RARE Stock Certificate 1850s Gouverneur Somerville & Antwerp NY Plank Road Co

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Seller: dalebooks (8,069) 100%, Location: Rochester, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 302597822858 RARE Stock Certificate Gouverneur Somerville and Antwerp Plank Road Company 1850s For offer, an original old unused stock. Fresh from an estate in Upstate NY. Never offered on the market until now. Vintage, Old, antique, Original - NOT a Reproduction - Guaranteed !! Uncirculated. Measures 10 1/4 x 4 1/8 inches. Still has the receipt side portion on the left - often cut off. In very good condition. Please see photos for details. If you collect Americana history, American 19th century business, Pre Civil War, Scripophily, etc., this is one you will not see again. A nice piece for your paper / ephemera collection. Perhaps some genealogy research information as well. Combine shipping on multiple bid wins! 1291 Scripophily is the study and collection of stock and bond certificates. A specialized field of numismatics, scripophily is an area of collecting due to both the inherent beauty of some historical documents as well as the interesting historical context of each document. Some stock certificates are excellent examples of engraving. Occasionally, an old stock certificate will be found that still has value as a stock in a successor company. History[edit] Ezekiel Air Ship stock certificateScripophily, the collecting of old stocks and bonds, gained recognition as a hobby around 1970. The word "scripophily" was coined by combining words from English and Greek. The word "scrip" represents an ownership right and the word "philos" means to love. Today, there are thousands of collectors worldwide (Scripophilists) in search of scarce, rare, and popular stocks and bonds. Collectors who come from a variety of businesses enjoy this as a hobby, although there are many who also consider scripophily a good investment. Many collectors like the historical significance of old certificates. Others prefer the beauty of older stocks and bonds that were printed in various colors with fancy artwork and ornate engraving. In recent times, Dot com companies and scandals have been particularly popular issuances. A recent addition to the hobby is collecting real, live shares issued in one's name. Common companies that issue stock certificates include Walt Disney, Harley-Davidson, McDonald's, Starbucks, Google, Ford Motors, Coca-Cola, and Berkshire Hathaway. Again, framing is a popular option for these shares. Many autograph collectors are found in this field, looking for signed certificates from John D. Rockefeller of Standard Oil Company, Henry Charles Carey of the Franklin Fire Insurance Company, Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus, Atari Corporation, Eddie Rickenbacker as president of Eastern Air Lines, Tucker Corporation and many others. As a hobby[edit] Columbia PicturesA large part of scripophily is the area of financial history. Over the years there have been millions of companies which needed to raise money for their business. In order to do so, the founders of these companies issued securities. Generally speaking, they either issued an equity security in the form of stock or a debt security in the form of a bond. However, there are many varieties of equity and debt instruments. They can be common stock, preferred stock, warrants, cumulative preferred stocks, bonds, zero-coupon bonds, long term bonds (over 15 years) and any combination thereof. Each certificate is a piece of history about a company and its business. Some companies became major successes, while others were acquired and merged with other companies. Some companies and industries were successful until they were replaced by new technologies. Some companies have been the center of scandal or fraud. The color, paper, signatures, dates, stamps, cancellations, borders, pictures, vignettes, industry, stock broker, name of company, transfer agent, printer, and holder name all add to the uniqueness of the hobby. A lot of companies either were never successful or went bankrupt, so that their certificates became worthless pieces of paper until the hobby of scripophily began. The mining boom in the 1850s, railroad construction in the 1830s, the oil boom in the 1870s, telegraphy (1850s), the automobile industry beginning around 1900, aviation (around 1910), electric power and banks in the 1930s, the airline wars and mergers in the 1970s, cellular telephones (1980s), long distance telephone service in the 1980s and 1990s, and most recently the