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Rare Antique Ancient Egyptian Queen Nefertari lotus Flower sistrum Ey1279-1213BC

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Seller: shaahmabd (57) 100%, Location: cairo, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 142611631757 You Are Bidding on Rare Antique Ancient Egyptian Stela Queen Nefertari while she is shown wearing her Royal Crown. While she holding in her left hand lotus flower and at her right hand she is holding Gods Hathor sistrum while of queen Nefertari you can see Eye of Horus. Since queen Nefertari was wife of Great pharaoh Ramses while lotus flower were very important for Ancient Egyptians since it always float over sacred Nile river since lotus flower always was found floating over river so they sacred these flower while she is shown holding God Hathor sistrum which was musical instrument which they used to shake with it. While down you can see Eye of Horus which was Protective Eye as it as it protect all who have it. Since it shows queen Nefertari while she is going to worship goddess Hathor which was god of joy dance music love while queen Nefertari is holding Hathor sistrum which makes with it music and shakes to make god Hathor Happy because God Hathor was God of Music so she was happy with any music it while it shows queen Nefertari is offering goddess Hathor Lotus fower which was very important at ancient egyptian since lotus fower was always shown floating on river so it was sacred flower . Infront of queen Nefertari you can see Eye of Horus which was protecting it always since these eye was pritective Eye. Since Queen Nefertari was great Royal wife for King Ramses also it was said that she was very beautiful also was highly Educated so king Ramses Take Her as his close advisor also she advised him to make peace treaty with his enemies since it was the first peace treaty at history since she was first to advise king Ramses to make peace treaty with Hattiti his enemies since she was married him before he bacame a king when he was commander at Army such also it is written by Hiroglyphic up Queen Nefertari offer Goddess Hathor Sacred flower such stela were during queen Nefertari life also was taken to her tomb after death Height:45 cmWidth:24 cm Queen Nefertari Nefertari, also known as Nefertari Meritmut, was an Egyptian queen and the first of theGreat Royal Wives (or principal wives) ofRamesses the Great. Nefertari means 'beautiful companion' and Meritmut means 'Beloved of [the goddess] Mut'. She is one of the best known Egyptian queens, next toCleopatra, Nefertiti and Hatshepsut. She was highly educated and able to both read and write hieroglyphs, a very rare skill at the time. She used these skills in her diplomatic work, corresponding with other prominent royalties of the time. Nefertari held many different titles, including: Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt), Sweet of Love (bnrt-mrwt), Lady of Grace (nbt-im3t), Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt), his beloved (hmt-niswt-wrt meryt.f), Lady of The Two Lands (nbt-t3wy), Lady of all Lands (hnwt-t3w-nbw), Wife of the Strong Bull (hmt-k3-nxt), god’s Wife (hmt-ntr), Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt (hnwt-Shm’w-mhw).Ramesses II also named her 'The one for whom the sun shin Nefertari married Ramesses II before he ascended the throne.Nefertari had at least four sons and two daughters. Amun-her-khepeshef, the eldest was Crown Prince and Commander of the Troops, and Pareherwenemef would later serve in Ramesses II’s army. Prince Meryatumwas elevated to the position of High Priest of Re in Heliopolis. Inscriptions mention he was a son of Nefertari. Prince Meryre is a fourth son .Meritamen andHenuttawy are two royal daughters. Nefertari first appears as the wife ofRamesses II in official scenes during the first year of Ramesses II. Nefertari is depicted behind her husband as he elevates Nebwenenef to the position of High Priests of Amun during a visit to Abydos. Nefertari also appears in a scene next to a year 1 stela. She is depicted shaking two sistra before Taweret, Thoth and Nut.Nefertari is an important presence in the scenes from Luxor and Karnak. In a scene from Luxor, Nefertari appears leading the royal children. Another scene shows Nefertari at the Festival of the Mast of Amun-Min-Kamephis. The king and the queen are said to worship in the temple and are shown overseeing the Erection of the Mast before Amen-Re attended by standard bearers. Nefertari’s speech during this ceremony is recorded:"Your beloved son, the Lord of Both Lands, Usermaatre Setepenre, has come to see you in your beautiful manifestation. He has erected for you the mast of the (pavilion)-framework. May you grant him eternity as King, and victory over those rebellious (against) His Majesty.Nefertari appears as Ramesses II’s consort