–wolf conflicts, and are often proposed as one of the non-lethal tools in the conservation of wolves.[186][189] Shepherd dogs are not particularly aggressive, but they can disrupt potential wolf predation by displaying what is to the wolf ambiguous behaviours, such as barking, social greeting, invitation to play or aggression. The historical use of shepherd dogs across Eurasia has been effective against wolf predation,[186][190] especially when confining sheep in the presence of several livestock guardian dogs.[186][191] Shepherd dogs are sometimes killed by wolves.[186] Attacks on humans Main articles: Wolf attack and List of wolf attacks Painting of a wolf snarling at three children Country children surprised by a wolf (1833) by François Grenier de Saint-Martin The fear of wolves has been pervasive in many societies, though humans are not part of the wolf's natural prey.[192] How wolves react to humans depends largely on their prior experience with people: wolves lacking any negative experience of humans, or which are food-conditioned, may show little fear of people.[193] Although wolves may react aggressively when provoked, such attacks are mostly limited to quick bites on extremities, and the attacks are not pressed.[192] Predatory attacks may be preceded by a long period of habituation, in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans. The victims are repeatedly bitten on the head and face, and are then dragged off and consumed unless the wolves are driven off. Such attacks typically occur only locally and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated. Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June–August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas (for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking) increase.[192] Cases of non-rabid wolf attacks in winter have been recorded in Belarus, Kirov and Irkutsk oblasts, Karelia and Ukraine. Also, wolves with pups experience greater food stresses during this period.[35] The majority of victims of predatory wolf attacks are children under the age of 18 and, in the rare cases where adults are killed, the victims are almost always women.[192] Indian wolves have a history of preying on children, a phenomenon called "child-lifting". They may be taken primarily in the spring and summer periods during the evening hours, and often within human settlements.[194] Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes. Incidents of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East and Central Asia. Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree. This, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals.[192] Bites from rabid wolves are 15 times more dangerous than those of rabid dogs.[195] Rabid wolves usually act alone, travelling large distances and often biting large numbers of people and domestic animals. Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally occur only on a single day. The victims are chosen at random, though most cases involve adult men. During the fifty years up to 2002, there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, and more than two hundred in southern Asia.[192] Human hunting of wolves Main articles: Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs See also: Human uses of hunted wolves Two men with guns behind nine carcasses of hunted wolves Carcasses of hunted wolves in Volgograd Oblast, Russia Theodore Roosevelt said wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill hunting dogs.[196] Historic methods included killing of spring-born litters in their dens, coursing with dogs (usually combinations of sighthounds, Bloodhounds and Fox Terriers), poisoning with strychnine, and trapping.[197][198] A popular method of wolf hunting in Russia involves trapping a pack within a small area by encircling it with fladry poles carrying a human scent. This method relies heavily on the wolf's fear of human scents, though it can lose its effectiveness when wolves become accustomed to the odor. Some hunters can lure wolves by imitating their calls. In Kazakhstan and Mongolia, wolves are traditionally hunted with eagles and falcons, though this practice is declining, as experienced falconers are becoming few in number. Shooting wolves from aircraft is highly effective, due to increased visibility and direct lines of fire.[198] Several types of dog, including the Borzoi and Kyrgyz Tajgan, have been specifically bred for wolf hunting.[186] As pets and working animals Main article: Wolves as pets and working animals Wolves and wolf-dog hybrids are sometimes kept as exotic pets. Although closely related to domestic dogs, wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, being generally less responsive to human commands and more likely to act aggressively. 