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RHODES Island Off Caria 31BC Huge 37mm Dionysus Nike Ancient Greek Coin i53601

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Seller: highrating_lowprice (18,820) 100% Top-Rated Plus, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 321990282029 Item: i53601 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Greek city of Rhodes an Island off Caria Bronze Drachm 37mm (22.46 grams) Struck circa 31 B.C. - 60 A.D. Antigonos, magistrate Reference: Ashton, Early 116; RPC I 2758; BMC –; SNG Copenhagen 881 Head of Dionysus left, wearing ivy wreath. ΕΠΙ ANTIΓΟΝΟΥ ΡΟΔΙΩΝ, Nike right, holding wreath and aphlaston. The large and important island of Rhodos, off the south-west coast of Asia Minor, produced a considerable coinage in the archaic period from its three major cities, Ialysos, Kamiros and Lindos. After the Persian wars no further coinage was issued on the island until the foundation of the new federal capital circa 408 B.C. This splendid city, situated on the northern promontory only 12 miles from the mainland, was given the same name as the island. It quickly achieved great prosperity and eventually became one of the principal trading centers of the ancient world. In the third century Rhodos exercised much political influence in the eastern Mediterranean, through the strength of its fleet. But in 167 B.C. the Romans declared Delos a free port, and the Rhodians, their prosperity now greatly diminished, sank into comparative obscurity. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. Dionysus is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in Greek mythology . Alcohol, especially wine, played an important role in Greek culture with Dionysus being an important reason for this life style. His name, thought to be a theonym in Linear B tablets as di-wo-nu-so (KH Gq 5 inscription), shows that he may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks ; other traces of the Dionysian-type cult have been found in ancient Minoan Crete . His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms; some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, others as Greek. In some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner; in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a god of epiphany , "the god that comes", and his "foreignness" as an arriving outsider-god may be inherent and essential to his cults. He is a major, popular figure of Greek mythology and religion , and is included in some lists of the twelve Olympians . Dionysus was the last god to be accepted into Mt. Olympus. He was the youngest and the only one to have a mortal mother. His festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre . Modern scholarship categorises him as a dying-and-rising god . The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a mature male, bearded and robed. He holds a fennel staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus . Later images show him as a beardless, sensuous, naked or half-naked androgynous youth: the literature describes him as womanly or "man-womanish". In its fully developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized. His procession (thiasus) is made up of wild female followers (maenads) and bearded satyrs with erect penises . Some are armed with the thyrsus, some dance or play music. The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers, and is sometimes attended by a bearded, drunken Silenus . This procession is presumed to be the cult model for the human followers of his Dionysian Mysteries . In his Thracian mysteries, he wears the bassaris or fox -skin, symbolizing a new life. Dionysus is represented by city religions as the protector of those who do not belong to conventional society and thus symbolizes everything which is chaotic, dangerous and unexpected, everything which escapes human reason and which can only be attributed to the unforeseeable action of the gods. Also known as Bacchus, the name adopted by the Romans and the frenzy he induces, bakkheia. His thyrsus is sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey. It is a beneficent wand but also a weapon, and can be used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. He is also called Eleutherios ("the liberator"), whose wine, music and ecstatic dance frees his followers from self-conscious fear and care, and subverts the oppressive restraints of the powerful. Those who partake of his mysteries are possessed and empowered by the god himself. His cult is also a "cult of the souls"; his maenads feed the dead through blood-offerings, and he acts as a divine communicant between the living and the dead. In Greek mythology, he is presented as a son of Zeus and the mortal Semele , thus semi-divine or heroic: and as son of Zeus