on many statues in both Luxor and Karnak. In Western Thebes, Nefertari is mentioned on a statuary group from Deir el-BAhari, a stela and blocks from Deir el-Medina.The greatest honor was bestowed on Nefertari however in Abu Simbel. Nefertari is depicted in statue form at the great temple, but the small temple is dedicated to Nefertari and the goddess Hathor. The building project was started earlier in the reign of Ramesses II, Nefertari’s prominence at court is further supported by cuneiform tablets from theHittite city of Hattusas), containing Nefertari's correspondence with the king Hattusili III and his wife Puduhepa. She is mentioned in the letters as Naptera. Nefertari is known to have sent gifts to Puduhepa:The great Queen Naptera of the land of Egypt speaks thus: Speak to my sister Puduhepa, the Great Queen of the Hatti land. I, your sister, (also) be well!! May your country be well. Now, I have learned that you, my sister, have written to me asking after my health. ... You have written to me because of the good friendship and brotherly relationship between your brother, the king of Egypt, The Great and the Storm god will bring about peace, and he will make the brotherly relationship between the Egptian king, the Great King, and his brother, the Hatti King, the Great King, last for ever... See, I have sent you a gift, in order to greet you, my sister... for your neck (a necklace) of pure gold, composed of 12 bands and weighing 88 shekels, coloured linen maklalu-material, for one royal dress for the king... A total of 12 linen garments.Nefertari is shown at the inaugural festivities at Abu Simbel in year 24. Her daughterMeritamen is depicted taking part in place of her mother in some of the scenes. Nefertari may well have been in failing health at this point. Eye of Horus The Wadjet (or Ujat, meaning "Whole One") is a powerful symbol of protection inancient Egypt also known as the "Eye of Horus" and the "all seeing eye". The symbol was frequently used in jewellery made of gold, silver, lapis, wood, porcelain, and carnelian, to ensure the safety and health of the bearer and provide wisdom and prosperity. However, it was also known as the "Eye of Ra", a powerful destructive force linked with the fierce heat of the sun which was described as the "Daughter of Ra". The "eye" was personified as the goddess Wadjetand associated with a number of other gods and goddesses (notably Hathor, Bast, Sekhmet, Tefnut, Nekhbet and Mut). Horus was an ancient a sky god whose eyes were said to be the sun and the moon. However, he soon became strongly associated with the sun (and the sun god Ra as Ra-Horakhty ("Ra, who is Horus of the two horizons") while Thoth was associated with the moon. An ancient myth describes a battle between Horus and Set in which Horus´ right eye was torn out and Set lost his testicles! Thoth magically restored Horus' eye, at which point it was given the name "Wadjet" ("whole" or "healthy"). In this myth it is specifically stated that it is Horus´ left eye which has been torn out, so the myth relates to the waxing and waning of the moon during which the moon appears to have been torn out of the sky before being restored once every lunar month. There are a number of depictions of the restoration of the eye in Greco-Romantemples. Thoth is assisted by fourteen gods including the gods of the Ennead of Hermopolis or thirty male deities (in Ismant el-Kharab, the Dakhla Oasis). Each god represented one of the fifteen days leading up to the full moon, and to the waning moon. The restored eye became emblematic of the re-establishment of order from chaos, thus closely associating it with the idea of Ma´at. In one myth Horus made a gift of the eye to Osiris to help him rule the netherworld. Osiris ate the eye and was restored to life. As a result, it became a symbol of life and resurrection. Offerings are sometimes called "the Eye of Horus" because it was thought that the goods offered became divine when presented to a god.The Eye of Horus was believed to have healing and protective power, and it was used as a protective amulet. It was also used as a notation of measurement, particularly for measuring the ingredients in medicines and pigments. The symbol was divided into six parts, representing the shattering of Horus' eye into six pieces. Each piece was associated with one of the six senses and a specific fraction. More complex fractions were created by adding the symbols together. It is interesting to note that if the pieces are added together the total is 63/64 not 1. Some suggest that the remaining 1/64 represents the magic used byThoth to restore the eye, while others consider that the missing piece represented the fact that perfection was not possible. However, it is equally likely that they appreciated the simplicity of the system which allowed them to deal with common fractions quickly, after all