Dot-com era and Enron all resulted in historically significant certificates being generated and issued. Today, more stocks and bonds are issued electronically, meaning fewer paper certificates are issued as a percentage of actual stock issued. The Internet has played a dramatic role in raising awareness of the hobby. A number of websites now exist that sell old stocks and bonds to include scripophily.com and oldstocks.com. Guidelines[edit] This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (November 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Baltimore and Ohio RailroadThere are many factors that determine value of a certificate. These include condition, age, historical significance, signatures, rarity, demand for the item, aesthetics, type of company, original face value, bankers associated with issuance, transfer stamps, cancellation markings, issued or unissued, printers, and type of engraving process. Condition - The grading scale that could be used in stocks and bonds is shown below. Generally speaking, however, the grading is not used in the hobby as strictly as it is in coins and stamps. Most people acquire certificates for the artwork and history. Uncirculated - Looks like new, no abnormal markings or folds, no staples, clean signature and no stainsExtremely Fine - Slight traces of wearVery Fine - Minor traces of wearFine - Creased with clear signs of use and wearFair- Strong signs of use and wearPoor- Some damage with heavy signs of wear and stainingAge - Usually the older the more valuable, but not always. Historical significance - What product did the company produce? Was it the first car, airplane, cotton gin, etc. Was the company successful? Was it a fraud? In what era (i.e. during a war, depression, revolution) was the item issued? Signatures - Did anyone famous or infamous sign the certificate? Cross Collecting Themes - Sports, finance, automotive, and railroad enthusiast interest. H. J. Heinz CompanyNewsworthy - Some companies that are in the news (good or bad). Certificate Owner's Name - Was the certificate issued to anyone famous or to a famous company? Rarity - How many of the certificates were issued? How many survived over the years? Is the certificate a low number? Demand for Item - How many people are trying to collect the same certificate? Aesthetics - How does the certificate look? What is in the vignette? What color of ink was used? Does it have fancy borders or writing on it? Type of company - What type of company was it issued for? Does the industry still exist? Has the industry changed a lot over the years? Original Face Value - How much was the stock or bond issued for? Usually, the larger the original face value, the more collectible it is. Bankers associated with Issuance - Who worked on the fund raising efforts? Was it someone famous or a famous bank? Is the bank still in existence? Transfer Stamps - Does the certificate have tax stamps on it - imprinted or attached? Are the stamps valuable or unusual? Specimen Stock CertificateCancellation Markings - Are the cancellation markings interesting to the item? Do they detract or add to its history and looks? Issued or Unissued - Was the item issued or unissued? Was the certificate a printer's prototype usually stamped with the word "specimen"? Usually, issued certificates are more valuable and desirable. Printers - Who printed the certificate? Was it a famous printer? Type of Engraving Process - How was the certificate made? By hand? By wood engraving? Steel engraving? Lithograph? Preprinted form? Paper - Was the paper use in the printing high quality or low quality? Has it held up over time? Does it have a watermark to prevent counterfeiting? Scripophily market indices[edit]Due to historical nature of collecting, it makes no sense to track scripophily market using stock market indices like S&P 500 Index, Dow Jones Industrial Average or others. However, apart from real time quotes there is a way to do so half-yearly based on the records of three major European market players. These records cover all relevant auction results for 100 selected items, being significant for the worldwide Scripophily market: HSTM Historic Stocks Market IndexSee also[edit]Numismatics portalStock certificateExternal links[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scripophily.HSTM Historic Stocks Market IndexIBSS International Bond & Share SocietyAmerican Stock and Bond Collectors AssociationAbout the Hobby of Collecting Old Stocks and BondsEDHAC Erster Deutscher Historic-Actien-Club / The German Scripo ClubPibykowe strony Polish scripophily and international