and Persephone or Demeter , thus both fully divine, part-chthonic and possibly identical with Iacchus of the Eleusinian Mysteries . Some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity and a more powerful god from Thrace or Phrygia such as Sabazios or Zalmoxis . In Greek mythology , Nike was a goddess who personified victory , also known as the Winged Goddess of Victory. The Roman equivalent was Victoria . Depending upon the time of various myths, she was described as the daughter of Pallas (Titan) and Styx (Water) and the sister of Kratos (Strength), Bia (Force), and Zelus (Zeal). Nike and her siblings were close companions of Zeus , the dominant deity of the Greek pantheon . According to classical (later) myth, Styx brought them to Zeus when the god was assembling allies for the Titan War against the older deities. Nike assumed the role of the divine charioteer , a role in which she often is portrayed in Classical Greek art. Nike flew around battlefields rewarding the victors with glory and fame. Nike is seen with wings in most statues and paintings. Most other winged deities in the Greek pantheon had shed their wings by Classical times. Nike is the goddess of strength, speed, and victory. Nike was a very close acquaintance of Athena , and is thought to have stood in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of Athena located in the Parthenon. Nike is one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek coins. Names stemming from Nike include amongst others: Nicholas , Nicola, Nick, Nikolai, Nils, Klaas, Nicole, Ike, Niki, Nikita, Nika, Niketas, and Nico. Rhodes is a Greek island approximately 18 kilometres (11 mi) southwest of Turkey in eastern Aegean Sea . It is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of both land area and population, with a population of 117,007 of which 53,709 resided in the homonymous capital city of the island. Historically, Rhodes was famous worldwide for the Colossus of Rhodes , one of the Seven Wonders of the World . The medieval Old Town of the City of Rhodes has been declared a World Heritage Site . Today Rhodes is a tourist destination. // Geography The island of Rhodes is shaped like a spearhead , 79.7 km (49.5 mi) long and 38 km (24 mi) wide, with a total area of approximately 1,400 square kilometres (541 sq mi) and a coastline of approximately 220 km (137 mi). The city of Rhodes is located at the northern tip of the island, as well as the site of the ancient and modern commercial harbours . The main air gateway (Diagoras International Airport, IATA code: RHO) is located 14 km (9 mi) to the southwest of the city in Paradisi . The road network radiates from the city along the east and west coasts. In terms of flora and fauna , Rhodes is closer to Asia Minor than to the rest of Greece. The interior of the island is mountainous, sparsely inhabited and covered with forests of pine (Pinus brutia) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens). The island is home to the Rhodian deer. In Petaludes Valley (Greek for "Valley of the Butterflies"), large numbers of tiger moths gather during the summer months. Mount Attavyros, at 1,216 metres (3,990 ft), is the island's highest point of elevation. While the shores are rocky, the island has arable strips of land where citrus fruit, wine grapes, vegetables, olives and other crops are grown. Outside of the city of Rhodes, the island is dotted with small villages and beach resorts, among them Faliraki , Lindos , Kremasti , Haraki , Pefkos , Archangelos , Afantou , Koskinou , Embona (Attavyros), Paradisi , and Trianta (Ialysos). Tourism is the island's primary source of income. Earthquakes Rhodes has experienced severe earthquakes . Notable are the 226 BC earthquake that destroyed the Colossus of Rhodes ; the one on 3 May 1481 which destroyed much of the city of Rhodes; and the one on 26 June 1926. 15 July 2008, Rhodes was struck by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake causing minor damage to a few old buildings. One woman lost her life when she fell down stairs while trying to flee her home. History Ancient times The island was inhabited in the Neolithic period, although little remains of this culture. In the 16th century BC the Minoans came to Rhodes. Later Greek mythology recalled a Rhodian race called the Telchines , and associated the island of Rhodes with Danaus ; it was sometimes nicknamed Telchinis. In the 15th century BC, Mycenaean Greeks invaded. After the Bronze Age collapse the first renewed outside contacts are with Cyprus . In the 8th century BC the island's settlements started to form, with the coming of the Dorians , who built the three important cities of Lindos, Ialyssos and Kameiros , which together with Kos , Cnidus and Halicarnassus (on the mainland) made up the so-called