they already had a symbol for the number "1" and they had other numerical notations available when they needed to use smaller fractions.According to later traditions, the right eye represented the sun and so is called the "Eye of Ra" while the left represented the moon and was known as the "eye of Horus" (although it was also associated with Thoth). However, in many cases it is not clear whether it is the left or right eye which is referred to. Others myths suggest that it is Horus' right eye which was torn out and that the myth refers to a solar eclipse in which the sun is momentarily blotted from the sky. The Lotus in Ancient EgyptThe fossilised remains of what may be the earliest known flowering plants were discovered in a slab of stone and date back at least 125 million years. The fossils reveal a species never seen before, and was named "Archaefructus sinensis" or "ancient fruit " This plant has been called "the mother of all flowering plants." It apparently thrived in clear, shallow pools and lakes, with its flowers and seeds extending above the waters surface. Based on its appearance and growing habits, scientists believe that the closest modern day relatives would be the waterlily and the lotus.Sacred Flower of the NileIn Egypt, two native species of lotus grew, the white lotus (Nymphaea lotus) and the blue lotus (Nymphaea caerulea). A third type, the pink lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) was introduced into Egypt from Persia during the Late period. All three species were depicted in Egyptian art, with the pink lotus featured more in work of the Greco-Roman period under the reign of the Ptolemies. The white lotus (Nymphaea lotus) and the blue lotus(Nymphaea caerulea) are not lotuses at all, but members of the water lily family. They will be referred to as ‘lotus’ in this article because that is what the ancient Egyptians called them. The sacred blue lotus (water lily) was the flower most commonly used in earlier times and the one depicted in the hieroglyph of the ancient Egyptian word for lotus,'Seshen'. The white lotus blooms during the evening, giving it strong lunar associations. The flowers of the blue lotus seemed to close at night and sink beneath the water, in the morning they seemed to rise once again, opening to the sun. According to botanists what actually happens is that the flowers of the blue lotus close at night. The new buds form under the water and blossoms that have reached the end of their cycle sink back beneath the water. The lotus was the only flowering plant in Egypt that bloomed continuously throughout the year. Because of this, the blue lotus became a natural solar symbol and was corresponded to the process of creation and the continuance of life.In Hermopolis, it was believed that a giant lotus blossom was the first expression of living form to emerge from the primordial waters of Nun. From this flower, in turn, the sun-god then came forth. Among the master works of art found in the tomb of Tutankhamun is a wooden carving of the head of the young king, represented as a boy of about nine or ten years of age. This expert sculpture depicts Tutankhamun as the Reborn Child, or Sun God rising from the petals of the sacred blue lotus, thus illustrating one of the most ancient of Egyptian texts. In describing the creation of the cosmos it says, “He who emerged from the lotus upon the High Mound, who illumines with his eyes, the Two Lands.”It is the god Nefertum, through his associations with the primeval lotus and healing, who most personifies the functions of the lotus flower in ancient Egyptian life. His name has been variously translated as Perfection, Beautiful Being, Tem the Younger, or Beautiful Beginning, denoting that he was the first incarnation of Tem or Atum at Heliopolis. He is generally shown with a large lotus blossom forming his crown or as a small child crouched on a lotus flower. He is particularly associated with the blue lotus. As the patron deity of healing he presided over the art of medicine. A headache remedy from ancient Egypt features a mixture of juniper, cumin, myrrh and lotus in moringa oil, then combined with laudanum, frankincense, juniper, kohl and red ochre added to ibex fat. In ancient medical texts lotus oil is listed as being ‘cooling’ rather than invigorating. It is used in one of the longest recipes of the Ebers Medical Papyrus, a list of thirty-seven ingredients to be combined and used as a massage lotion. It was also used to treat ailments of the liver. Lotus was a favorite ingredient in aromatic baths and used along with coriander to expel fever. The water for these baths was frequently first poured over statues of the goddess Hathor, who, like Nefertum also held the blue lotus as Her sacred flower. In the temples, scenes of the lotus being held to the nose of royalty by gods and goddesses are very common. It’s