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The International Wolf Center Staying Safe in Wolf Country, ADFG (January 2009) Watch Death of a Legend and Cry of the Wild by Bill Mason vte Extant gray wolf subspecies Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaOrder: CarnivoraFamily: CanidaeGenus: CanisSpecies: lupus Old World subspecies Tundra wolf (C. l. albus)Arabian wolf (C. l. arabs)Steppe wolf (C. l. campestris)Mongolian wolf (C. l. chanco)Himalayan wolf (C. l. chanco)Dingo (C. l. dingo)Domestic dog (C. l. familiaris or C. familiaris)Eurasian wolf (C. l. lupus)Indian wolf (C. l. pallipes) New World subspecies Arctic wolf (C. l. arctos)Mexican wolf (C. l. baileyi)British Columbian wolf (C. l. columbianus)Vancouver Coastal Sea wolf (C. l. crassodon)Hudson Bay wolf (C. l. hudsonicus)Northern Rocky Mountain wolf (C. l. irremotus)Labrador wolf (C. l. labradorius)Alexander Archipelago wolf (C. l. ligoni)Eastern wolf (C. l. lycaon)Mackenzie River wolf (C. l. mackenzii)Baffin Island wolf (C. l. manningi)Northwestern wolf (C. l. occidentalis)Greenland wolf (C. l. orion)Alaskan Interior wolf (C. l. pambasileus)Red wolf (C. l. rufus) (taxonomy disputed)Alaskan tundra wolf (C. l. tundrarum) vte Extant Carnivora species Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaInfraclass: EutheriaSuperorder: Laurasiatheria Suborder Feliformia Nandiniidae Nandinia African palm civet (N. binotata) Herpestidae (Mongooses) Atilax Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus) Bdeogale Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda)Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni)Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes) Crossarchus Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri)Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei)Common kusimanse (C. obscurus)Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus) Cynictis Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata) Dologale Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii) Helogale Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula)Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula) Herpestes Angolan slender mongoose (H. flavescens)Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon)Somalian slender mongoose (H. ochracea)Cape gray mongoose (H. pulverulenta)Common slender mongoose (H. sanguinea) Ichneumia White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda) Liberiictus Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni) Mungos Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus)Banded mongoose (M. mungo) Paracynictis Selous's mongoose (P. selousi) Rhynchogale Meller's mongoose (R. melleri) Suricata Meerkat (S. suricatta) Urva Small Indian mongoose (U. auropunctata)Short-tailed mongoose (U. brachyura)Indian grey mongoose (U. edwardsii)Indian brown mongoose (U. fusca)Javan mongoose (U. javanica)Collared mongoose (U. semitorquata)Ruddy mongoose (U. smithii)Crab-eating mongoose (U. urva)Stripe-necked mongoose (U. vitticolla) Xenogale Long-nosed mongoose (X. naso) Hyaenidae (Hyenas) Crocuta Spotted hyena (C. crocuta) Hyaena Striped hyena (H. hyaena) Parahyaena Brown hyena (P. brunnea) Proteles Aardwolf (P. cristata) Felidae Large family listed below Viverridae Large family listed below Eupleridae Small family listed below Family Felidae Felinae Acinonyx Cheetah (A. jubatus) Caracal African golden cat (C. aurata)Caracal (C. caracal) Catopuma Bay cat (C. badia)Asian golden cat (C. temminckii) Felis Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti)Domestic cat (F. catus)Jungle cat (F. chaus)African wildcat (F. lybica)Sand cat (F. margarita)Black-footed cat (F. nigripes)European wildcat (F. silvestris) Herpailurus Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi) Leopardus Pampas cat (L. colocola)Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)Kodkod (L. guigna)Southern tiger cat (L. guttulus)Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)Ocelot (L. pardalis)Oncilla (L. tigrinus)Margay (L. wiedii)Nariño cat (L. narinensis) Leptailurus Serval (L. serval) Lynx Canada lynx (L. canadensis)Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)Bobcat (L. rufus) Otocolobus Pallas's cat (O. manul) Pardofelis Marbled cat (P. marmorata) Prionailurus Leopard cat (P. bengalensis)Sunda leopard cat (P. javanensis)Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps)Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)Fishing cat (P. viverrinus) Puma Cougar (P. concolor) Pantherinae Panthera Lion (P. leo)Jaguar (P. onca)Leopard (P. pardus)Tiger (P. tigris)Snow leopard (P. uncia) Neofelis Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa) Prionodontidae Prionodon Banded linsang (P. linsang)Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor) Family Viverridae Paradoxurinae Arctictis Binturong (A. binturong) Arctogalidia Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata) Macrogalidia Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii) Paguma Masked palm civet (P. larvata) Paradoxurus Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)Brown palm civet (P. jerdoni)Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis) Hemigalinae Chrotogale Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni) Cynogale Otter civet (C. bennettii) Diplogale Hose's palm civet (D. hosei) Hemigalus Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus) Viverrinae Civettictis African civet (C. civetta) Viverra Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina)Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)Large Indian civet (V. zibetha) Viverricula Small Indian civet (V. indica) Genettinae Genetta (Genets) Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica)Angolan genet (G. angolensis)Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni)Crested servaline genet (G. cristata)Common genet (G. genetta)Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni)Letaba genet (G. letabae)Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata)Pardine genet (G. pardina)Aquatic genet (G. piscivora)King genet (G. poensis)Servaline genet (G. servalina)Hausa genet (G. thierryi)Cape genet (G. tigrina)Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)South African small-spotted genet (G. felina) Poiana Central African oyan (P. richardsonii)West African oyan (P. leightoni) Family Eupleridae