RARE Book 2 v w Prints History of Cornwall by Hitchins Drew 1817 Owned by FOX

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Seller: dalebooks (8,180) 100%, Location: Rochester, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 302564293995 RARE Old Book From the Famous FOX Family of Falmouth The History of Cornwall by Hitchins and Drew 2 Volumes in One 1817 For offer, an interesting old book. Fresh from an old prominent estate in Upstate, Western N.Y. Vintage, Old, Original - NOT a Reproduction - Guaranteed !! History / provenance of this book is fullt documented in manuscript writing in the front. The book originally belonged to Joshua Fox (of the Fox family in Falmouth) and eventually found its way to Dr. Davies, of Hornellsville ( Hornell ), New York. I could not find this imprint with the 1817 date. There is an edition from 1824, of which I could only find a few single volumes, ranging in price for $500-$600 each. The History of Cornwall: From the Earliest Records and Traditions, to the Present Time. Compiled by Fortescue Hitchins, edited by Samuel Drew, of St. Austell. Helston: Printed by and for W. [ William ] Penaluna, and sold by Walker and Company, Paternoster Row, London, 1817. Included many copper engraved print plate scenes, including a double sized one in second volume. Two volumes bound in one. In fairly good condition. Front cover lacking; no title page of second volume. Staining to plates, and end of first volume. Minor text loss at corner of a couple pages. All plates (except for double sized one) bound at front, after t.p. Overall text is clean, except previously noted. If you collect 18th / 19th century British history, illustrated books, scenes, etc. this is a treasure you will not see again! Add this to your paper or ephemera collection. Combine shipping on multiple bid wins! 1205 Cornwall (/ˈkɔːrnwɔːlˌ -wəl/,[1] Cornish: Kernow [ˈkɛrnɔʊ]) is a county and duchy in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea,[2] to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain. The furthest southwestern point of the island is Land's End; the southernmost point is Lizard Point. Cornwall has a population of 556,000 and covers an area of 3,563 km2 (1,376 sq mi).[3][4][5][6] The administrative county is administered by the unitary authority Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall also includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately. The administrative centre of Cornwall, and only city in the county, is Truro.Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora. It retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its unique history, and is recognised as one of the Celtic nations with a rich cultural heritage.[7]It was formerly a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy. The Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly and powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.[8][9]Cornwall has been a unitary authority since the 2009 structural changes to local government in England. In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities,[10] giving Cornish people recognition as a distinct ethnic group.[11][12]First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and then Bronze Age peoples, and later (in the Iron Age) by Brythons with strong trade and cultural links to Wales and Brittany. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall and there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there.[citation needed]After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii which may have included semi-historical or legendary figures such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae. The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from the Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham and often came into conflict with the expanding kingdom of Wessex. King Athelstan in AD 936 set the boundary between English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar.[13]From the early Middle Ages, language and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas.Historically tin mining was important in the Cornish economy, becoming increasingly significant during the High Middle Ages and expanding greatly during the 19th century when rich copper mines were also in production. In the mid-19th century, however, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important and metal mining had virtually ended by the 1990s. Traditionally, fishing (particularly of pilchards) and agriculture (notably dairy products and vegetables) were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century; however, Cornwall's economy struggled after the decline of the mining and fishing industries.[citation needed]Cornwall is noted for its geology, a large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall. The north coast has many cliffs where exposed geological formations are studied. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, and its very mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, and Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Name and emblems[edit] "Cornweallas" shown on an early 19th-century map of "Saxon England" (and Wales) based on the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Cliffs at Land's EndThe modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups:Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii ("peninsula people"). The Celtic word "kernou" ("horn" or "headland") is cognate with the English word "horn" (both deriving from the Proto-Indo-European *ker-).[14][15][16][17][a]-wall derives from the Old English exonym w(e)alh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman" (i.e. a Welshman).In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background.Flag[edit]Main article: Saint Piran's Flag Souvenir flags outside a Cornish caféSaint Piran's Flag is the national flag and ancient banner of Cornwall,[19][20][21] and an emblem of the Cornish people. It is regarded as the county flag by Cornwall Council. The banner of Saint Piran is a white cross on a black background (in terms of heraldry 'sable, a cross argent'). According to legend Saint Piran adopted these colours from seeing the white tin in the black coals and ashes during his discovery of tin. [19] [22] The Cornish flag is an exact reverse of the former Breton national flag (black cross) and is known by the same name "Kroaz Du".