scent was considered restorative and protective thus giving Nefertum, the lotus god of healing, the title 'Protector of the Two Lands'.The Egyptians lived in a narrow strip of fertile land that bordered the Nile. Every plant that could be utilized in some way as food, eventually found it’s way to the Egyptian table. Flower heads of the lotus were soaked in wine to prepare a special intoxicating and fragrant drink for banquets and festivals. In ancient Egypt the root of the lotus could be eaten raw or cooked to the consistency of egg yolk. Its seeds were ground into flour for bread. Their herbalists used a concoction of the lotus to increase libido. Lotus seeds and pods were used as antidotes to love spells, and any part of the lotus carried upon the person ensured divine blessing and good fortune. “Celebrate a good day, place balsam and sweet scent at your nose, on your breast garlands of lotus and love apples...” ('Song of the Harpist' in the tomb of Neferhotep.)Homes were frequently graced with arrangements of flowers, including the favored lotus. Flower bowls were often shaped to accommodate the floating of cut lotus flowers. A wonderful example of this type of bowl was found in the tomb entrance of the vizier Rekhmire. A model of his lotus garden was found expressing his loving pride and the continuous delight it had given him in life. Models of private gardens have frequently been found in other tombs, such as those of Meketre, a chancellor of Mentuhotpe II, Ineni a builder who worked for Tuthmosis I and Nebamum, a scribe of the granary. Private gardens that consisted of a pool containing lotus and papyrus were common for royalty and the well to do. They were often bordered by mandrake, poppy and cornflowers, and called Gardens of Rebirth. This type of garden was very popular in the New Kingdom. Homes of more modest means would have a small garden in which was centered a fishpond decorated with a few lotus plants. “I belong to you like this plot of ground, that I planted with flowers and sweet-smelling herbs...” says a love poem of the Papyrus.The gods and goddesses of Egypt were said to naturally exude divine scent from their bodies. So it followed in daily life that by being fragrant an individual emulated their deities. Perfumes, cosmetics and lotions often contained oil extracted from lotus flowers. The ancient Egyptians were considered masters of the art of perfume making and the fame of their products were known throughout the Mediterranean area. They were encouraged by their poets to “put unguents and perfumes to your nose, and garlands and lotus flowers on the body of your love.” Perfumes were often stored in small limestone vessels shaped as lotus flowers. The hieroglyphic symbolism of the goddess Bast shows a commonly used type of sealed alabaster perfume jar, called "bas", so Her name could be translated as 'She of the Perfume Jar'. Perfume containers were sometimes carved in feline form, royal perfume jars have been found featuring lions. Nefertum, the lotus god was associated with perfumes and unguents and also had a leonine aspect. Hathor, goddess of love and beauty was said to have hair that was sweet and heavily aromatic. Priestesses of Isis were described as having “locks moist with perfume.” Ointments containing lotus, myrrh, cumin and juniper in moringa oil were used to keep hair and scalp in good condition. "Susinon", or "Oil of Lilies" was considered by many to be the Egyptian perfume par excellence. Lotus oil was said to restore a happy disposition when its fragrance was inhaled. It was used by Cleopatra VII to scent the sails and draperies of her royal barge. She was also reputed to bathe in a lotus bath every day. Lotus, cinnamon, and marjoram were among the most commonly used ‘top notes’ in perfume production. The art of perfumery in ancient Egypt consisted not only of massing together the proper costly and precious ingredients, but of knowing when to add these ingredients at precisely the right moment. The length of preparation time could be anywhere from ninety-three to three hundred and sixty-five days, depending on the type of perfume or scented oil being produced. The Ptolemies built perfume laboratories at the temples of Edfu and Dendera where the ritual oils, perfumes and incense were processed. During their dynasty, Alexandria became the perfume manufacturing and trading center of the world.As a symbol of re-birth, the lotus was closely related to the imagery of the funerary and Osirian cults. The Four Sons of Horus were frequently shown standing on a lotus in front of Osiris. The Book of the Dead contains spells for "transforming oneself into a lotus" and thus fulfilling the promise of resurrection. It was commonly found used as components of floral collars that adorned the deceased. Oil of the lotus is believed to be one of the Seven Sacred Oils commonly used in