government bonds. In Polish, some content in English.Old Stock Exchange - Examples of Old Stock and Bond CertificatesScripozine Scripophily magazine (PDF, free of charge)Nonvaleurs BlogMuseo digitale della Scripofilia - Digital Museum of ScripophilySecurities and Exchange Commission - Old Stock and Bond CertificatesCollecting Stocks & Bonds: A collector's storyWertpapierwelt the Swiss Museum of Historical Shares and Bonds (English pages)The Museum of American Finance the U.S. financial history museum located in New YorkThe official site for collectors of Scripohilic material in NorwayFranky's Scripophily BlogSpot - international blog about collecting antique stocks and bondsVintage Stocks and Bonds BlogSpot - a collector's perspective collecting vintage stocks and bondsScripophily in Finland A thorough overview of the hobby in Finland today. Written in English for foreigners.Norwegian Scripohily Society The hobby in Norway.Professional Scripophily Traders AssociationSignatures of Samuel Clemens - Mark Twain & Unionville gold discoverer on 1863 Nevada territorial stock NEarby towns in St. Lawrence & Jefferson County : City[edit]OgdensburgTowns[edit]BrasherCantonClareCliftonColtonDe KalbDe PeysterEdwardsFineFowlerGouverneurHammondHermonHopkintonLawrenceLisbonLouisvilleMacombMadridMassenaMorristownNorfolkOswegatchieParishvillePiercefieldPierrepontPitcairnPotsdamRossieRussellStockholmWaddingtonVillages[edit]Canton (county seat)GouverneurHammondHeuveltonMassenaMorristownNorwoodPotsdamRensselaer FallsRichvilleWaddingtonCensus-designated places[edit]Brasher FallsColtonCranberry LakeDeKalb JunctionEdwardsHailesboroHannawa FallsMadridNorfolkParishvilleStar LakeWinthropHamlets[edit]ConiferCrary MillsHelenaHermonMassena CenterMorleyNewton FallsPyritesRooseveltownSouth ColtonWanakena City[edit]Watertown (county seat)Towns[edit]AdamsAlexandriaAntwerpBrownvilleCape VincentChampionClaytonEllisburgHendersonHounsfieldLe RayLorraineLymeOrleansPameliaPhiladelphiaRodmanRutlandTheresaWatertownWilnaWorthVillages[edit]AdamsAlexandria BayAntwerpBlack RiverBrownvilleCape VincentCarthageChaumontClaytonDeferietDexterEllisburgEvans MillsGlen ParkMannsvillePhiladelphiaSackets HarborTheresaWest CarthageHamlets[edit]All of the hamlets listed, except for Sanfords Four Corners, are also census-designated places. Adams CenterBellevilleCalciumDepauvilleFelts MillsFishers LandingFort DrumGreat BendHendersonHerringsLa FargevilleLorraineNatural BridgeOxbowPamelia CenterPierrepont ManorPlessisRedwoodRodmanSanfords Four CornersThousand Island ParkThree Mile Bay A plank road is a road composed of wooden planks or puncheon logs. Plank roads were commonly found in the Canadian province of Ontario, and the Northeast and Midwest of the United States in the first half of the 19th century. They were often built by turnpike companies. Origins[edit]See also: Plank Road BoomSee also: Old Plank RoadIn the late 1840s plank roads led to an investment boom and subsequent bust. The first plank road in the US was built in North Syracuse, New York in order to transport salt and other goods;[1] it appears to have copied earlier roads in Canada that copied Russian ones.[2] The plank road boom was like many early technologies, promising to transform the way people lived and worked, and led to permissive changes in legislation seeking to spur development, speculative investment by private individuals, etc. Ultimately the technology failed to live up to its promise and millions of dollars in investments evaporated almost overnight.[2] Three plank roads, the Hackensack, the Paterson, and the Newark, were major arteries in northern New Jersey. The roads travelled over the New Jersey Meadowlands, connecting the cities for which they were named to the Hudson River waterfront. On the U.S. West Coast the Canyon Road of Portland, Oregon was another important, though short, artery. It was built between 1851 and 1856. A plank road on one of the Pribilof Islands, AlaskaKingston Road (Toronto) (Governor's Road), Danforth Avenue in Toronto were plank roads built by the Don and Danforth Plank Road Company in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Highway 2 (Ontario) from Toronto eastwards was once plank roads in the 19th century and later paved. Plank roads in Australia[edit]In Perth, Western Australia, plank roads were important in the early growth of the agricultural and outer urban areas, given the distances imposed by swamps and relatively infertile soil. As it cost UK£2,000 per kilometre to construct roads by conventional means, the local councils (known as road boards) were experimenting with cheaper approaches to road building. A method called Jandakot Corduroy had been developed at Jandakot south-east of Perth, where a jarrah tramway lay upon 2.3-metre-long (7.5 ft) sleepers, bounded by two 70-centimetre-wide (28 in) strips of jarrah planks for cart and carriage wheels. The 90-centimetre (35 in) gap was filled with limestone rubble to be used by horses. This reduced the cost of road building by up to 85 percent after their widespread introduction in 1908.