Euplerinae Cryptoprocta Fossa (C. ferox) Eupleres Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii)Western falanouc (E. major) Fossa Malagasy civet (F. fossana) Galidiinae Galidia Ring-tailed vontsira (G. elegans) Galidictis Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata)Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri) Mungotictis Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata) Salanoia Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor)Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli) Suborder Caniformia (cont. below) Ursidae (Bears) Ailuropoda Giant panda (A. melanoleuca) Helarctos Sun bear (H. malayanus) Melursus Sloth bear (M. ursinus) Tremarctos Spectacled bear (T. ornatus) Ursus American black bear (U. americanus)Brown bear (U. arctos)Polar bear (U. maritimus)Asian black bear (U. thibetanus) Mephitidae (Skunks) Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks) Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga)Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii)American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus)Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus) Mephitis Hooded skunk (M. macroura)Striped skunk (M. mephitis) Mydaus Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis)Palawan stink badger (M. marchei) Spilogale (Spotted skunks) Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons)Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis)Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius)Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea) Procyonidae (Raccoons, coatis, olingos) Bassaricyon (Olingos) Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni)Northern olingo (B. gabbii)Western lowland olingo (B. medius)Olinguito (B. neblina) Bassariscus Ringtail (B. astutus)Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti) Nasua (Coatis inclusive) White-nosed coati (N. narica)South American coati (N. nasua) Nasuella (Coatis inclusive) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Potos Kinkajou (P. flavus) Procyon Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus)Raccoon (P. lotor)Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus) Ailuridae Ailurus Red panda (A. fulgens) Suborder Caniformia (cont. above) Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) (Pinniped inclusive) Arctocephalus South American fur seal (A. australis)Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri)Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis)Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella)Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii)Brown fur seal (A. pusillus)Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi)Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis) Callorhinus Northern fur seal (C. ursinus) Eumetopias Steller sea lion (E. jubatus) Neophoca Australian sea lion (N. cinerea) Otaria South American sea lion (O. flavescens) Phocarctos New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri) Zalophus California sea lion (Z. californianus)Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki) Odobenidae (Pinniped inclusive) Odobenus Walrus (O. rosmarus) Phocidae (Earless seals) (Pinniped inclusive) Cystophora Hooded seal (C. cristata) Erignathus Bearded seal (E. barbatus) Halichoerus Grey seal (H. grypus) Histriophoca Ribbon seal (H. fasciata) Hydrurga Leopard seal (H. leptonyx) Leptonychotes Weddell seal (L. weddellii) Lobodon Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus) Mirounga (Elephant seals) Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris)Southern elephant seal (M. leonina) Monachus Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus) Neomonachus Hawaiian monk seal (N. schauinslandi) Ommatophoca Ross seal (O. rossi) Pagophilus Harp seal (P. groenlandicus) Phoca Spotted seal (P. largha)Harbor seal (P. vitulina) Pusa Caspian seal (P. caspica)Ringed seal (P. hispida)Baikal seal (P. sibirica) Canidae Large family listed below Mustelidae Large family listed below Family Canidae (includes dogs) Atelocynus Short-eared dog (A. microtis) Canis Golden jackal (C. aureus)Domestic dog (C. familiaris)Coyote (C. latrans)African wolf (C. lupaster)Wolf (C. lupus)Eastern wolf (C. lycaon)Red wolf (C. rufus)Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis) Cerdocyon Crab-eating fox (C. thous) Chrysocyon Maned wolf (C. brachyurus) Cuon Dhole (C. alpinus) Lupulella Side-striped jackal (L. adustus)Black-backed jackal (L. mesomelas) Lycalopex Culpeo (L. culpaeus)Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes)South American gray fox (L. griseus)Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus)Sechuran fox (L. sechurae)Hoary fox (L. vetulus) Lycaon African wild dog (L. pictus) Nyctereutes Common raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)Japanese raccoon dog (N. viverrinus) Otocyon Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis) Speothos Bush dog (S. venaticus) Urocyon Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus)Island fox (U. littoralis) Vulpes (Foxes) Bengal fox (V. bengalensis)Blanford's fox (V. cana)Cape fox (V. chama)Corsac fox (V. corsac)Tibetan fox (V. ferrilata)Arctic fox (V. lagopus)Kit fox (V. macrotis)Pale fox (V. pallida)Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli)Swift fox (V. velox)Red fox (V. vulpes)Fennec fox (V. zerda) Family Mustelidae vte Mammal hybrids Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Bovidae Bovid hybrid American BreedBeefaloDwarf LuluDzoSheep–goat hybridYakaloŻubroń Camelidae CamaBukhtHuarizo Canidae Canid hybrid