ancient Egypt. In the process of preparing the body of the deceased the use of these oils was thought “to unite the limbs, join the bones and assemble the flesh,” which along with the carefully prescribed application of certain resins and perfumes hid the body from the beginning effects of decay, thus, it was hoped, preventing its occurrence. The god Nefertum presided over this process as god of unguents and perfumes, giving him a mortuary aspect. In many tomb paintings the deceased is shown smelling lotus blossoms to help restore the senses. A final funerary prayer lists offerings made for the welfare and comfort of the soul of the deceased, “Take these lotus flowers and every bloom and every herb of sweet odor at its season, cool water and incense and every offering requirement in full, that you soul may be satisfied with them for ever and ever...”The lotus motif was commonly used in Egyptian art. The white lotus is distinguished by the more rounded shape of the flower and of the individual petals. The calyx leaves have distinct ribs and the leaf edges of the plant are scalloped. The blue lotus has narrower petals and a more pointed, nearly triangular shape. The calyx leaves of the blue lotus are spotted and the leaf is rounded with a smooth edge. The blue lotus motif was by far the most commonly used in connection with the goddess Hathor. Glazed bowls used for drinking wine were frequently decorated with Her image either as a beautiful woman with cow’s ears or in her cow form surrounded by lotus flowers. When the blue lotus is conventionalized for use in border motifs, heads of temple columns, and other objects, the spots of the calyx are not depicted. Both types of lotus are frequently the inspiration for jewelry, bowls, perfume vessels and many other objects of daily life. Cosmetic spoons and bronze mirrors frequently have a lotus motif. In Egyptian art the lotus was the symbol of Upper (southern) Egypt. It was often shown with its long stems intertwined with the stalks of the papyrus plant which were used as the symbol of Lower (northern) Egypt. This represented unification of these two lands and served as a testimony to the strength, intelligence and prowess of the current reigning Pharaoh, who was responsible for keeping the two lands joined as one.The lotus flower contains euphoric chemicals that produce an effect through dispersion of its fragrance. The essence of the lotus flower has been used since the time of ancient Egypt because of its particularly potent impact on our subtle bodies. It creates a link between the analytical and the higher, intuitive mind of an individual through it’s aphrodisiac and euphoric properties. This combination creates within the individual a longing for the higher spiritual kind of love and the seeking of pleasure that is found in union with the Divine. Modern day experiments using the blue lotus (water lily) have been conducted, the results described as "exciting and relaxing" at the same time. It is not surprising that the oil of the lotus was often used during temple rituals. It was employed in blessing, anointing, meditation and as a dedicatory oil to anoint the statues of the temple deities. As one of the commonest offerings made in the temples, the lotus represented spirituality and life force energy. As such it became intimately associated with imagery depicting life force within the etheric body. As a source of life the lotus is a symbol of the womb, the cradle of the inception and subsequent development of pre-natal physical life. In this context it also represents the inner sanctum of the temples and the shrine within our hearts where true compassion creates the first significant experience of enlightenment. This made it a favorite offering of the gods and goddesses of Egypt. Temple records show that Ramses III presented over three thousand lotus bouquets to the god Amun alone.The lotus is a universal esoteric symbol. Though it has appeared in many other spiritual traditions besides that of ancient Egypt, it is always associated with spiritual rebirth and healing. It is this universality that makes the lotus a fitting symbol to associate with Isis, Goddess of Ten Thousand Names, Whose worship spread throughout so many parts of the world.In Egyptian religious thought the lotus had associations with the etheric elements of water and of fire. The plant generated within water, but unfolded daily at the dawning of the sun. Water, the element of feelings, when developed fully, allows intuition, empathy and creativity to inspire a person to awareness of something greater than themselves. Healers, artists, musicians, mystics, poets, spiritual teachers, priestesses and priests have all learned to tap into their intuitive side. They have learned to reach beyond their normally utilized physical senses into the more etheric levels of consciousness. Fire is associated