[3] However, increased traffic and suburban development rendered these routes unsatisfactory over time and by the 1950s they had been replaced with bitumen surfaced roads. See also[edit]Board track racingBoardwalkCorduroy roadDuckboardsGallery roadMarston Mat - a 20th-century equivalent for airport runwaysSweet Track and Post TrackToll Road The Plank Road Boom was a boom that happened in the United States, mostly in the Eastern United States and New York, from 1844 to the 1850s. In that short time span, people in New York state alone built more than 3,500 miles of road - enough road to go from Manhattan to California,[1] and more than 10,000 miles of plank road were built countrywide.[2] Background[edit]Plank roads were brought to the United States by Syracuse engineer George Geddes who brought them to New York from Canada. In turn, the concept is thought to have been brought to North America from Russia by the then Governor General Lord Sydenham. The first plank road in North America led out from Toronto, and was frequently cited by Geddes in his promotion of plank roads. The Toronto project was proposed by Darcy Boulton, and built under Sir Francis Bond. By 1861, the governments of Upper and Lower Canada had built between 127–162 miles of plank roads, and private companies 194–214 miles.[3] Geddes enthusiastically reported that wooden roads lasted eight years, and cost much less than compacted crushed stone macadam roads. Over that part of the road in Toronto, that wore out in eight years... It is found that the cost of repairs on a McAdam [macadam] road is easily greater than upon a plank road- without taking into account the great difference in the first cost. The McAdam road out from Toronto cost four hundred dollars every year to keep a mile in order... if the [plank] road is constructed, the repairs will be trifling until the road is worn out . — George Geddes, ReferenceGeddes goes on to mention that, over the eight-year span the Toronto plank road lasted, the cost of maintaining one mile of the macadam road would be sufficient to re-plank the wooden road three times.[4] Proponents of plank roads stated that plank roads would make it much easier to carry goods and travel in general. They were stated to be 1/3 as expensive as gravel roads. Plank roads were said to give a return on investment of 20%[5] They also claimed that the roads will last for at least eight years, and if they don't, that will be because of more people travelling on the road, which would thus result in more tolls collected.[6] Much of the plank road building occurred in places where lumber was comparatively affordable due to thriving timber industries, as wood was usually over sixty percent of a plank road's cost.[7] Boom[edit]America[edit]National newspapers helped spread the plank road craze. In 1847, Hunts Merchants Magazine published an article titled “Plank Roads-New Improvement." In 1849, Niles' Weekly Register said plank roads were "growing into universal favor." in the 1850s, the New York Tribune praised their ease of construction and said that the roads added a great amount to the transportation abilities of the New York.[8] In March 1850, Scientific American said they viewed plank roads as a means of “completely reforming the interior or rural transit trade of our country.”[9] In 1852, Hunts Merchants Magazine published an article titled "The First Plank Road Movement," it extolled plank roads. In the list of great improvements which have given to this age the character which it will bear in history above all others-the age of happiness to the people-the plank road will have a prominent place, and it deserves it...the plank road is of the class of canals and railways. They are the three great inscriptions graven on the earth by the hand of modern science... — Hunts Merchants' MagazineThey also published an editorial saying "every section of the country should be lined with these roads.”[10] Other written items include "Observations on Plank Roads" by George Geddes,[11] "History, Structure and Statistics of Plank Roads in the United States and Canada," by William Kingsford,[12] and "A Manual of the Principles and Practice of Road-Making" by William M. Gillespie.