Sican Lambayeque Gold Funerary Mask Circa 1000 - 1375 Ad

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Seller: yantoalexanderfineart (11) 0%, Location: Amersfoort, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 264465573302 A LIFE-SIZE SICAN LAMBAYEQUE GOLD FUNERARY MASK WITH HANING DANGLINGS UNDER THE NOSE, ANTHROPORMOTHIC FIGURES ON UPPER EARS, FLAT ROUND EAR ORNAMENTS SICAN LAMBAYEQUE CULTURE CIRCA 1000 TO 1375 A.D. CULTURE Sicán (Lambayeque) PERIOD Middle Sicán Period. Circa 750 - 1200 A.D. MEASUREMENTS Circa 16,0 cm height. Circa 26,0 cm width. Circa 1,5 cm depth. (nose) WEIGHT Circa 70,0 gram. MATERIAL Gold gilded. (Gold, silver and copper alloy) and red-brown cinnabar. Made of a thick plate or sheet of gold alloy, representation by repoussé technique. Particularly this type is made of an gold alloy from a mix of gold, copper and possible low percentage of silver. By close inspection by naked eye and with a 10x to 50x microscope, we see slightly brown oxidation on top of the gold gilded surface. Based on these observations can be strongly conclude and suggest that the core is made from a mix of gold, copper and possible low percentage of silver. Pre-Columbian gold artifacts are generally made by the gold gilded technique. The surface is gold gilded with an alloy of high percentage of gold, low percentage of silver and low copper. The core is an alloy of high percentage of copper with lower percentage of gold and mostly silver. The ancient Peruvian people were very skilled in metalwork. They used copper, silver and gold which were mined locally to make jewelry, vases, and to decorate objects and even sides of buildings. Often, the metalworkers combined several kinds of metal by heating furnaces to very hot temperatures (over 1000 degrees F.) and melting the different metals together. Then, they would hammer the metal to flatten it and they would heat it again. The process would be repeated several times and then special coatings made of soil and salt would be used on the mask which would result in a smooth and shiny gold surface. CONDITION The state of preservation is in original condition, slightly cleaned. Surface presents a beautiful red to brown patina, with traces of corrosion and hard sediment deposits, with minor traces of lost red cinnabar. PROVENANCE Private Collection of Mr. Michael J. Vaupel, Miami, Florida USA. Acquired in 2000 to 20 august 2013. Formerly in the Private Collection of Mr. Gloria Lisset Reyes Garcia, Miami, Florida USA. Acquired in the 1960`s - 1970`s to 2000. Ex. Private Florida Collection. Acquired circa 1960`s. Private South American Collection of Mr. Razeto. Acquired in the 1950`s to 1960`s. Acquired before 1950. DESCRIPTION A life-size Sicán Funerary Gold Mask dating back to 750-1375 A.D. With characteristic almond-shaped eyes, nose in high relief separated made an placed into the mask, narrow straight mouth. Mask embellished with dangles under the nose, with anthropomorphic figures on the upper part of the ears, with round flat ears ornaments. At the top of the mask, on either side, are (anthropomorphic figures) warriors with helmets. Below the helmets are the heads of pumas, and pumas are also found attached to the ear plugs. The helmet may suggest that the deceased person was a warrior or had noble status; the puma had attributes of divine or spiritual powers. Similarly, the use of gold suggests that the deceased was a member of the nobility. Gold was also a metal with a symbolic value, often being dedicated to the sun deity. The “form” of this mask is executed by pressed lines made by pressed repoussé technique. The chin and ears are decorated with round balls, made by pressed repoussé technique. Patterns were hammered into the mask with a stone tool in a process called "embossing." This mask appears to be made of gold metal. It is symmetrical. The mask is divided into three sections, a plain central part with facial features and two decorative parts on either side. There are a number of holes which appear to have held additional attachments or decorations. The surface is slightly scratched and one of the decorations appears to have been damaged. Patterns were hammered into the mask with a stone tool in a process called "embossing." On this mask, the mouth is a very straight line and the eyes are teardrop shapes, which is characteristic of the art of the Sicán people. The circular shapes at the bottom of either side of the mask are ear plugs and correspond to the large ear ornaments that were worn by the Sicán people. The holes in the mask may have been used to hold feathers or shells or even jewels. Originally, there would have been a three-dimensional gold nose which has probably fallen off over time. Many gold masks like this one have traces of paint on them. If you look closely at this one, you can see some traces of red that may have been its original paint color. This wonderful copper Sicán mask has belonged ones to a high priest or deceased ruler from the Sicán / Lambayeque culture in Norther Peru. Sicán masks meant to protect the deceased in the afterlife and was put into the grave on top or around the upper-part of the body. Members of the Sicán elite were buried with masks attached to their mummy bundles as a substitute for the face of the deceased. Additional masks, possibly worn by attendants in the afterlife, were placed within the tomb. Artificial arms and hands were laid around the body, positioned to look as though they held decorated gold beakers. The cups were stacked in columns and put in the four corners of burial chambers. As many as 200 cups have been found in one tomb. The ovoid eyes terminating in a point are characteristically Lambayeque in style, and may represent a being known as the Sicán Deity. According to Izumi Shimada and colleagues, an individual interred with such a mask would have been thought to take on aspects of the Sicán Deity’s power, and would have been transformed into venerated ancestors upon death. Clearly visible and so typical for the Sicán masks, are the hanging nose ornament with hanging dangles and with round dangles hanging on the ears. Masks made of hammered sheet metal have been found in tombs of both men and women in the Lambayeque region, near the modern city of Chiclayo. Such masks are lacking perforations or openings that would have allowed mortals to see or breathe, and were most likely used exclusively to cover the