with energy and spirit. It is the vitality which provides the inspiration, the energy and mode of action to carry out the visions we gain from being sensitive to the currents of our intuition. The water of intuition provides the vehicle for expression but the fire of inspiration is needed to provide the spark of life. The ancient Egyptians knew this, and constantly celebrated the purity, healing and rebirth symbolized by the lotus in their daily life. So may it be with you. Hathor Sistrum Perhaps one of the main cult objects associated with Hathor was the sistrum, a musical rattle. Its name is derived from the Greek, seiein, meaning "to shake".The sound of the sistrum is metallic, produced by a number of metal disks or squares, strung onto a set of transverse bars, set horizontally into a frame of varying design. Its sound was thought to echo that of a stem of papyrus being shaken. However, the acoustic effects were frequently extremely limited. The sistrum was suitable for beating a rhythmical accompaniment in open-air processions. Apuleius, the Roman philosopher, described a procession in honor of Isis, in The Golden Ass, where the rhythmic pattern was three beats followed by a pause on the fourth. The sound of the instrument seems to have been regarded as protective and also symbolic of divine blessing and the concept of rebirth. In addition to the symbolic significance of its sound, the shape and decoration of the sistrum relate it to the divine.Two forms of this ceremonial instrument may be distinguished, the oldest of which is probably the naos sistrum (ancient Egyptian ss, ssst). While Hathor's head was often depicted on the handles of sistrum, an early travertine sistrum inscribed with the name of the 6th Dynasty ruler, Teti, takes the form of a papyrus topped by a naos, which is itself surmounted by a falcon and cobra, thus forming a rebus of the name Hathor (i.e. hwt Hor). Thus, the sistrum known as the naos sistrum dates back to at least the Old Kingdom. It was usually surmounted by twin heads of Hathor upon which a small shrine or naos-shaped box was set. A vulture may crown the naos, and the handle may be covered with the incised plumage of the bird. Rods were passed through the sides of this naos to form the rattle. Carved or affixed spirals framing the sides of the naos represented the horns of the cow-eared goddess. Note that this earliest form of sistrum was often made of faience. It is referred to as a hooped (or arched) sistrum, known in ancient Egypt as shm or ib. It is known from the 18th Dynastyonward, though it seems to be based on earlier prototypes for which we have the hieroglyphic designation but no depictions. This instrument consisting of a handle surmounted by a simple metal hoop. The handle could be either plain, in the shape of a papyrus stem, which was most common, or in the shape of a miniature column adorned with the head of the goddess Hathor. However, the god Bes might also be molded as part of the handle. Like the naos-style sistrum, metal rods set into this hoop supported small metal disks or squares which produced a characteristic tinkling sound when the instrument was shaken. Because of its basic form, this type of sistrum was often made in the shape of theankh or "life" sign and carried that hieroglyph's significance. These types of sistrums were most frequently made of bronze. In a funerary context, sistrum could sometimes be included in the tomb equipment, but were frequently non-functional, and made of wood, stone or faience.The symbolic value of the sistrum far exceeded its musical potential. It is thought that the instrument may have originated in the practice of shaking bundles of papyrus flowers (hence the onomatopoeic name sesheshet) with which Hathor was associated. In fact, the papyrus plant appears to be at the base of the mythology surrounding the sistrum. It is from a papyrus thicket that Hathor is seen to emerge, and it is also in a papyrus thicket where Isis raised her infant son, Horus. Hence, though originally mostly associated with Hathor, the sistrum eventually entered the cults of other deities and especially those of Amun and Isis. The decoration sometimes included the royal uraeus (cobra), referring to the myth of the solar Eye. In this myth, Hathor is in her role as the rebellious daughter of Re, to be appeased by music and dance. Based on this proven effect of the instrument, the sistrum was, from the New Kingdom on, the instrument that pacified and satisfied any deity, whether female such as Hathor, or male. In the Temple of Amun-Re atKarnak, a noas-shaped sistrum was a prime cult object, perhaps through its connections to Hathor, who sometimes represented the female procreative element needed to sustain Amun-Re's virility. In Late Period representations, the sistrum was held by priestesses adoring the deity face to face. This intimacy