CoydogCoywolfDingo–dog hybridEastern coyoteJackal–dog hybridSulimov dogWolfdog Cetacea Clymene dolphinWholphinNarluga Elephantidae Elephant hybrid Equus Equid hybrid HinnyKungaLord Morton's mareMuleZebroid Felidae Felid hybrid Bengal catBlynxCaravalChausieKellas catPumapardSavannah catPanthera hybrid LeoponLigerLiligerCongolese spotted lionTigon Hominidae HumanzeeHybrid orangutanKoolakamba Macropodinae Macropod hybrids Sus Iron Age pig Mustela Polecat–ferret hybridPolecat–mink hybrid Ursus Ursid hybrid ABC Islands bearGrizzly–black bear hybridGrizzly–polar bear hybrid Taxon identifiers Wikidata: Q18498Wikispecies: Canis lupusADW: CanislupusARKive: canis-lupusBioLib: 1857BOLD: 12514CoL: QLXLECOS: 4488EoL: 328607EPPO: CANILUEUNIS: 1367Fauna Europaea: 305289Fauna Europaea (new): 3610bdd7-7432-4d43-9f6e-6684deb82987FEIS: caluFossilworks: 44860GBIF: 5219173GISD: 146iNaturalist: 42048IRMNG: 11407661ITIS: 180596IUCN: 3746MSW: 14000738NatureServe: 2.105212NBN: NBNSYS0000005184NCBI: 9612NZOR: 309809e8-1a21-45a0-80a0-1f13fee46c52Species+: 4442TSA: 3356ZooBank: 2F15C6CE-6C7A-4AF8-AE71-087151318E0E Authority control: National Edit this at Wikidata SpainFranceBnF dataGermanyIsraelUnited StatesCzech Republic Categories: IUCN Red List least concern speciesApex predatorsMammals of AsiaMammals of EuropeMammals of North AmericaExtant Middle Pleistocene first appearancesHolarctic faunaMammals described in 1758Pleistocene carnivoransScavengersTaxa named by Carl LinnaeusWolves List of fictional foxes Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "List of fictional foxes" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Reineke The following is the list of fictional foxes. Fictional foxes have appeared in various artforms and media throughout centuries. This is an alphabetical list by medium. Foxes in theater Basil Brush, a puppet. Bystrouška, a vixen from the opera The Cunning Little Vixen by Leoš Janáček (referred to as just "Vixen" in the English translation). Foulfellow the Fox, from Pinocchio (1940 Disney film). Sebastian, a gay fox director from Meet the Feebles. Zlatohřbítek, a fox in the opera The Cunning Little Vixen by Leoš Janáček (referred to as just "Fox" in the English translation). Foxes in comics Br'er Fox in the Disney comics featuring Br'er Rabbit. Bystrouška, a vixen from the comic strip Vixen Sharp-ears by the opera The Cunning Little Vixen by Rudolf Těsnohlídek and Stanislav Lolek, later adapted into an opera by Leoš Janáček as The Cunning Little Vixen [1] Fiona Fox, from Sonic the Hedgehog. Faux Pas. Freddy and Ferdie Fox.[2] Joris Goedbloed in Tom Poes and Panda by Marten Toonder.[3] Jujube in Gai-Luron by Marcel Gotlib.[4] Ozy and Millie. Renato, from Andrea Romoli's comic strip.[5] Seminole Sam in Pogo. Slylock Fox, a detective in Slylock Fox & Comics for Kids Tails, from Sonic the Hedgehog. McFox (Raposão), from Lionel's Kingdom/Monica's Gang Vlop, title character in a Dutch comic strip by Ronald Sinoo, which was published in the wildlife magazine Wapiti.[6] Foxes in animation Br'er Fox in Disney's Song of the South. Br'er Fox in Ralph Bakshi's Coonskin. Candle Fox from Kiff Diane Foxington / "The Crimson Paw" in The Bad Guys Fenneko from Aggretsuko. Fibber Fox in Yakky Doodle. Foulfellow the Fox, from Disney's Pinocchio. Fox, Vixen, Dreamer, Charmer, Friendly, Bold, Scarface, Lady Blue, Ranger, Plucky from The Animals of Farthing Wood. The Fox in The Fox and the Crow. Fox, in the Canadian children's series Franklin. Fox, from Skunk Fu! Foxy, an early Warner Brothers Animation character who looked almost exactly like Mickey Mouse. His girlfriend Roxy was also a fox and looked like Minnie Mouse. Freddy Fox, a character in Peppa Pig Fuchsia, a secretary who has more sense than her boss, Tyrannicaus, in Animalia (TV series). George the fox from Of Fox and Hounds. Kurama, a fox demon thief who is reborn as a human in Yu Yu Hakusho. Kurama, the nine tailed fox that is sealed inside Naruto Uzumaki from the series Naruto. The little fox, whose name is a "little fox" too. Urusei Yatsura. Mimi LaFloo, a vixen in Bucky O'Hare. Muggy-Doo. Nanao, a tiny kitsune from Ask Dr. Rin! Nick Wilde in Disney's Zootopia. Pablo the Little Red Fox. Pammee in YooHoo & Friends-related series. Parisa, Leah's pet purple fox in the Canadian-American animated series Shimmer and Shine Ponchi and Conchi see also List of fictional raccoons from Shaman King... Renamon and Kyubimon in Digimon. Rita, young vixen, in the Jungledyret Hugo series. Robin Hood and Maid Marian in Disney's Robin Hood. Roy Fox from Kiff Swifty and Jade from Arctic Dogs Swiper the Fox, a thief in Dora the Explorer. King Voracious, Attila, Evita, Todd, et al. in The Foxbusters. Tails, in Sonic the Hedgehog, Sonic X, and Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog series. Tod and Vixey from Disney's The Fox and the Hound (Tod is also in The Fox and the Hound 2). Kaiketsu Zorori. Mythological and folklore foxes Kitsune – fox spirits the strongest being a nine-tailed fox (Japanese mythology). Kudagitsune – in Japanese mythology. Kumiho – in Korean mythology. Kuzunoha in Japanese Mythology. Huli jing in Chinese Mythology. Tamamo-no-Mae in Japanese Mythology. Teumessian fox in Greek mythology. Youko fox demons in Japanese mythology. Foxes in several Greek fables, including: The Fox and the Grapes The Fox and the Crow The Fox and the Stork The Wild Boar and the Fox The Fox and the Sick Lion The Fox and the Mask The Fox and the Woodman The Fox and the Lion The Lion, the Bear and the Fox The Fox and the Weasel Foxes in