[23][24]Heraldry[edit]Main articles: Cornish heraldry and Cornish corporate heraldry Physical geography[edit]Main articles: Geography of Cornwall and Geology of Cornwall Satellite image of CornwallCornwall forms the tip of the south-west peninsula of the island of Great Britain, and is therefore exposed to the full force of the prevailing winds that blow in from the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline is composed mainly of resistant rocks that give rise in many places to tall cliffs. Cornwall has a border with only one other county, Devon, which is formed almost entirely by the River Tamar, and the remainder (to the north) by the Marsland Valley.Coastal areas[edit]The north and south coasts have different characteristics. The north coast on the Celtic Sea, part of the Atlantic Ocean, is more exposed and therefore has a wilder nature. The prosaically named High Cliff, between Boscastle and St Gennys, is the highest sheer-drop cliff in Cornwall at 223 metres (732 ft).[25] However, there are also many extensive stretches of fine golden sand which form the beaches that are so important to the tourist industry, such as those at Bude, Polzeath, Watergate Bay, Perranporth, Porthtowan, Fistral Beach, Newquay, St Agnes, St Ives, and on the south coast Gyllyngvase beach in Falmouth and the large beach at Praa Sands further to the south west. There are two river estuaries on the north coast: Hayle Estuary and the estuary of the River Camel, which provides Padstow and Rock with a safe harbour. The seaside town of Newlyn is a popular holiday destination, as it is one of the last remaining traditional Cornish fishing ports, with views reaching over Mount's Bay. St Michael's Mount in MarazionThe south coast, dubbed the "Cornish Riviera", is more sheltered and there are several broad estuaries offering safe anchorages, such as at Falmouth and Fowey. Beaches on the south coast usually consist of coarser sand and shingle, interspersed with rocky sections of wave-cut platform. Also on the south coast, the picturesque fishing village of Polperro, at the mouth of the Pol River, and the fishing port of Looe on the River Looe are both popular with tourists.Inland areas[edit]The interior of the county consists of a roughly east–west spine of infertile and exposed upland, with a series of granite intrusions, such as Bodmin Moor, which contains the highest land within Cornwall. From east to west, and with approximately descending altitude, these are Bodmin Moor, Hensbarrow north of St Austell, Carnmenellis to the south of Camborne, and the Penwith or Land's End peninsula. These intrusions are the central part of the granite outcrops that form the exposed parts of the Cornubian batholith of south-west Britain, which also includes Dartmoor to the east in Devon and the Isles of Scilly to the west, the latter now being partially submerged. Cornwall is known for its beaches (Porthcurno beach illustrated) and rugged coastlineThe intrusion of the granite into the surrounding sedimentary rocks gave rise to extensive metamorphism and mineralisation, and this led to Cornwall being one of the most important mining areas in Europe until the early 20th century. It is thought tin was mined here as early as the Bronze Age, and copper, lead, zinc and silver have all been mined in Cornwall. Alteration of the granite also gave rise to extensive deposits of China Clay, especially in the area to the north of St Austell, and the extraction of this remains an important industry.The uplands are surrounded by more fertile, mainly pastoral farmland. Near the south coast, deep wooded valleys provide sheltered conditions for flora that like shade and a moist, mild climate. These areas lie mainly on Devonian sandstone and slate. The north east of Cornwall lies on Carboniferous rocks known as the Culm Measures. In places these have been subjected to severe folding, as can be seen on the north coast near Crackington Haven and in several other locations.The Lizard Peninsula[edit]Main article: Lizard complexThe geology of the Lizard peninsula is unusual, in that it is mainland Britain's only example of an ophiolite, a section of oceanic crust now found on land.[b] Much of the peninsula consists of the dark green and red Precambrian serpentinite, which forms spectacular cliffs, notably at Kynance Cove, and carved and polished serpentine ornaments are sold in local gift shops. This ultramafic rock also forms a very infertile soil which covers the flat and marshy heaths of the interior of the peninsula. This is home to rare plants, such as the Cornish Heath, which has been adopted as the county flower.[26]Hills and high points[edit]Main article: List of hills of CornwallSettlements and transport[edit]See also: List of settlements in Cornwall by population and Transport in Cornwall Truro, Cornwall's administrative centre and only city.Cornwall's only city, and the home of the council headquarters, is Truro. Nearby Falmouth is notable as a port. St Just in Penwith is the westernmost town in England, though the same claim has been made for Penzance, which is larger. St Ives and Padstow are today small vessel ports with a major tourism and leisure sector in their economies. Newquay on the north coast is another major urban settlement which is famous for its beaches and is a popular surfing destination, as is Bude further north, but Newquay is now also becoming important for its aviation-related industries. St Austell is the county's largest town and more populous than the capital Truro; it was the centre of the china clay industry in Cornwall. Redruth and Camborne form the largest urban area in Cornwall, and both towns were significant as centres of the global tin mining industry in the 19th century (nearby copper mines were also very productive during that period),Cornwall borders the county of Devon at the River Tamar. Major roads between Cornwall and the rest of Great Britain are the A38 which crosses the Tamar at Plymouth via the Tamar Bridge and the town of Saltash, the A39 road (Atlantic Highway) from Barnstaple, passing through North Cornwall to end in Falmouth, and the A30 which crosses the border south of Launceston crosses Bodmin Moor and connects Bodmin and Truro. Torpoint Ferry links Plymouth with Torpoint on the opposite side of the Hamoaze. A rail bridge, the Royal Albert Bridge, built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1859) provides the only other land transport link. The city of Plymouth, a large urban centre in south west Devon, is an important location for services such as hospitals, department stores, road and rail transport, and cultural venues, particularly for people living in east Cornwall.Cardiff and Swansea, across the Bristol Channel, have at some times in the past been connected to Cornwall by ferry, but these do not operate now.