was a female prerogative. Other deities, too, benefited from the presence of the sistrum. As the sistrum reflected in such a visible manner the presence of the gods, it is no wonder that during the Amarna Period, it was virtually deprived of decoration, except for the papyrus handle. But it is significant that it was held by the queen or the princesses during the cult of Aten, the sun disk. The instrument belonged in the realm of cosmic deities. According to the ancient Greek historian Plutarch, the sistrum's arch was the lunar cycle, the bars were the elements, the twin Hathor heads rendered life and death and the cat, often included in the decoration, was the moon.Many of these instruments carry the names of royal persons. When the sistrum is depicted, it was often in the hands of royal family members. In the Story of Sinuhe, we learn that the princesses received him with music and song. The musical instruments were not refined wind or string instruments, but the sistrum. In the Westcar papyrus, when the goddesses dress up as itinerant musicians to gain access to the birth chamber of the mother of the children of Re, they too accompany themselves only with the sistrum.However, it is with Hathor, her son Ihy (sometimes represented by the king) and her attendants that the instrument is associated in most representational contexts. Apart from the exceptions mentioned, the sistrum appears to have been used only by the priestesses of the cults with which it was associated and its use, at least in certain circumstances, seems to have carried erotic or fertility connotations probably based on the mythological character of Hathor. The small gilt shrine of Tutankhamun has several scenes showing the use of the sistra in this context. On the inner side of the shrine's right-hand door, for example, Queen Ankhesenamun is depicted holding a hoop-type sistrum and wearing the cow horns and solar disk of the goddess. In another scene the queen holds a naos-type sistrum and proffers the menit necklace, a heavy necklace that when grasped by its inverted keyhole shaped counterpoise, would produce a variant rattling sound, frequently associated with the use of sistra. In more remote times, such as the religious feats celebrated in Thebes during the New Kingdom, we also find groups of women shaking sistrums in honor of the divine procession. These celebrations were for Amun-Re, such as the Opet festival depicted on the walls of the Luxor Temple or theValley Festival (Beautiful Feast of the Valley) rendered in countless Theban tombs. The world of the funerary cult is depicted in the Valley Festival, for the sistrum is seen presented to the tomb owner and his wife by their daughters. In fact, "bringing" and "receiving" were the key words, rather than making music or maintaining a beat, for the blessings that Hathor bestowed, of well-being and eternal life, were the focus of the ceremony. The scenes show the sistrum often carried by its look, looking similar to the ankh, the sign of life, of which it may be seen to be an equivalent.Closely connected with the sistrum playing is Ihy, the infant born of the union between the sky goddess Hathor ofDendera and the god of light Horus of Edfu. Through his music he performed the part of intermediary between the adorer and the goddess. The distinctive shape of the instrument is found in many contexts ranging from minor objects of mortuary significance to the columns of temples such as the Temple of Hathor atDendera. These columns are surmounted not only by images of the cow-eared goddess, but also, above these Hathor Heads, the form of a shrine or naos. Thus, in their shafts and capitals, such columns mirror the shape of the naos sistrum. A similar application of the motif is found in the shape of many of the small shrines which were offered to the gods by the devout.During the Greco-Roman Period, the use of the sistrum spread beyond the borders of Egypt with the cult of Isis wherever the Romans went. The use of the sistrum has survived in the Coptic church, were it is directed at the four cardinal points, to demonstrate the extent of God's creation. Goddess Hathor Goddess of the sky, dance, love, beauty, joy, motherhood, foreign lands, mining, music and fertility. Hathor is an Ancient Egyptian goddess who personified the principles of joy, feminine love, and motherhood.She was one of the most important and popular deities throughout the history of Ancient Egypt. Hathor was worshipped by royalty and common people alike. In tomb paintings, she is often depicted as "Mistress of the West," welcoming the dead into the next life. In other roles, she was a goddess of music, dance, foreign lands, andfertility. She was believed to assist women in childbirth. She was also believed to be the patron goddess of miners.The cult of Hathor predates the historic period, and the roots of devotion