literature See also: Category:Foxes in literature Br'er Fox from the Uncle Remus stories by Joel Chandler Harris. Fox, Vixen, Dreamer, Charmer, Friendly, Bold, Scarface, Lady Blue, Ranger, Plucky (and more) from The Animals of Farthing Wood. J.C., in the Catfish Bend series by Ben Lucien Burman. Mr. Tod from the book The Tale of Mr. Tod by Beatrix Potter. Reddy Fox, in the stories of Thornton Burgess. Reynard the Fox in the Reynard cycle. Scarlett Fox, from the magazine Ranger Rick. Foxes in film and television Bravo Fox, from Zoobilee Zoo. Br'er Fox in Disney's Song of the South. Br'er Fox in Ralph Bakshi's Coonskin. Fox, Vixen, Dreamer, Charmer, Friendly, Bold, Scarface, Lady Blue, Ranger, Plucky (and more) from The Animals of Farthing Wood. Mr. Fox in Fantastic Mr. Fox, based on Roald Dahl's eponymous children's book. Foulfellow the Fox from Disney's Pinocchio. Lowieke de Vos in De Fabeltjeskrant.[7] Nelson and Vince, from Mongrels. Nick Wilde in Disney's Zootopia. Parisa, Leah’s pet purple fox in Shimmer and Shine. Robin Hood and Maid Marian in Disney's Robin Hood. Rita, red fox, in the Jungledyret Hugo animated series. Shippo, a young fox demon in Inuyasha (Series) Tod from Disney's The Fox and the Hound and The Fox and the Hound 2. Vuk from Vuk, based on the eponymous novel by István Fekete. Foxes in music Mr Fox, a 1970s folk rock band. The Fox (What Does The Fox Say?), a song by Norwegian comedy duo Ylvis. The foxes in "I Know Places" by Taylor Swift Foxes in video games Benjamin, a sly male fox in Little Misfortune. Carmelita Fox, a female fox in Sly Cooper. Corrine in Tales of Symphonia. Crazy Redd, the Black Market salesman from the Animal Crossing games. Fox McCloud and Krystal in Star Fox series. Foxy the Pirate and Mangle from the Five Nights at Freddy's series. Foxy Roxy, a lycra-wearing vixen in Brutal: Paws of Fury. Greggory "Gregg" Lee, a main character in Night in the Woods. Kingsley, the head character in Kingsley's Adventure. Kitsune or (Fox) in Persona 4, who is part of the social links. Lucky, the main character of Super Lucky's Tale Ninetails, a major boss character from the game Ōkami. Its source of power is the Fox Rods, which contain nine Tube Foxes, one for each tail. During battle with Ninetails, the tails turn into women and must be defeated individually. This character's name is spelled differently than Ninetales. Pretztail in Viva Piñata. Pretztails is a fox piñata. Psycho Fox, the main character in a Sega Master System game of the same name. Reynardo, the player character of Stories: The Path of Destinies. Rif and his girlfriend in the computer game Inherit the Earth: Quest for the Orb. Snipe, a hybrid fox/paradise of bird in Crash of the Titans. Spy Fox, the title character of a computer game series by Humongous Entertainment Tails, in Sonic the Hedgehog. Titus the Fox: To Marrakech and Back, fox mascot in a platform game. Vulpix, Ninetales, Eevee, Fennekin, Braixen, Delphox, Nickit, Thievul, and Zorua and Zoroark in Pokémon. Although Vulpix, Ninetales and Zoroark are based on Kitsune. Ran Yakumo, a boss in Perfect Cherry Blossom. Bonnie Anne, a female NPC in Pirate101. Foxes as toys, mascots, and others Necky the Fox – The mascot of Famitsu magazine. Filbert Fox - The mascot of Leicester City Football club See also Category:Fictional foxes List of fictional animals References "Stanislav Lolek - Lambiek Comiclopedia". "Alfred Bestall". Lambiek.net. Retrieved 5 December 2020. "Marten Toonder - Lambiek Comiclopedia". "Marcel Gotlib - Lambiek Comiclopedia". "Andrea Romoli - Lambiek Comiclopedia". "Ronald Sinoo - Lambiek Comiclopedia". "De Bewoners". vte Lists of fictional life forms Plants Plants Animals ArthropodsFishParasitesWorms Amphibians Frogs and toads animation Reptiles CrocodiliansDinosaursSnakesTurtles Birds Birds of preyDucks animationPenguins Mammals Canines AnimationComicsLiteratureDogs prose and poetrycomicslive-action filmlive-action televisionanimationanimated filmanimated televisionvideo gamesFoxesWolves Felines AnimationComicsFilmLiteratureTelevisionBig cats animation Rodents AnimationComicsLiteratureVideo Games Non-human primates AnimationComicsFilmLiteratureTelevisionVideo games Ungulates AnimationHorsesLiteraturePachydermsPigs Miscellaneous BearsMarsupialsMusteloids animationBadgersRaccoonsPinnipedsRabbits and haresRhinogradentia Humanoids General ComicsFilmLiteratureTelevisionVideo games Specific AvianPiscine and AmphibianReptilian Other Alien species HumanoidsParasitesSymbionts Legendary By typeDragons popular culturefilm and televisiongamesliteraturemythology and folkloreEquines UnicornsWinged horsesWinged unicornsGhostsGiantsHybridsMermaidsVampires by regionDhampirsWerewolves Theological Fictional angelsFictional demonsFictional deities Categories: Lists of fictional animals by typeFictional foxes List of wolves Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is a list of famous individual wolves, pairs of wolves, or wolf packs. For a list of wolf subspecies, see Subspecies of Canis lupus. For a list of all species in the Canidae family, several of which are named "wolves", see list of canids. Individual wolves 302M (also known as "The Casanova") 926F (Spitfire) - daughter of O-Six Custer Wolf Hexham wolf Lobo the King of Currumpaw Old Gray Guy - Isle Royale immigrant who genetically rescued the inbred population of wolves of the Island OR-7 (also known as "Journey") [male] O-Six (also known as "The 06 Female" or 832F [her research ID]) Romeo Slavc Three Toes of Harding County Tiger of Sabrodt Wolf of Ansbach In folklore