[27]The Isles of Scilly are served by ferry (from Penzance) and by aeroplane, having its own airport — St Mary's Airport. There are regular flights between St Mary's and Land's End Airport, near St Just, and Cornwall Airport Newquay; during the summer season, a service is also provided between St Mary's and Exeter International Airport, in Devon.Ecology[edit]Flora and fauna[edit]See also: Flora and fauna of CornwallCornwall has varied habitats including terrestrial and marine ecosystems. One noted species in decline locally is the Reindeer lichen, which species has been made a priority for protection under the national UK Biodiversity Action Plan.[28][29] The red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax), once commonly seen throughout Cornwall, experienced a severe decline in its population in the 20th century.Botanists divide Cornwall and Scilly into two vice-counties: West (1) and East (2). The standard flora is by F. H. Davey Flora of Cornwall (1909). Davey was assisted by A. O. Hume and he thanks Hume, his companion on excursions in Cornwall and Devon, and for help in the compilation of that Flora, publication of which was financed by him.Climate[edit]Main article: Geography of Cornwall § ClimateCornwall has a temperate Oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb) and has the mildest and sunniest climate in the United Kingdom, as a result of its southerly latitude and the influence of the Gulf Stream.[30] The average annual temperature in Cornwall ranges from 11.6 °C (52.9 °F) on the Isles of Scilly to 9.8 °C (49.6 °F) in the central uplands. Winters are among the warmest in the country due to the southerly latitude and moderating effects of the warm ocean currents, and frost and snow are very rare at the coast and in the central upland areas. Summers are, however, not as warm as in other parts of southern England.[citation needed] The surrounding sea and its southwesterly position mean that Cornwall's weather can be relatively changeable.Cornwall is one of the sunniest areas in the UK. It has more than 1,541 hours of sunshine per year, with the highest average of 7.6 hours of sunshine per day in July.[31] The moist, mild air coming from the southwest brings higher amounts of rainfall than in eastern Great Britain, at 1,051 to 1,290 mm (41.4 to 50.8 in) per year. However, this is not as much as in more northern areas of the west coast.[32] The Isles of Scilly, for example, where there are on average fewer than two days of air frost per year, is the only area in the UK to be in the Hardiness zone 10. The islands have, on average, less than one day of air temperature exceeding 30 °C per year and are in the AHS Heat Zone 1. Extreme temperatures in Cornwall are particularly rare; however, extreme weather in the form of storms and floods is common.Culture[edit]Main article: Culture of CornwallLanguages[edit]Main article: Languages of CornwallCornish language[edit]Main article: Cornish languageEnglish is the main language used in Cornwall, although the revived Cornish language is used, and is spoken fluently by a small minority of people. Most street names and some road signs are written bilingually in Cornish and English. A welcome sign to Penzance, in the English and Cornish languagesThe Cornish language is a language from the Brythonic branch of the Celtic language family, closely related to the other Brythonic languages of Welsh and Breton, and less so to the Goidelic languages of Irish, Scots Gaelic and Manx. The language continued to function visibly as a community language in parts of Cornwall until the late 18th century, and it was claimed in 2011 that the last native speaker did not die until 1914.[33]There has been a revival of the language since Henry Jenner's Handbook of the Cornish Language was published in 1904. A study in 2000 suggested that there were around 300 people who spoke Cornish fluently.[34] Cornish, however, had no legal status in the UK until 2002. Nevertheless, the language is taught in about twelve primary schools, and occasionally used in religious and civic ceremonies.[35] In 2002 Cornish was officially recognised as a UK minority language[36] and in 2005 it received limited Government funding.[37] A Standard Written Form was agreed in 2008.[38]Several Cornish mining words are used in English language mining terminology, such as costean, gossan,[39] gunnies, kibbal,[40] kieve[41] and vug.[42]In the 2010–15 Parliament of the United Kingdom, four Cornish MPs, Andrew George, MP for St Ives, Dan Rogerson, MP for North Cornwall, Steve Gilbert, MP for St Austell and Newquay, and Sarah Newton, MP for Truro and Falmouth repeated their Parliamentary oaths in Cornish.[43]English dialect[edit]Main articles: Anglo-Cornish and West Country DialectsThe Cornish language and culture influenced the emergence of particular pronunciations and grammar not used elsewhere in England. The Cornish dialect is spoken to varying degrees, however someone speaking full Anglo-Cornish may be practically unintelligible to one not accustomed it. Cornish dialect has generally declined, in most places it is now little more than a regional accent and grammatical differences have been eroded over time.Arts[edit]See also: Media in Cornwall The Tate Gallery at St Ives Artwork in the Barbara Hepworth Museum in St IvesSince the 19th century, Cornwall, with its unspoilt maritime scenery and strong light, has sustained a vibrant visual art scene of international renown. Artistic activity within Cornwall was initially centred on the art-colony of Newlyn, most active at the turn of the 20th century. This Newlyn School is associated with the names of Stanhope Forbes, Elizabeth Forbes,[44] Norman Garstin and Lamorna Birch.