[13] Mid-Atlantic[edit]Throughout the Mid-Atlantic region, some 700 companies, and about 7,000 miles of plank road were chartered by 1857.[14] New York[edit]The first plank road in the United States was the Syracuse-Central Square road. A 16.5 mile road built for $23,000 out of eight foot wide, four inch thick hemlock planks, the Syracuse-Central road was a massive success. In its first two years 161,000 teams passing over it generated $12,900 in revenue.[1] An 1847 report claimed that the road could genl erate 100 to 200 percent profit. Along the road, there were four toll booths. A that was vehicle drawn by two horses paid 1 and one-half cents per mile. One horse and rider paid half a cent. Pedestrians traveled on the road free. After the success of the plank road, applications to form new plank road companies poured in. By 1847, a general incorporation law was passed by the state legislature. The law made it significantly easier to form a company. The law stated that at least five people could come together and form a company with the intent to build a plank road, as long as they circulated a message in at least one newspaper in the county where the plank road would be built saying where people could buy stock. The company than had to raise at least 500 dollars per mile that the road would be built. Next, the proposed company had to, with articles of association had to elect directors, name the company, state how long the company will continue (at most 30 years), list the company's capital, and provide in-depth information about where the road will go. The company could than petition the New York Department of State's office, and presumably get approval to form a company.[15] In 1848, 52 companies were organized, 80 in 1849, and in the 1850s, about 200.[8] This was significantly easier than the process before, which involved petitioning the New York State Legislature. In New York state, under the general incorporation law, from 1847 to 1854 more than 340 plank road building companies were incorporated, building about 3,500 miles of plank roads.[1] New Jersey[edit]Three plank roads, the Hackensack, the Paterson, and the Newark, were major arteries in northern New Jersey. The roads travelled over the New Jersey Meadowlands, connecting the cities for which they were named to the Hudson River waterfront.[citation needed] Pennsylvania[edit]Pennsylvania incorporated 315 plank road companies, the second most of any state.[6] Midwest[edit]After the initial craze in New York, in late 1844 and early 1845, many regional newspapers in Fort Wayne and Chicago, and throughout the Midwest called for plank roads. Newspapers such as the Chicago Democrat, and the Gem of the Prairie supported plank roads. In 1845, proponents of a Chicago-Rockford road, such as J. Young Scammon and Walter Newberry did receive a charter, but none of the proposed roads were ever built.[8] Later on, in 1847, however; newspapers such as the Prairie Farmer carried articles praising plank roads,[16] and one of the first plank roads in the Midwest (apart from Michigan) went from Milwaukee to Watertown.[17] In Indiana, and throughout much of the Midwest, social reformer Robert Dale Owen was a prominent supporter of plank roads. In 1849, the New Harmony and Mount Vernon plank road company nominated Owen (who was already the director of the company) to go to New York, and find out how roads were constructed. After returning, he wrote a number of newspaper articles and a hugely popular pamphlet titled "A Brief Practical Treatise on the Construction and Management of Plank Roads" in 1850.[7] So huge was the demand for plank roads, by 1850, Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, and Illinois-set up standardized procedures for the incorporation of plank road companies.[8] Indiana passed its plank road legislation in September 1849[18] Ohio[edit]The enthusiasm for plank roads was exceptionally strong in Northern Ohio. Nine companies were chartered during 1845, eight 1848, thirty-seven in 1849, and eighty-nine in 1850.[8] A general incorporation law was passed in 1851, allowing for any five people to form a plank road company as long as the "width of the road will be 60 feet, with 16 feet covered with stone, gravel or wood, and with no ascent over five degrees."[19] Michigan[edit]While the first plank road was built in New York, the first company chartered with the intent to build a plank road was created in Michigan in 1837. That company was the Detroit, Plymouth and Ann Arbor Turnpike Company, chartered by Michigan state legislature on March 22, 1837 to build a "timber road made of good, well-hewn timber" from Detroit, in Wayne county to the village of Ann Arbor in the county of Washtenaw.