faces of deceased individuals of high status. In one tomb from Batán Grande, a major center of the Lambayeque culture (also known as Sicán), one mask was found over the face of a mummy, and four others were placed at the foot of the deceased. Although such masks may have only been worn by the dead, danglers attached to the mask would have conveyed a sense of movement, perhaps life, as the mummy bundle was processed to its final resting place deep within a monumental platform mound. Almost all danglers below the nose and on the right ear on this mask survive, although at one time many more were present at he left ear, as indicated by the pairs of perforations on the ears and ear ornaments. CATALOGUE NOTES Julie Jones notes that masks such as these were "once adorned the body of a deceased ruler on Peru's north coast. Powerful dynasties arose in this region between the eighth and the fourteenth centuries A.D. and amassed great riches in gold and silver before they were conquered by the Inca Empire in the late fifteenth century. The lords of these dynasties were the patrons of vast workshops where finely crafted ornaments and ceremonial vessels were created. At death, the lords were buried deep in monumental mud-brick platform mounds along with large numbers of objects of precious metal, shell, and cloth. In addition to beakers, disks, and other ornaments, the burials included large masks made of sheet gold. As many as five masks were placed into one burial: one attached to the head of the textile-wrapped body, and the other four stacked at the feet of the deceased." (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, WEB, 2015) Only King's and religious figures of high status wore such adornments. Pre-Colombian artisans excelled in metalwork; gold, silver and copper funerary masks plundered from ancient tombs give witness to their skill and taste. The quality is so high that the image could have been pressed in and hammered over leather molds. Moche was a powerful ancient state on the north coast of present-day Peru. This mask, made of hammered sheet gold alloy, once adorned the body of a deceased ruler on Peru’s north coast. Powerful dynasties arose in this region between the eighth and the fourteenth centuries A.D. and amassed great riches in gold and silver before they were conquered by the Inca Empire in the late fifteenth century. The lords of these dynasties were the patrons of vast workshops where finely crafted ornaments and ceremonial vessels were created (see 1991.419.62; 66.196.27). At death, the lords were buried deep in monumental mud-brick platform mounds along with large numbers of objects of precious metal, shell, and cloth. In addition to beakers, disks, and other ornaments, the burials included large masks made of sheet gold. As many as five masks were placed into one burial: one attached to the head of the textile-wrapped body, and the other four stacked at the feet of the deceased. This mask was made of an gold alloy, then hammered into a sheet and shaped into the form of a face. Further surface additions include 7 danglers under the mouth from the left to the right. Such spangles would have caught the light of the bright sun and conveyed a sense of movement and life as a mummy bundle was conveyed to its final resting place. Masks such as these, with their characteristic ovoid eyes terminating in a point, are associated with the Lambayeque culture, named for a region near the modern city of Chiclayo on Peru’s north coast. This polity, also known as Sicán, erected great monumental centers such as Batán Grande, Chornancap, and other sites. Recent excavations at Chornancap by Carlos Wester and his team have revealed that such masks were part of the burial regalia of high-status women as well as men. According to myths on the north coast, gold was particularly associated with male rulers, silver with noble women, and copper with commoners. A mask from Chornancap, found in the tomb of an importance priestess, was made of silver. The pointed ovoid eyes on this mask and others, sometimes referred to as winged eyes, have been identified as defining features of a being known as the Sicán Deity. According to Izumi Shimada and colleagues, an individual interred with such a mask would have been thought to take on aspects of the Sicán Deity’s power, and would have been transformed into a venerated ancestor upon death. Metalworking Repoussé or repoussage is a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal (such as gold leaf) is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side. Chasing is the opposite technique to repoussé, and the two are used in conjunction to create a finished piece. Whilst repoussé is used to work on the reverse of the metal to form a raised design on the front, chasing is used to refine the design on the front of the work by sinking the metal. The term chasing is derived from the noun "chase", which refers to a groove, furrow, channel or indentation. The adjective form is "chased work". The techniques of repoussé and chasing utilize the plasticity quality of metal, forming shapes by degrees. There is no loss of metal in the process, as it is stretched locally and the surface remains continuous. The process is relatively slow, but a maximum of form is achieved, with one continuous surface of sheet metal of essentially the same thickness. Direct contact of the tools used is usually visible in the result. IMPORTANT INFORMATION All Works of Art offered for sale are “Guaranteed to be Authentic as Described” correspond to the given; Title, Culture and Period. The given “Guarantee of Authenticity” is valid as long as you own the piece, up to the original purchaser only and will be not transferable to any third party. All sale transactions and online bids at our auctions are placed in person and are legally binding. All auction sales are final, no refund, no exchange, no cancellation possible. Normal 0 21 false false false NL X-NONE X-NONE Condition: The state of preservation is in original condition, slightly cleaned. Surface presents a beautiful red to brown patina, with traces of corrosion and hard sediment deposits, with minor traces of lost red cinnabar., Provenance: Ownership History Available, Material: Gold, Pre-Columbian: Sican Mask, Ancient: Sican Gold Silver Copper Mask, Sican Mask: Sican Moche Chimu Olmec Mezcala Teotihuacan

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