[45] Modernist writers such as D. H. Lawrence and Virginia Woolf lived in Cornwall between the wars,[46] and Ben Nicholson, the painter, having visited in the 1920s came to live in St Ives with his then wife, the sculptor Barbara Hepworth, at the outbreak of the second world war.[47] They were later joined by the Russian emigrant Naum Gabo,[48] and other artists. These included Peter Lanyon, Terry Frost, Patrick Heron, Bryan Wynter and Roger Hilton. St Ives also houses the Leach Pottery, where Bernard Leach, and his followers championed Japanese inspired studio pottery.[49] Much of this modernist work can be seen in Tate St Ives.[50] The Newlyn Society and Penwith Society of Arts continue to be active, and contemporary visual art is documented in a dedicated online journal.[51]Music[edit]Main article: Music of CornwallCornwall has a full and vibrant folk music tradition which has survived into the present and is well known for its unusual folk survivals such as Mummers Plays, the Furry Dance in Helston played by the famous Helston Town Band, and Obby Oss in Padstow.Newlyn is home to a food and music festival[52] which hosts live music, cooking demonstrations, and displays of locally caught fish.As in other former mining districts of Britain, male voice choirs and Brass Bands, e.g. Brass on the Grass concerts during the summer at Constantine, are still very popular in Cornwall: Cornwall also has around 40 brass bands, including the six-times National Champions of Great Britain, Camborne Youth Band, and the bands of Lanner and St Dennis.Cornish players are regular participants in inter-Celtic festivals, and Cornwall itself has several lively inter-Celtic festivals such as Perranporth's Lowender Peran folk festival.[53]On a more modern note, contemporary musician Richard D. James (also known as Aphex Twin) grew up in Cornwall, as did Luke Vibert and Alex Parks, winner of Fame Academy 2003. Roger Taylor, the drummer from the band Queen was also raised in the county, and currently lives not far from Falmouth. The American singer-songwriter Tori Amos now resides predominantly in North Cornwall not far from Bude with her family.[54] The lutenist, lutarist, composer and festival director Ben Salfield lives in Truro.Literature[edit]Cornwall's rich heritage and dramatic landscape have inspired numerous writers.Fiction[edit]See also: Poldark and Winston GrahamSir Arthur Quiller-Couch, author of many novels and works of literary criticism, lived in Fowey: his novels are mainly set in Cornwall. Daphne du Maurier lived at Menabilly near Fowey and many of her novels had Cornish settings, including Rebecca, Jamaica Inn, Frenchman's Creek, My Cousin Rachel, and The House on the Strand.[55] She is also noted for writing Vanishing Cornwall. Cornwall provided the inspiration for The Birds, one of her terrifying series of short stories, made famous as a film by Alfred Hitchcock.[56] Remains of Tintagel Castle, reputedly King Arthur's birthplaceMedieval Cornwall is the setting of the trilogy by Monica Furlong, Wise Child, Juniper, and Colman, as well as part of Charles Kingsley's Hereward the Wake.Conan Doyle's The Adventure of the Devil's Foot featuring Sherlock Holmes is set in Cornwall.[57] Winston Graham's series Poldark, Kate Tremayne's Adam Loveday series, Susan Cooper's novels Over Sea, Under Stone[58] and Greenwitch, and Mary Wesley's The Camomile Lawn are all set in Cornwall. Writing under the pseudonym of Alexander Kent, Douglas Reeman sets parts of his Richard Bolitho and Adam Bolitho series in the Cornwall of the late 18th and the early 19th centuries, particularly in Falmouth.Hammond Innes's novel, The Killer Mine;[59] Charles de Lint's novel The Little Country;[60] and Chapters 24 and 25 of J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows take place in Cornwall (the Harry Potter story at Shell Cottage, which is on the beach outside the fictional village of Tinworth in Cornwall).[61]David Cornwell, who writes espionage novels under the name John le Carré, lives and writes in Cornwall.[62] Nobel Prize-winning novelist William Golding was born in St Columb Minor in 1911, and returned to live near Truro from 1985 until his death in 1993.[63] D. H. Lawrence spent a short time living in Cornwall. Rosamunde Pilcher grew up in Cornwall, and several of her books take place there.Poetry[edit] 'For The Fallen' plaque with The Rumps promontory beyondThe late Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman was famously fond of Cornwall and it featured prominently in his poetry. He is buried in the churchyard at St Enodoc's Church, Trebetherick.[64] Charles Causley, the poet, was born in Launceston and is perhaps the best known of Cornish poets. Jack Clemo and the scholar A. L. Rowse were also notable Cornishmen known for their poetry; The Rev. R. S. Hawker of Morwenstow wrote some poetry which was very popular in the Victorian period. The Scottish poet W. S. Graham lived in West Cornwall from 1944 until his death in 1986.[65]The poet Laurence Binyon wrote "For the Fallen" (first published in 1914) while sitting on the cliffs between Pentire Point and The Rumps and a stone plaque was erected in 2001 to commemorate the fact. The plaque bears the inscription "FOR THE FALLEN / Composed on these cliffs, 1914". The plaque also bears below this the fourth stanza (sometimes referred to as "The Ode") of the poem:They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow oldAge shall not weary them, nor the years condemnAt the going down of the sun and in the morningWe will remember themOther literary works[edit]Cornwall produced a substantial number of passion plays such as the Ordinalia during the Middle Ages. Many are still extant, and provide valuable information about the Cornish language. See also Cornish literatureProlific writer Colin Wilson, best known for his debut work The Outsider (1956) and for The Mind Parasites (1967), lived in Gorran Haven, a small village on the southern Cornish coast. The writer D. M. Thomas was born in Redruth but lived and worked in Australia and the United States before returning to his native Cornwall. He has written novels, poetry, and