and mythology Amarok Asena Fenrir Garmr (different sources call Garmr either a wolf or a dog) Geri and Freki Hati Hróðvitnisson Lupa, the she-wolf that nursed Romulus and Remus Sköll Warg Werewolf Wepwawet Raiju Fictional wolves Main article: List of fictional wolves Akela Big Bad Wolf Bigby Wolf Gmork Maugrim Raksha White Fang See also Wolf (disambiguation) Wolves in fiction Werewolf fiction List of gray wolf populations by country Categories: Lists of dogsWolvesLists of individual animals List of fictional wolves Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article uses bare URLs, which are uninformative and vulnerable to link rot. Please consider converting them to full citations to ensure the article remains verifiable and maintains a consistent citation style. Several templates and tools are available to assist in formatting, such as Reflinks (documentation), reFill (documentation) and Citation bot (documentation). (August 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This is a list of wolves in fiction, including normal wolves and anthropomorphic wolf characters. For werewolf characters see List of werewolves. Literature Character Source Author Notes Aragh / Aargh The Dragon and the George Gordon R. Dickson A medieval English wolf Akela The Jungle Book Rudyard Kipling Wise leader of the wolf pack Baree Baree, Son of Kazan James Oliver Curwood Brokefang and Frostfur Wolf-Speaker Tamora Pierce Leaders of the wolf pack Brynach and Briavel The Chronicles of Prydain Lloyd Alexander Canim Codex Alera Jim Butcher A race of anthropomorphic wolves Direwolves A Song of Ice and Fire George R. R. Martin The sigil of House Stark, the Direwolves function as companions and protectors for the Stark children as well as objects of magic. Faolan Wolves of the Beyond Kathryn Lasky A cursed wolf that had been set out to die but reaches great success with other wolves by his side Fell Fell David Clement-Davies Greycub The Cry of the Wolf Melvin Burgess The last wolf in England, raised by humans, pursued by the Hunter Gmork The Neverending Story Michael Ende Servant of the power behind The Nothing tasked with killing Atreyu before he can save Fantastica. Huttser and Palla The Sight David Clement-Davies Kazan Kazan James Oliver Curwood Larka The Sight David Clement-Davies Marta Wolf: The Journey Home Asta Bowen The alpha female of the wolf pack. Maugrim The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe C.S. Lewis Chief of the White Witch's Secret Police. Nighteyes The Farseer Trilogy Robin Hobb Nitka Shasta of the Wolves Olaf Baker Runt Runt Marion Dane Bauer The runt of King and Silver's litter of four cubs and a black pup with a white star on his chest. Nicknamed Singer due to his howling. White Fang White Fang Jack London He is three-quarters wolf and one-quarter dog. He is born wild but is raised by Grey Beaver and leads a difficult life until he is adopted and trained to become a fighting dog. Wolf A Legend of Wolf Song George Stone The protagonist, Wolf, is "a solitary advocate of singing [howling] -- a practice considered by others of his species as perverted and to be punished... But Wolf, inspired by mystic visions of the 'Great Dire Wolf,' knows that singing is the pure release of the wolf soul. On his mission to save his kind from the destruction of spiritual freedom, he picks up an elderly friend, a mate, and ... sires a growing tribe of free singing wolves" by defeating a dictatorial wolf called Rufus.[1] (Nameless she-wolf) The Crossing Cormac McCarthy The first sojourn details a series of hunting expeditions conducted by Billy, his father and to a lesser extent, Billy's brother Boyd. They are attempting to locate and trap a pregnant female wolf which has been preying on cattle in the area of the family homestead. When Billy finally catches the animal, he harnesses her and, instead of killing her, determines to return it to the mountains of Mexico where he believes her original home is located. He develops a deep affection for and bond with the wolf, risking his life to save her on more than one occasion. Folk tale The Boy Who Cried Wolf The Goat and Her Three Kids Little Red Riding Hood The Three Little Pigs The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids Peter and the Wolf The Wolf and the Crane The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing The Wolf and the Lamb Film Character Source Notes Alpha wolf The Grey Timber wolf Benji the Hunted Wolf The Journey of Natty Gann George and Angeline Never Cry Wolf (1983) A biologist studying arctic fauna comes into close contact with a pack of wolves. Based on Farley Mowat's book. Kävik Kävik the Wolf Dog Lobo The Legend of Lobo Two Socks Dances with Wolves Friend of John J. Dunbar Wolf 300 Pitted against the adolescent Leonidas as he went through the wilderness in the Agoge Sebastian Zookeeper (film) An alpha wolf of Franklin Park Zoo. Comics and manga Character Source Notes Devil The Phantom A trained wolf Florence Ambrose Freefall.[2] A bio-engineered wolf Alberto Lupo Alberto A blue wolf who is a resident of the McKenzie farm. Alberto pursues his relationship with Martha, whilst being antagonised by the sheepdog Moses. Lufsig The Princess and the Happiness Legoshi Beastars The protagonist, a gray wolf, who falls in love with a rabbit. Lupo Fix und Foxi The major antagonist of the series.