[20] Later on, in 1844, the state authorized the building of plank roads from Detroit to Port Huron and from near Sylvania, Ohio to Blissfield, Michigan.[21] Then in 1846, Charters were given to the Corunna and Northampton and the Marshall and Union City Plank Road companies.[22] Eventually, the interest in building plank roads became so high that in 1848, a general incorporation law was passed. The law stated that any company could operate a plank road so long as their road That the road be two to four rods wide, sixteen feet of which was to be a good, smooth, permanent road, well drained by ditches on either side. At least eight feet of the road was to be covered with plank three inches thick. The law provided further that no grades were to be greater than one in ten and that the charters were to run for sixty years. — Philip P. Mason, The Plank Road Craze: A Chapter in the History of Michigan's Highways[23] The law was subsequently amended in 1851 (shortening charters to sixty years, and making the greatest allowable grade one foot every twenty feet, as well as requiring the companies to make a report to the auditor general before the first Tuesday in January), 1855 (allowing the substitution of gravel covering nine feet wide, and ten inches thick for plank), 1859 (restoring the acceptable grade to one foot in ten) and 1867 (changing the gravel specification to nine feet wide, and seven inches thick.[24] Tolls on the roads ranged from two cents per mile, (for two horse wagons, and every "neat score of cattle", with an additional 3/4 cents for every animal if there are more than two animals), to a maximum of one cent per mile (for one horse vehicles and every sled or sleigh) and went to as low as one-half cent per mile for every score of sheep or pigs.[25] By 1869, plank road companies in the Bay, Clinton, Gratiot and Saginaw counties were allowed to double their tolls. During the 1800s, 202 plank road companies were established in Michigan, and 5,802 and 1/2 miles of plank roads were chartered,[26] with roads as long as 220 miles (from Zilwaukee to Mackinaw City, and going through Traverse City) to as short as one mile (in Sault Ste. Marie).[23] The man who signed the law was one of the major supporters of plank roads in Michigan, governor Epaphroditus Ransom. Ransom signed the general plank road incorporation act, and throughout his governorship viewed plank roads as the solution to increasing Michigan's economy.[27] Plank roads were very popular in rural areas, because, even when it was wet and muddy, people could still travel on plank roads. Properly maintained plank roads were known to cut four to six day trips to as short as ten to fifteen hours.[23] In 1854, the Farmer's Companion and Horticultural Gazette reported that " A farm adjacent to a plank road increases in value from 10-15 percent...and commands a sale from the fact that the produce never lacks a market, and has a more regular and higher net value."[28] The most plank roads (eight) went out of Detroit to various cities, with Grand Rapids (seven) following close behind. However, the craze did not last long. Of the 5,082 and 1/2 miles chartered, only 1,179 miles were built by 89 of the original 202 companies.[23] When Mark Twain rode from Kalamazoo on the Grand Rapids plank road, asked how he liked his trip, he replied "It would have been good if some unconscionable scoundrel had not now and then dropped a plank across it."[29] Southeast[edit]North Carolina[edit]For a brief time, plank roads were very popular in North Carolina. In 1852 there were thirty-nine bills for plank road charters, and in the 1854-55 legislative session, thirty-two charters were granted. The tolls allowable in North Carolina were .5 cents per mile for a horse and one rider, 2 cents per mile for a teamster with two horses, 3 cents for a teamster with three horses, and one with six horses, 4 cents. In the 1850s, about 500 miles of plank roads were built.[30] Brazil[edit]Spurred on by the original success of plank roads in the United States, the Viscount of Barbacena and the Baron of Nova Friburgo, in the Rio de Janeiro province, began building a plank road. The road extended at least 14 miles, but eventually rotted.[31] Condition: Very good condition. See description., Circulated/Uncirculated: Uncirculated, Country/Region of Manufacture: United States

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