other works, including translations from Russian.Thomas Hardy's drama The Queen of Cornwall (1923) is a version of the Tristan story; the second act of Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde takes place in Cornwall, as do Gilbert and Sullivan's operettas The Pirates of Penzance and Ruddigore. A level of Tomb Raider: Legend, a game dealing with Arthurian Legend, takes place in Cornwall at a museum above King Arthur's tomb.The fairy tale Jack the Giant Killer takes place in Cornwall.Sports[edit]Main article: Sport in Cornwall Cornish wrestlingThe main sports played in Cornwall are rugby, football and cricket. Athletes from Truro have done well in Olympic and Commonwealth Games fencing, winning several medals. Surfing is popular, particularly with tourists, thousands of which take to the water throughout the summer months. Some towns and villages have bowling clubs, and a wide variety of British sports are played throughout Cornwall. Cornwall is also one of the few places in England where shinty is played, the English Shinty Association is based in Penryn.The Cornwall County Cricket Club plays as one of the minor counties of English cricket.[66] Truro, and all of the towns and some villages have football clubs belonging to the Cornwall County Football Association. Rugby[edit]Main article: Rugby in CornwallViewed as an "important identifier of ethnic affiliation", rugby union has become a sport strongly tied to notions of Cornishness.[67] and since the 20th century, rugby union has emerged as one of the most popular spectator and team sports in Cornwall (perhaps the most popular), with professional Cornish rugby footballers being described as a "formidable force",[66] "naturally independent, both in thought and deed, yet paradoxically staunch English patriots whose top players have represented England with pride and passion".[68]In 1985, sports journalist Alan Gibson made a direct connection between love of rugby in Cornwall and the ancient parish games of hurling and wrestling that existed for centuries before rugby officially began.[68] Among Cornwall's native sports are a distinctive form of Celtic wrestling related to Breton wrestling, and Cornish hurling, a kind of mediaeval football played with a silver ball (distinct from Irish Hurling). Cornish Wrestling is Cornwall's oldest sport and as Cornwall's native tradition it has travelled the world to places like Victoria, Australia and Grass Valley, California following the miners and gold rushes. Cornish hurling now takes place at St. Columb Major, St Ives, and less frequently at Bodmin.[c]Surfing and watersports[edit] The world pilot gig rowing championships take place annually in the Isles of Scilly. Cornwall's north coast is known as a centre for surfingDue to its long coastline, various maritime sports are popular in Cornwall, notably sailing and surfing. International events in both are held in Cornwall. Cornwall hosted the Inter-Celtic Watersports Festival in 2006. Surfing in particular is very popular, as locations such as Bude and Newquay offer some of the best surf in the UK. Pilot gig rowing has been popular for many years and the World championships takes place annually on the Isles of Scilly. On 2 September 2007, 300 surfers at Polzeath beach set a new world record for the highest number of surfers riding the same wave as part of the Global Surf Challenge and part of a project called Earthwave to raise awareness about global warming.[69]Fencing[edit]As its population is comparatively small, and largely rural, Cornwall's contribution to British national sport in the United Kingdom has been limited;[66] the county's greatest successes have come in fencing. In 2014, half of the men's GB team fenced for Truro Fencing Club, and 3 Truro fencers appeared at the 2012 Olympics.[70]Cuisine[edit]Main article: Cornish cuisineCornwall has a strong culinary heritage. Surrounded on three sides by the sea amid fertile fishing grounds, Cornwall naturally has fresh seafood readily available; Newlyn is the largest fishing port in the UK by value of fish landed, and is known for its wide range of restaurants.[71] Television chef Rick Stein has long operated a fish restaurant in Padstow for this reason, and Jamie Oliver chose to open his second restaurant, Fifteen, in Watergate Bay near Newquay. MasterChef host and founder of Smiths of Smithfield, John Torode, in 2007 purchased Seiners in Perranporth. One famous local fish dish is Stargazy pie, a fish-based pie in which the heads of the fish stick through the piecrust, as though "star-gazing". The pie is cooked as part of traditional celebrations for Tom Bawcock's Eve, but is not generally eaten at any other time. A Cornish pastyCornwall is perhaps best known though for its pasties, a savoury dish made with pastry. Today's pasties usually contain a filling of beef steak, onion, potato and swede with salt and white pepper, but historically pasties had a variety of different fillings. "Turmut, 'tates and mate" (i.e. "Turnip, potatoes and meat", turnip being the Cornish and Scottish term for swede, itself an abbreviation of 'Swedish Turnip', the British term for rutabaga) describes a filling once very common. For instance, the licky pasty contained mostly leeks, and the herb pasty contained watercress, parsley, and shallots.[72] Pasties are often locally referred to as oggies. Historically, pasties were also often made with sweet fillings such as jam, apple and blackberry, plums or cherries.[73] The wet climate and relatively poor soil of Cornwall make it unsuitable for growing many arable crops. However, it is ideal for growing the rich grass required for dairying, leading to the production of Cornwall's other famous export, clotted cream. This forms the basis for many local specialities including Cornish fudge and Cornish ice cream. Cornish clotted cream has Protected Geographical Status under EU law,[74] and cannot be made anywhere else. Its principal manufacturer is A. E. Rodda & Son of Scorrier.Local cakes and desserts include Saffron cake, Cornish heavy (hevva) cake, Cornish fairings biscuits, figgy 'obbin, Cream tea and whortleberry pie.