Dorian Hexapolis . Before archaeology, myth stood in for blanks in the historical record/ In Pindar 's ode, the island was said to be born of the union of Helios the sun god and the nymph Rhode , and the cities were named for their three sons. The rhoda is a pink hibiscus native to the island. Diodorus Siculus added that Actis , one of the sons of Helios and Rhode, travelled to Egypt . He built the city of Heliopolis and taught the Egyptians the science of astrology . In the second half of the eighth century the sanctuary of Athena received votive gifts that are markers for cultural contacts: small ivories from the Near East and bronze objects from Syria. At Kameiros on the northwest coast, a former Bronze Age site, where the temple was founded in the eighth century, there is another notable contemporaneous sequence of carved figurines. Phoenician presence on the island at Ialysos is attested in traditions recorded much later by Rhodian historians. The Persians invaded and overran the island, but were in turn defeated by forces from Athens in 478 BC. The cities joined the Athenian League . When the Peloponnesian War broke out in 431 BC, Rhodes remained largely neutral, although it remained a member of the League. The war lasted until 404 BC, but by this time Rhodes had withdrawn entirely from the conflict and decided to go her own way. In 408 BC the cities united to form one territory. They built the city of Rhodes, a new capital on the northern end of the island. Its regular plan was superintended by the Athenian architect Hippodamus . The Peloponnesian War had so weakened the entire Greek culture that it lay open to invasion. In 357 BC the island was conquered by the king Mausolus of Caria , then it fell to the Persians in 340 BC. Their rule was also short. To the great relief of its citizens, Rhodes became a part of the growing empire of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after he defeated the Persians. Following the death of Alexander his generals vied for control of the kingdom. Three: Ptolemy , Seleucus , and Antigonus , succeeded in dividing the kingdom among themselves. Rhodes formed strong commercial and cultural ties with the Ptolemies in Alexandria , and together formed the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance that controlled trade throughout the Aegean in the 3rd century BC. The city developed into a maritime, commercial and cultural center; its coins circulated nearly everywhere in the Mediterranean. Its famous schools of philosophy, science, literature and rhetoric shared masters with Alexandria: the Athenian rhetorician Aeschines , who formed a school at Rhodes; Apollonius of Rhodes ; the observations and works of the astronomers Hipparchus and Geminus , the rhetorician Dionysios Trax . Its school of sculptors developed a rich, dramatic style that can be characterized as "Hellenistic Baroque ". In 305 BC, Antigonus directed his son, Demetrius , to besiege Rhodes in an attempt to break its alliance with Egypt. Demetrius created huge siege engines , including a 180 ft (55 m) battering ram and a siege tower named Helepolis that weighed 360,000 pounds (163,293 kg). Despite this engagement, in 304 BC after only one year, he relented and signed a peace agreement, leaving behind a huge store of military equipment. The Rhodians sold the equipment and used the money to erect a statue of their sun god, Helios , the statue since called the Colossus of Rhodes . In 164 BC, Rhodes signed a treaty with Rome . It became an educational center for Roman noble families, and was especially noted for its teachers of rhetoric, such as Hermagoras and the author of the Rhetorica ad Herennium . At first the state was an important ally of Rome and enjoyed numerous privileges, but these were later lost in various machinations of Roman politics. Cassius eventually invaded the island and sacked the city. In the first century AD, the Emperor Tiberius spent a brief term of exile on Rhodes. Saint Paul brought Christianity to people on the island. Rhodes reached her zenith in the third century. In 395, the long Byzantine Empire -period began for Rhodes, when the eastern half of the Roman empire became gradually more Greek. Rhodes was occupied by the Muslim forces of Muawiyah I in 672. In circa 1090 it was occupied by the Muslim forces of the Seljuk Turks , not long after the Battle of Manzikert . Rhodes was recaptured by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus during the First Crusade . Medieval period In 1309 the Byzantine era came to an end when the island was occupied by forces of the Knights Hospitaller . Under the rule of the newly named "Knights of Rhodes", the city was rebuilt into a model of the European medieval ideal. Many of the city's famous monuments, including the Palace of the