to her are therefore difficult to trace, though it may be a development of predynastic cults which venerated fertility, and nature in general, represented by cows.Hathor is commonly depicted as a cow goddess with horns in which is set a sun disk with Uraeus. Twin feathers are also sometimes shown in later periods as well as amenat necklace. Hathor may be the cow goddess who is depicted from an early date on the Narmer Palette and on a stone urn dating from the 1st dynasty that suggests a role as sky-goddess and a relationship to Horus who, as a sun god, is "housed" in her.The Ancient Egyptians viewed reality as multi-layered in which deities who merge for various reasons, while retaining divergent attributes and myths, were not seen as contradictory but complementary.In a complicated relationship Hathor is at times the mother, daughter and wife of Ra and, likeIsis, is at times described as the mother of Horus, and associated with Bast.The cult of Osiris promised eternal life to those deemed morally worthy. Originally the justified dead, male or female, became an Osiris but by early Roman times females became identified with Hathor and men with osiris. Hathor is ambiguously depicted until the fourth dynasty.As In the historical era Hathor is shown using the imagery of a cow deity. Artifacts from pre-dynastic times depict cow deities using the same symbolism as used later time for hathorA cow deity appears on the belt of the King on the Narmer Palette dated to the pre-dynastic era, and this is Hathor or, in another guise, . The evidence pointing to the deity being Hathor in particular is based on a passage from thePyramid texts which states that the King's apron comes from Hathor.A stone urn recovered from Hierakonpolis and dated to the first dynasty has on its rim the face of a cow deity with stars on its ears and horns that may relate to Hathor's role as a sky-goddess. Another artifact from the first dynasty shows a cow lying down on an ivory engraving with the inscription "Hathor in the Marshes" indicating her association with vegetation and the papyrus marsh in particular. From the Old Kingdom she was also called Lady of the Sycamore in her capacity as a tree deity. Hathor had a complex relationship with Ra. At times she is the eye of Ra and considered his daughter, but she is also considered Ra's mother. She absorbed this role from another cow goddess Mehet-Weret ("Great flood") who was the mother of Ra in a creation myth and carried him between her horns. As a mother she gave birth to Ra each morning on the eastern horizon and as wife she conceives through union with him each day.Hathor, along with the goddess Nut, was associated with the Milky Way during the third millennium B.C. when, during the fall and spring equinoxes, it aligned over and touched the earth where the sun rose and fell.] The four legs of the celestial cow represented Nut or Hathor could, in one account, be seen as the pillars on which the sky was supported with the stars on their bellies constituting the Milky Way on which the solar barque of Ra, representing the sun, sailed The Milky Way was seen as a waterway in the heavens, sailed upon by both the sun deity and the moon, leading the ancient Egyptiansto describe it as The Nile in the Sky.Hathor also was favoured as a protector in desert regions AsSerabit el-Khadim was where turquoise was mined, Hathor's titles included "Lady of Turquoise", "Mistress of Turquoise", and "Lady of Turquoise Country".[Hathor's identity as a cow perhaps depicted as such on the Narmer Palette, meant that she became identified with another ancient cow-goddess of fertility, Bat.The assimilation of Bat, who was associated with the sistrum, a musical instrument, brought with it an association with music. In this later form, Hathor's cult became centred in Dendera in Upper Egypt and it was led by priestesses and priests who also were dancers, singers and other dieties The Book of the Heavenly Cow states that while Ra was ruling the earth, humans began plotting against him. Ra sent Hathor, in the form of the warlike goddess Sekhmet, to destroy them. Hathor (as Sekhmet) became bloodthirsty and the slaughter was great because she could not be stopped. As the slaughter continued, Ra saw the chaos down below and decided to stop the blood-thirsty goddess. So he poured huge quantities of blood-coloured beer on the ground to trick Sekhmet. She drank so much of it—thinking it to be blood—that she became drunk and returned to her former gentle self as Hathor Paymet- We accept paypal shipment- takes from 14 days or 21 days after shipment may be less- we will ship after 5 days from payment-We ship world wide condition-As you can see in picture returns- we refund you money after you return the peice Condition: As shown At picture, Provenance: Luxor, Material: Stone

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