[75][76][77]There are also many types of beers brewed in Cornwall – those produced by Sharp's Brewery, Skinner's Brewery, Keltek Brewery and St Austell Brewery are the best-known – including stouts, ales and other beer types. There is some small scale production of wine, mead and cider.History[edit]Main articles: History of Cornwall and Timeline of Cornish history Mên-an-Tol.Prehistory, Roman and post-Roman periods[edit]See also: DumnoniaThe present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and then Bronze Age people.According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, England, France, Spain and Portugal.[78][79]During the British Iron Age, Cornwall, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Wales and Brittany. The Common Brittonic spoken at the time eventually developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish.[80]The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus, supposedly quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer Pytheas, who had sailed to Britain:The inhabitants of that part of Britain called Belerion (or Land's End) from their intercourse with foreign merchants, are civilised in their manner of life. They prepare the tin, working very carefully the earth in which it is produced ... Here then the merchants buy the tin from the natives and carry it over to Gaul, and after travelling overland for about thirty days, they finally bring their loads on horses to the mouth of the Rhône.[81] Celtic tribes of Southern Britain.The identity of these merchants is unknown. It has been theorised that they were Phoenicians, but there is no evidence for this.[82] Professor Timothy Champion, discussing Diodorus Siculus's comments on the tin trade, states that "Diodorus never actually says that the Phoenicians sailed to Cornwall. In fact, he says quite the opposite: the production of Cornish tin was in the hands of the natives of Cornwall, and its transport to the Mediterranean was organised by local merchants, by sea and then over land through France, well outside Phoenician control."[83] (For further discussion of tin mining see the section on the economy below.)There is little evidence that Roman rule was effective west of Exeter in Devon and few Roman remains have been found. However, after 410, Cornwall appears to have reverted to rule by Romano-Celtic chieftains of the Cornovii tribe as part of Dumnonia including one Marcus Cunomorus with at least one significant power base at Tintagel."King" Mark of Cornwall is a semi-historical figure known from Welsh literature, the Matter of Britain, and in particular, the later Norman-Breton medieval romance of Tristan and Yseult where he is regarded as a close relative of King Arthur; himself usually considered to be born of the Cornish people in folklore traditions derived from Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae.Archaeology supports ecclesiastical, literary and legendary evidence for some relative economic stability and close cultural ties between the sub-Roman Westcountry, South Wales, Brittany and Ireland through the fifth and sixth centuries.[84]Conflict with Wessex[edit]The Battle of Deorham in 577 saw the separation of Dumnonia (and therefore Cornwall) from Wales, following which the Dumnonii often came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The Annales Cambriae report that in 722 AD the Britons of Cornwall won a battle at "Hehil".[85] It seems likely that the enemy the Cornish fought was a West Saxon force, as evidenced by the naming of King Ine of Wessex and his kinsman Nonna in reference to an earlier Battle of Lining in 710.[86]The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle stated in 815 (adjusted date) "and in this year king Ecgbryht raided in Cornwall from east to west." and thenceforth apparently held it as a ducatus or dukedom annexed to his regnum or kingdom of Wessex, but not wholly incorporated with it.[87] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that in 825 (adjusted date) a battle took place between the Wealas (Cornish) and the Defnas (men of Devon) at Gafulforda. In the same year Ecgbert, as a later document expresses it, "disposed of their territory as it seemed fit to him, giving a tenth part of it to God." In other words, he incorporated Cornwall ecclesiastically with the West Saxon diocese of Sherborne, and endowed Eahlstan, his fighting bishop, who took part in the campaign, with an extensive Cornish estate consisting of Callington and Lawhitton, both in the Tamar valley, and Pawton near Padstow.In 838, the Cornish and their Danish allies were defeated by Egbert in the Battle of Hingston Down at Hengestesdune (probably Hingston Down in Cornwall). In 875, the last recorded king of Cornwall, Dumgarth, is said to have drowned.[88] Around the 880s, Anglo-Saxons from Wessex had established modest land holdings in the eastern part of Cornwall; notably Alfred the Great who had acquired a few estates.[89] William of Malmesbury, writing around 1120, says that King Athelstan of England (924–939) fixed the boundary between English and Cornish people at the east bank of the River Tamar.[13]Breton–Norman period[edit] The ancient Hundreds of CornwallOne interpretation of the Domesday Book is that by this time the native Cornish landowning class had been almost completely dispossessed and replaced by English landowners, particularly Harold Godwinson himself. However, the Bodmin manumissions show that two leading Cornish figures nominally had Saxon names, but these were both glossed with native Cornish names.[90] Naming evidence cited by medievalist Edith Ditmas suggests that many post-Conquest landowners in Cornwall were Breton allies of the Normans[91] and further proposed this period for the early composition of the Tristan and Iseult cycle by poets such as Beroul from a pre-existing shared Brittonic oral tradition.[92]Soon after the Norman conquest most of the land was transferred to the new Breton–Norman aristocracy, with the lion's share going to Robert, Count of Mortain, half-brother of King William and the largest landholder in England after the king with his stronghold at Trematon Castle near the mouth of the Tamar.[93] Cornwall and Devon west of Dartmoor showed a very different type of settlement pattern from that of Saxon Wessex and places continued, even after 1066, to be named in the Celtic Cornish tradition with Saxon architecture being uncommon.