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Rare Antique Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Horemheb Book Dead God Osiris1319-1292BC

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Seller: shaahmabd (57) 100%, Location: cairo, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 142611625951 You Are Bidding on Rare Antique Ancient Egyptian Statue King Pharaoh Horemheb sitting As scribe scribed infront of him parts of Book of the Dead since you can see from front God Osiris while standing crowned since God Osiris was God of Judgement & was merciful God. Since Here king Horemheb is shown before he became King pharaoh since he is shown here when he was commander chief at the egyptian army as he is shown here when he was chief commander for the army after he came from the war from Asia after lot of battles and many Egyptian soldiers has been died their at battles so he is sitting as scribe with block scribed on it parts of the book of dead asking god osiris god of judgement day and merciful god Asking god osiris to forgive the egyptian soldiers and to be merciful with them and to take them to heaven also to free their spirit. Since Pharaoh Horemheb is shown here before he become king gor Egypt he is shown when he was commander chief for the Army after he came from Asia after lot of wars with enemies and many soldiers died so he has block infront of him sculptured on it part of book of dead praying for them and asking god osiris to forgive the soldiers and take them to heaven also to be merciful with them and take them to heaven. Such statues were made when Horemheb was commander cheif for Army Also was taken to his tomb after his death Height: 16 cmWidth:11 cm King Pharaoh HoremhebHoremheb was the last pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from either 1319 BC to late 1292 BC,(since he ruled for 14 years) although he was not related to the preceding royal family and is believed to have been of common birth. Before he became pharaoh, Horemheb was the commander in chief of the army under the reigns of Tutankhamun and Ay. After his accession to the throne, he reformed the Egyptian state and it was under his reign that official action against the preceding Amarnarulers began. Due to this, he is considered the man who restabilized his country after the troublesome and divisive Amarna Period. Horemheb demolished monuments ofAkhenaten, reusing their remains in his own building projects, and usurped monuments of Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb is believed to have originated fromHerakleopolis Magna or ancient Hnes (modern Ihnasya el-Medina) on the west bank of the Nile near the entrance to the Fayumsince his coronation text formally credits the God Horus of Hnes for establishing him on the throne the earliest known stage of his life, Horemheb served as "the royal spokesman for [Egypt's] foreign affairs" and personally led a diplomatic mission to visit the Nubian governors. This resulted in a reciprocal visit by "the Prince of Miam (Aniba)" to Tutankhamun's court, "Horemheb quickly rose to prominence underTutankhamun, becoming commander-in-chief of the army and advisor to the pharaoh. Horemheb's specific titles are spelled out in his Saqqara tomb, which was built while he was still only an official: "Hereditary Prince,Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King, and Chief Commander of the Army"; the "attendant of the King in his footsteps in the foreign countries of the south and the north"; the "King's Messenger in front of his army to the foreign countries to the south and the north"; and the "Sole Companion, he who is by the feet of his lord on the battlefield on that day of killing Asiatics." The aged Vizier Ay sidelined Horemheb's claim to the throne and instead succeeded Tutankhamun, probably because Horemheb was in Asia with the army at the time of Tutankhamun's death. Tutankhamun's queen,Ankhesenamun, refused to marry Horemheb, a commoner, and so make him king of Egypt.Having pushed Horemheb's claims aside, Ay proceeded to nominate the aforementioned Nakhtmin, who was possibly Ay's son or adopted son, to succeed him rather than Horemheb. After Ay's reign, which lasted for a little over four years, Horemheb managed to seize power, presumably thanks to his position as commander of the army, and to assume what he must have perceived to be his just reward for having ably served Egypt under Tutankhamun and Ay. Upon his accession, Horemheb initiated a comprehensive series of internal transformations to the power structures ofAkhenaten's reign, due to the preceding transfer of state power from Amun's priests to Akhenaten's government officials. Horemheb "appointed judges and regional tribunes ... reintroduced local religious authorities" and divided legal power "betweenUpper Egypt and Lower Egypt" between "theViziers of Thebes and Memphisrespectively. Horemheb also reformed the Army and reorganized the Deir el-Medinah workforce . Under Horemheb, Egypt's power and confidence were once again restored after the internal chaos of the Amarna ; this situation set the stage for the rise of the 19th Dynasty under such ambitious Pharaohs asSeti I and Ramesses II. Ancient Egyptian scribeThe most important was a person educated in the arts of writing (using both hieroglyphicsand hieratic scripts, and from the second half of the first millennium BCE the demotic script, used as shorthand and for commerce) and arithmetics.Sons of scribes were brought up in the same scribal tradition, sent to school and, upon entering the civil service, inherited their fathers' positions. Much of what is known about ancient Egypt is due to the activities of its scribes and the officials. Monumental buildings were erected under their supervision,administrative and economic activities were documented by them, and tales from the mouths of Egypt's lower classes or from foreign lands survive thanks to scribes putting them in writing. Much of what is known about ancient Egypt is due to the activities of its scribes and the officials. Monumental buildings were erected under their supervision,administrative and economic activities were documented by them, and tales from the mouths of Egypt's lower classes or from foreign lands survive thanks to scribes putting them in writing.Scribes were also considered part of the royal court, were not conscripted and did not have to pay taxes. The scribal profession had companion professions, the painters and artisans who decorated reliefs and other relics with scenes, personages, or hieroglyphic text. A scribe was exempt from the heavy manual labor required of the lower classes, or corvee labor.from the category of: 'writings, & music'. The hieroglyph contains the scribe's ink-mixing palette, a vertical case to hold writing-reeds, and a leather pouch to hold the black and red ink blocks. Thoth was a god associated by the Ancient Egyptians with the invention of writing, being the scribe of the gods, and holding knowledge of scientific and moral laws. Besides the scribal profession for accountancy and governmental politicking, the scribal professions immediately branched out into the socio-cultural areas of literature. The first stories probably related to societal religious stories, and gods, but literature genres were starting God Osiris Osiris was an Ancient Egyptian god, usually identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and the dead, but more appropriately as the god of transition, resurrection, and regeneration. He was classically depicted as a green skinned man with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at his back, wearing a distinctive crown , and holding a symbolic crook and flail. Osiris was at times considered the oldest son of the earth god Geb, though other sources state his father is the sun-god Ra, and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis, with Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son. He was also associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, meaning "Foremost of the Westerners", a reference to his kingship in the land of the dead. As ruler of the dead, Osiris was also sometimes called "king of the living": ancient Egyptians considered the blessed dead "the living ones". Osiris was considered not only a merciful judge of the dead in the afterlife, but also theunderworld agency that granted all life, including sprouting vegetation and the fertile flooding of the Nile River. He was described as the "Lord of love",He Who is Permanently Benign and Youthful" and the"Lord of Silence".The Kings of Egypt were associated with Osiris in death – as Osiris rose from the dead they would, in union with him, inherit eternal life through a process of imitative magic. By the New Kingdom all people, not just pharaohs, were believed to be associated with Osiris at death, if they incurred the costs of the assimilation rituals. Through the hope of new life after death, Osiris began to be associated with the cycles observed in nature, in particular vegetation and the annual flooding of the Nile, through his links with the heliacal rising of Orion andSirius at the start of the new year. Osiris was widely worshipped as Lord of the Dead until the suppression of the Egyptian religionduring the rise of Christianity in the Roman Ancient Egyptians believed that death was in fact transition. They believed that the ka, or life-force, left the body at the point of death and even their practices of preserving the body further indicated their understanding of the continuance of life. Hence, Osiris is known as the God of Transition and also commonly well known as the God of Resurrection and Regeneration Book of dead Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of theNew Kingdom (around 1550 BCE) to around 50 BCE. The original Egyptian name for the text, transliterated rw nw prt m hrw is translated as Book of Coming Forth by Day.Another translation would be Book of Emerging Forth into the Light. "Book" is the closest term to describe the loose collection of textsconsisting of a number of magic spells intended to assist a dead person's journey through the Duat, or underworld, and into the afterlife and written by many priests over a period of about 1000 years.The original Egyptian name for the text, transliterated rw nw prt m hrw,] is translated as Book of Coming Forth by Day.Another translation would be Book of Emerging Forth into the Light. "Book" is the closest term to describe the loose collection of texts consisting of a number of magic spells intended to assist a dead person's journey through the Duat, or underworld, and into the afterlife and written by many priests over a period of about 1000 years.The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlierPyramid Texts and Coffin Texts, which were painted onto objects, not papyrus. Some of the spells included were drawn from these older works and date to the 3rd millennium BCE. Other spells were composed later in Egyptian history, dating to the Third Intermediate Period (11th to 7th centuries BCE). A number of the spells which made up the Book continued to be inscribed on tomb walls and sarcophagi, as had always been the spells from which they originated. The Book of the Dead was placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased.There was no single or canonical Book of the Dead. The surviving papyri contain a varying selection of religious and magical texts and vary considerably in their illustration. Some people seem to have commissioned their own copies of the Book of the Dead, perhaps choosing the spells they thought most vital in their own progression to the afterlife. TheBook of the Dead was most commonly written in hieroglyphic or hieratic script on a papyrusscroll, and often illustrated with vignettesdepicting the deceased and their journey into the afterlife. The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations. Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean mouth, speech, a chapter of a book, spell, utterance, or incantation. This ambiguity reflects the similarity in Egyptian thought between ritual speech and magical power. In the context of the Book of the Dead, it is typically translated as either "chapter" or "spell". In this article, the word "spell" is used.At present, some 192 spells are known,[]though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: for instance, Spell 17, is an obscure and lengthy description of the god Atum.Others are incantations to ensure the different elements of the dead person's being were preserved and reunited, and to give the deceased control over the world around him. Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces, or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles. Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in theWeighing of the Heart ritual.Such spells as 26-30, and sometimes spells 6 and 126 relate to the heart, and were inscribed on scarabs.The texts and images of the Book of the Deadwere magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.[] Indeed, there was little distinction for the Ancient Egyptians between magical and religious practice.The concept of magic (heka) was also intimately linked with the spoken and written word. The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation;there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.] The magical power of words extended to the written word. Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth, and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful. Written words conveyed the full force of a spell.This was even true when the text was abbreviated or omitted, as often occurred in later Book of the Dead scrolls, particularly if the accompanying images were present.The Egyptians also believed that knowing the name of something gave power over it; thus, the Book of the Dead equips its owner with the mystical names of many of the entities he would encounter in the afterlife, giving him power over them.The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life. A number of spells are for magical amulets, which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.Everyday magic made use of amulets in huge numbers. Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value.A number of spells also refer to Egyptian beliefs about the magical healing power of such book Paymet- We accept paypal shipment- takes from 14 days or 21 days after shipment may be less- we will ship after 5 days from payment-We ship world wide condition-As you can see in picture returns- we refund you money after you return the peice Condition: As shown At picture, Provenance: Luxor, Material: Stone

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