[3] Kiba, Tsume, Toboe, Blue, Hige and others Wolf's Rain The last wolves to live on the earth after humans have long since rendered earth inhabitable. Timber Wolf G.I. Joe A pet of Joe operative Snake Eyes Whisper the Wolf Sonic the Hedgehog (IDW Publishing) A lone, quiet, traumatized wolf who is a friend of her Wisps, one of Sonic's allies, and former member of the Diamond Cutters. Ranga That Time I Got Reincarnated as a Slime The leader of the Tempest Wolf Clan and the loyal subordinate of Rimuru Tempest Television Character Source Notes Direwolves Game of Thrones Animation Character Source Notes Balto Balto (film) The wolf-dog hybrid, the main protagonist of the film Balto. Captain Dark Pororo the Little Penguin Classified Penguins of Madagascar The team leader of the North Wind. Ding-a-Ling Wolf Huckleberry Hound Ding-A-Ling is the younger sidekick to Hokey Wolf who always accompanies him throughout each misadventure. He is usually eager to follow in Hokey's ambitious con-artist footsteps, but often reconsiders the plans Hokey will come up with in many situations. Gabu Arashi no Yoru ni A wolf and one of the main characters of the film; He befriends an unknown animal, named Mei, that he shelters with one stormy night, only to discover that he was a goat. His friendship causes him to resist pressure from his pack and his own urges to eat Mei. Grey Sheep and Wolves Grey is the main protagonist of Sheep and Wolves. He is husband of Bianca, the favorite wolf in his pack, and Ragear's arch-nemesis Hokey Wolf Huckleberry Hound Hokey Wolf is the smooth-talking title character throughout each cartoon. His main hobby in life was to outsmart and coax the clueless out of free meals or places to stay, much of which he seemed to do so with ease, despite possible consequences later on. Holo Spice and Wolf A Wolf Harvest Deity. Humphrey Alpha and Omega One of the main protagonists of the series. An omega wolf in Jasper National Park in Alberta, Canada, he falls in love with an Alpha wolf, Kate, in spite of pack laws forbidding it. Jimmy Crystal Sing 2 Antagonist for Sing 2, he is a rich media mogul, heading Crystal Entertainment in Redshore City, and father of Porsha Crystal. Very arrogant and short-tempered, his funding and allocation of his theater is nonetheless crucial for the musical that the troupe wants to put together. Kate Alpha and Omega One of the main protagonists of the series. She is an alpha wolf who falls in love with omega wolf Humphrey despite the rules of their pack preventing their mating. Kiba Wolf's Rain An Arctic wolf who is dedicated solely to finding the Paradise and the Lunar Flower for opening the way to it. Koga Inuyasha The young leader of the eastern yōkai-wolf tribe, aged fifteen, who was nearly wiped out by Kagura and Naraku. Linnux Rock Dog The alpha leader of sinister wolf gang, the CEO of Linnux industries, and club owner of the Fight Palace. Loopy De Loop Loopy De Loop A gentleman wolf who mangled the English language in his bid to converse in a bad French-Canadian accent. Though he was always kind and helpful, his exploits usually got him arrested, beaten up, or chased out of town by those he helped, all for no other reason than the prejudice of being a wolf.[4] The series, distributed to theatres by Columbia Pictures, ran in theaters from November 5, 1959 to June 17, 1965. Luka Kingdom Force Luka is the of Kingdom Force. He is one of the main characters. He is male wolf and flyer of the team. Pike Rimba Racer Porsha Crystal Sing 2 Spoiled daughter of media mogul, Jimmy Crystal. Talented in singing but not acting, she is accommodated into the musical to please Jimmy, creating headaches. McWolf/(Name Varied) Droopy An MGM Wolf appeared as a Hollywood swinger in Red Hot Riding Hood and a foe against Droopy. Moro Princess Mononoke The Goddess of Wolves. Mr. Wolf The Bad Guys A pickpocket gray wolf and the leader of the "Bad Guys" gang. Ralph Wolf Looney Tunes Co-stars with Sam Sheepdog. Almost identical in appearance to Wile E. Coyote. Riff Raff Underdog Gangster and one of Underdog's nemeses. Portrayed as a Rottweiler in the 2007 film. Scar Snout The Rugrats Movie Sajin Komamura Bleach An anthropomorphic wolf. Captain of the 7th Division Stinky, Claudette & Runt Alpha and Omega 2: A Howl-iday Adventure Kate and Humphrey's puppies. Uruno Damekko Dōbutsu A wolf who has the personality of a shy rabbit. Walter Wolf Animaniacs Slappy Squirrel's enemy. Wendy Wolf Peppa Pig One of Peppa's friends. Debuted in the episode "The New House". Wilford Wolf Animaniacs A nerdy wolf who turns into a hunk on a full moon night. He has a huge crush on Minerva Mink. Wolf Puss In Boots: The Last Wish An anthropomorphic wolf depicted as a bounty hunter intent on tracking down Puss In Boots and taking his life. The Wolf Well, Just You Wait! Comedic antagonist of the series. Attempts to capture the Hare in each episode, but always fails. Wolf Boss Kung Fu Panda 2 Shen's most loyal and trusted servant and the leader of the wolf pack. Wor Ringing Bell Called the "Wolf King" in the English dub Yatsufusa Hakkenden: Eight Dogs of the East Video games Canine Origin System(s) Notes Amaterasu Ōkami PS2 · Wii · PS3 · PSN Japanese Sun-goddess in the form of a white wolf, not given a specific gender in the North American version of the game.[5] Bill Grey Star Fox 64 N64 Trained at the Cornerian Flight Academy with Fox McCloud, elected commander of the Husky and Bulldog squadrons of Corneria. Blaidd Elden Ring PC, PS5, Xbox A warrior who is half man and half wolf. Blanca Shadow Hearts 2 PS2 A white wolf as one of the early party members and has a special Wolf Bout mini-game. Blizzard Wolfang Mega Man X6 PlayStation Robotic wolf. A boss character fought in a North Pole area. Bruce Animal Boxing Nintendo DS Male blue-furred wolf boxer.