[citation needed]Later medieval administration and society[edit]Subsequently, however, Norman absentee landlords became replaced by a new Cornu-Norman elite including scholars such as Richard Rufus of Cornwall. These families eventually became the new ruling class of Cornwall (typically speaking Norman French, Breton-Cornish, Latin and eventually English), many becoming involved in the operation of the Stannary Parliament system, Earldom and eventually the Duchy.[94] The Cornish language continued to be spoken and it acquired a number of characteristics establishing its identity as a separate language from Breton.Stannary parliaments[edit]Main article: Stannary Courts and ParliamentsThe stannary parliaments and stannary courts were legislative and legal institutions in Cornwall and in Devon (in the Dartmoor area), England. The stannary courts administered equity for the region's tin-miners and tin mining interests, and they were also courts of record for the towns dependent on the mines. The separate and powerful government institutions available to the tin miners reflected the enormous importance of the tin industry to the English economy during the Middle Ages. Special laws for tin miners pre-date written legal codes in Britain, and ancient traditions exempted everyone connected with tin mining in Cornwall and Devon from any jurisdiction other than the stannary courts in all but the most exceptional circumstances.Piracy and smuggling[edit]Cornish piracy was active during the Elizabethan era on the west coast of Britain.[95] Cornwall is well known for its wreckers who preyed on ships passing Cornwall's rocky coastline. During the 17th and 18th centuries Cornwall was a major Smuggling area.Politics and administration[edit]Main article: Politics of CornwallCornish national identity[edit]Further information: Cornish nationalism The percentage of respondents who gave "Cornish" as an answer to the National Identity question in the 2011 census.Cornwall is recognised by Cornish and Celtic political groups as one of six Celtic nations, alongside Brittany, Ireland, the Isle of Man, Scotland and Wales.[96][97][98][99] (The Isle of Man Government and the Welsh Government also recognise Asturias and Galicia).[100][101] Cornwall is represented, as one of the Celtic nations, at the Festival Interceltique de Lorient, an annual celebration of Celtic culture held in Brittany.[102]Cornwall Council consider Cornwall's unique cultural heritage and distinctiveness to be one of the area's major assets. They see Cornwall's language, landscape, Celtic identity, political history, patterns of settlement, maritime tradition, industrial heritage, and non-conformist tradition, to be among the features making up its "distinctive" culture.[103] However, it is uncertain how many of the people living in Cornwall consider themselves to be Cornish; results from different surveys (including the national census) have varied. In the 2001 census, 7 percent of people in Cornwall identified themselves as Cornish, rather than British or English. However, activists have argued that this underestimated the true number as there was no explicit "Cornish" option included in the official census form.[104] Subsequent surveys have suggested that as many as 44 percent identify as Cornish.[105] Many people in Cornwall say that this issue would be resolved if a Cornish option became available on the census.[106] The question and content recommendations for the 2011 Census provided an explanation of the process of selecting an ethnic identity which is relevant to the understanding of the often quoted figure of 37,000 who claim Cornish identity.[107]On 24 April 2014 it was announced that Cornish people have been granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.[10]Local politics[edit] Cornwall Council's headquarters in Truro From the 2010 general election, Cornwall has had six parliamentary constituenciesWith the exception of the Isles of Scilly, Cornwall is governed by a unitary authority, Cornwall Council, based in Truro. The Crown Court is based at the Courts of Justice in Truro. Magistrates' Courts are found in Truro (but at a different location to the Crown Court) and at Bodmin.The Isles of Scilly form part of the ceremonial county of Cornwall,[108] and have, at times, been served by the same county administration. Since 1890 they have been administered by their own unitary authority, the Council of the Isles of Scilly. They are grouped with Cornwall for other administrative purposes, such as the National Health Service and Devon and Cornwall Police.[109][110][111]Before reorganisation on 1 April 2009, council functions throughout the rest of Cornwall were organised on a two-tier basis, with a county council and district councils for its six districts, Caradon, Carrick, Kerrier, North Cornwall, Penwith, and Restormel. While projected to streamline services, cut red tape and save around £17 million a year, the reorganisation was met with wide opposition, with a poll in 2008 giving a result of 89% disapproval from Cornish residents.[112][113][114]The first elections for the unitary authority were held on 4 June 2009. The council has 123 seats; the largest party (in 2017) is the Tory Party, with 46 seats. The Liberal Democrats are the second largest party, with 37 seats, with the Independents in third place with 30.[115]Before the creation of the unitary council, the former county council had 82 seats, the majority of which were held by the Liberal Democrats, elected at the 2005 county council elections. The six former districts had a total of 249 council seats, and the groups with greatest numbers of councillors were Liberal Democrats, Conservatives, and Independents.Parliament and national politics[edit]Following a review by the Boundary Commission for England taking effect at the 2010 general election, Cornwall is divided into six county constituencies to elect MPs to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.Before the 2010 boundary changes Cornwall had five constituencies all of which were won by Liberal Democrats in the 2005 general election. At the 2010 general election Liberal Democrat candidates won three constituencies and Conservative candidates won three constituencies (see also 2010 United Kingdom general election result in Cornwall). At the 2015 general election all six Cornish seats were won by Conservative candidates. All these conservative MPs retained their seats in the 2017 general electionUntil 1832, Cornwall had 44 MPs – more than any other county – reflecting the importance of tin to the Crown.