Grand Master , were built during this period. The strong walls which the Knights had built withstood the attacks of the Sultan of Egypt in 1444, and of Mehmed II in 1480. Ultimately, however, Rhodes fell to the large army of Suleiman the Magnificent in December 1522, long after the rest of the Byzantine empire had been lost. The few surviving Knights were permitted to retire to the Kingdom of Sicily . The Knights would later move their base of operations to Malta. The island was thereafter a possession of the Ottoman Empire for nearly four centuries. Modern history The island was populated by ethnic groups from the surrounding nations, including Jews. Under the Ottoman Empire rule, they generally did fairly well, but discrimination and bigotry occasionally arose. In February 1840, the Jews of Rhodes were falsely accused of ritually murdering a Christian boy. This became known as the Rhodes blood libel . In 1912, Italy seized Rhodes from the Turks. The island's population thus bypassed many of the events associated with the "exchange of the minorities" between Greece and Turkey . Due to the Treaty of Lausanne , the island, together with the Dodecanese , was officially assigned to Italy. It became the core of their possession of the Isole Italiane dell'Egeo. Following the Italian Armistice of 8 September 1943 , the British attempted to get the Italian garrison on Rhodes to change sides. This was anticipated by the German Army , which succeeded in occupying the island. In great measure, the German occupation caused the British failure in the subsequent Dodecanese Campaign . On 19 July 1944 the Gestapo rounded up the island’s nearly 2000 Jewish inhabitants, to send them to extermination camps. About 160 of the island's more than 600 Greek Jews survived. The Turkish Consul Selahattin Ülkümen succeeded, at considerable risk to himself and his family, in saving 42 Jewish families, about 200 persons in total, who had Turkish citizenship or were family members of Turkish citizens. In 1948, together with the other islands of the Dodecanese , Rhodes was united with Greece. In 1949, Rhodes was the venue for negotiations between Israel and Egypt , Jordan , Lebanon , and Syria , concluding with the 1949 Armistice Agreements . Archaeology In ancient times, Rhodes was home to one of the Seven Wonders of the World—the Colossus of Rhodes . This giant bronze statue was documented as once standing at the harbour. It was completed in 280 BC but was destroyed in an earthquake in 224 BC. No trace of the statue remains today. Historical sites on the island of Rhodes include the Acropolis of Lindos , the Acropolis of Rhodes , the Temple of Apollo , ancient Ialysos , ancient Kamiros , the Governor's Palace , Rhodes Old Town (walled medieval city), the Palace of the Grand Masters , Kahal Shalom Synagogue in the Jewish Quarter , the Archeological Museum , the ruins of the castle of Monolithos , the castle of Kritinia and St. Catherine Hospice . Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped?: Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped?: After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. After you shipped the order, how long will the mail take? USPS First Class mail takes about 3-5 business days to arrive in the U.S., international shipping times cannot be estimated as they vary from country to country. I am not responsible for any USPS delivery delays, especially for an international package. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? Each of the items sold here, is provided with a Certificate of Authenticity, and a Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity, issued by a world-renowned numismatic and antique expert that has identified over 10000 ancient coins and has provided them with the same guarantee. You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Compared to other certification companies, the certificate of authenticity is a $25-50 value. So buy a coin today and own a piece of history, guaranteed. Is there a money back guarantee? I offer a 30 day unconditional money back guarantee. I stand behind my coins and would be willing to exchange your order for either store credit towards other coins, or refund, minus shipping expenses, within 30 days from the receipt of your order. My goal is to have the returning customers for a lifetime, and I am so sure in my coins, their authenticity, numismatic value and beauty, I can offer such a guarantee. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? You can contact me directly via ask seller a question and request my telephone number, or go to my About Me Page to get my contact information only in regards to items purchased on eBay. When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. 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