[6] Cami Animal Boxing Nintendo DS Female white wolf boxer.[7] Chibiterasu Ōkamiden Nintendo DS A white wolf, son of Amaterasu from Ōkami.[8] Diamond Dog (DD) "Metal Gear Solid: The Phantom Pain" Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Xbox One, PlayStation 4 Adopted wolf companion of Big Boss (Venom Snake). Has differing abilities dependent on the gear worn. Stealthy and deadly. Duga Shining Force EXA PlayStation 2 Blue-furred warrior of the Wolfling race who joins the player's party and fights with close combat weapons. Fenri Lunaedge Mega Man Zero 4 Game Boy Advance Robotic wolf antagonist and member of the Einherjar Eight Warriors.[9] Grey Animal Boxing Nintendo DS Male grey wolf boxer. Hutch Animal Boxing NDS · DSiWare Male white wolf boxer. Jon Talbain Darkstalkers Larc Legend of Mana PlayStation · PSN A dead wolf warrior resurrected to serve the underworld king Luceid Wild Arms PlayStation The Guardian of Desire; member of a group of spirit beings that embody a particular aspect of the world.[10] Mutt Lobodestroyo Mutt is the runt of the litter of the legendary Lobodestroyo's hero crew. When their home is ransacked and Lobodestroyo goes missing, Mutt take up his leader's mantle and set off to stop the troublemakers himself. Sabre Wulf Sabre Wulf GBA An evil wolf with a penchant for kleptomania, Sabre Wulf steals everything and anything in sight to add it to his hoard. Previously seen in the ZX Spectrum 1984 video game. Shikuru Samurai Shodown III Arcade, PlayStation, Saturn Companion of Nakoruru while in her "Bust" fighting style.[11] Becomes the partner of Rera in Samurai Shodown V.[12] Shiro Suikoden 2 PlayStation Kinnison's pet wolf who joins at the same time as him. Shirogane Ice Scream A humanoid arctic wolf, though he can assume a more anthropomorphic form. He has a very cowardly personality and is often mistreated by others.[13] Sierra Legend of Mana PlayStation · PSN Larc's sister, a wolf guardian serving one of the Dragons Sif, the Great Grey Wolf Dark Souls Nintendo Switch · PlayStation 3 · PlayStation 4 · Xbox 360 · Xbox One · Windows The former hunting companion of the legendary knight Artorias, who grew to a tremendous size and remained to guard his grave. Terra Legend of Legaia PlayStation Noa hers wolves think friends trouble Thane Armello Windows · Mac · Linux · iOS Warrior and chosen hero of the Wolf Clan.[14] Wolf Mega Man Star Force Nintendo DS Alien wolf made of electromagnetic particles. Can fuse with his master, a human named Damian Wolfe, to become "Wolf Woods".[Note 1][15] Wolfen Kya: Dark Lineage PlayStation 2 Vicious anthropomorphic wolf creatures known as Wolfen, various forms of Wolfen appear as the main enemy to the heroine Kya. They are the henchmen of the main villain Brazul and were transformed from another race by one of Brazul's machines. If Kya defeats a Wolfen, she can use a special magic to return them to their original forms. Wolf Link The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess GameCube, Wii Cursed transformation of Link Wolf O'Donnell Star Fox 64 N64 Leader of the Star Wolf team and rival to Fox McCloud Wolf villagers Animal Crossing GameCube Species type that includes several characters who may inhabit the player's town. Yugo Bloody Roar PlayStation, PlayStation 2 Zylo[Note 2] Shining Force Sega Genesis White-furred member of the Wolfling race who joins the player's party.[16] Music Ukrainian singer Ruslana's single Dance with the Wolves included a real wolf and an animated wolf and her puppies in the music videos. Animatronics Rolfe DeWolfe, a comedic wolf from The Rock-afire Explosion at Showbiz Pizza Place. He has a ventriloquist dummy named Earl Schmerle.[17] See also Werewolf fiction Wolfdog List of wolves References Anonymous (April 1, 1975). "A Legend of Wolf Song". Kirkus Reviews. ISBN 978-0-448-11879-6. http://freefall.purrsia.com/ "Rolf Kauka". "The Cartoon Scrapbook". Archived from the original on 2014-03-03. Retrieved 2013-04-10. Loopy De Loop Profile "Okami HD". Capcom. Retrieved April 20, 2014. "Animal Boxing Gammick Entertainment". Gammick Entertainment. Retrieved April 22, 2014. "Animal Boxing". Gammick Entertainment. Retrieved April 22, 2014. "CAPCOM:大神伝~小さき太陽~" (in Japanese). Capcom. Archived from the original on September 28, 2010. Retrieved April 20, 2014. "ROCKMAN ZERO 4" (in Japanese). Capcom. Archived from the original on April 23, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2014. "Boss • Wild Arms • Lost-Fantasy RPG" (in French). Lost-Fantasy RPG. Archived from the original on April 23, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014. "SERIES TITLES:SAMURAI SHODOWN OFFICIAL WEBSITE". Samurai Shodown Official. Retrieved April 21, 2014. "RERA:SAMURAI SHODOWN OFFICIAL". Samurai Shodown Official. Retrieved April 21, 2014. "アイス・スクリーム". Funamusea (in Japanese). Retrieved 2020-01-25. "Armello". Armello.com. Retrieved April 15, 2014. "CAPCOM:ROCKMAN 新シリーズ / 流星のロックマン" (in Japanese). Capcom. Archived from the original on February 28, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2014. "The Ultimate Shining Force Guide". The Ultimate Shining Force Guide. Retrieved April 21, 2014. "Showbiz Pizza.com Rolfe DeWolfe & Earl Schmerle". Condition: Used, Condition: In Good Condition for its age, Brand: Wolf, Animal Class: Fox, Manufacturer: Fox, Material: Metal, Item Type: Ornament/ Figurine, Mounted/ Unmounted: Unmounted, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom

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