[116] Most of the increase in numbers of MPs came between 1529 and 1584 after which there was no change until 1832.[117]Devolution movement[edit]Cornish nationalists have organised into two political parties: Mebyon Kernow, formed in 1951, and the Cornish Nationalist Party. In addition to the political parties, there are various interest groups such as the Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament and the Celtic League. The Cornish Constitutional Convention was formed in 2000 as a cross-party organisation including representatives from the private, public and voluntary sectors to campaign for the creation of a Cornish Assembly,[8][118] along the lines of the National Assembly for Wales, Northern Ireland Assembly and the Scottish Parliament. Between 5 March 2000 and December 2001, the campaign collected the signatures of 41,650 Cornish residents endorsing the call for a devolved assembly, along with 8,896 signatories from outside Cornwall. The resulting petition was presented to the Prime Minister, Tony Blair.[8] The Liberal Democrats recognise Cornwall's claims for greater autonomy, as do the Liberal Party."The new single council is also the opportunity to gain more control over local issues from regional and national Government bureaucrats – the first step on our way to a Cornish Assembly." – The Liberal Democrat Manifesto for 2009An additional political issue is the recognition of the Cornish people as a minority.[119]Economy[edit]Main article: Economy of Cornwall Falmouth Docks is the major port of Cornwall, and one of the largest natural harbours in the world The Eden Project near St Austell, Cornwall's largest tourist attraction in terms of visitor numbersCornwall is one of the poorest parts of the United Kingdom in terms of per capita GDP and average household incomes. At the same time, parts of the county, especially on the coast, have high house prices, driven up by demand from relatively wealthy retired people and second-home owners.[120] The GVA per head was 65% of the UK average for 2004.[121] The GDP per head for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly was 79.2% of the EU-27 average for 2004, the UK per head average was 123.0%.[122] In 2011, the latest available figures, Cornwall's (including the Isles of Scilly) measure of wealth was 64% of the European average per capita.[123]Historically mining of tin (and later also of copper) was important in the Cornish economy. The first reference to this appears to be by Pytheas: see above. Julius Caesar was the last classical writer to mention the tin trade, which appears to have declined during the Roman occupation.[124] The tin trade revived in the Middle Ages and its importance to the Kings of England resulted in certain privileges being granted to the tinners; the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 is attributed to grievances of the tin miners.[125] In the mid-19th century, however, the tin trade again fell into decline. Other primary industries that have declined since the 1960s include china clay production, fishing and farming.Today, the Cornish economy depends heavily on its tourist industry, which makes up around a quarter of the economy. The official measures of deprivation and poverty at district and 'sub-ward' level show that there is great variation in poverty and prosperity in Cornwall with some areas among the poorest in England and others among the top half in prosperity. For example, the ranking of 32,482 sub-wards in England in the index of multiple deprivation (2006) ranged from 819th (part of Penzance East) to 30,899th (part of Saltash Burraton in Caradon), where the lower number represents the greater deprivation.[126][127]Cornwall is one of two UK areas designated as 'less developed regions' which qualify for Cohesion Policy grants from the European Union.[128] It was granted Objective 1 status by the European Commission for 2000 to 2006,[129] followed by further rounds of funding known as 'Convergence Funding' from 2007 to 2013[130] and 'Growth Programme' for 2014 to 2020.[131]Tourism[edit] Par railway station with a British Rail Class 43 (HST) introduced by British Rail to the Cornish Main Line by the InterCity sector.Tourism is estimated to contribute up to 24% of Cornwall's gross domestic product.[132] In 2011 Tourism brought £1.85 billion into the Cornish economy.[133] Cornwall's unique culture, spectacular landscape and mild climate make it a popular tourist destination, despite being somewhat distant from the United Kingdom's main centres of population. Surrounded on three sides by the English Channel and Celtic Sea, Cornwall has many miles of beaches and cliffs; the South West Coast Path follows a complete circuit of both coasts. Other tourist attractions include moorland, country gardens, museums, historic and prehistoric sites, and wooded valleys. Five million tourists visit Cornwall each year, mostly drawn from within the UK.[134] Visitors to Cornwall are served by the airport at Newquay, whilst private jets, charters and helicopters are also served by Perranporth airfield; nightsleeper and daily rail services run between Cornwall, London and other regions of the UK. Cornwall has a tourism-based seasonal economy.Newquay and Porthtowan are popular destinations for surfers. In recent years, the Eden Project near St Austell has been a major financial success, drawing one in eight of Cornwall's visitors in 2004.[135]Internet[edit]Cornwall is the landing point for twenty-two of the world's fastest high-speed undersea and transatlantic fibre optic cables, making Cornwall an important hub within Europe's Internet infrastructure.[136][137] The Superfast Cornwall project completed in 2015,[138] and saw 95% of Cornish houses and businesses connected to a fibre-based broadband network, with over 90% of properties able to connect with speeds above 24Mbit/s.[139]Fishing[edit] Redruth Mine in 1890Other industries are fishing, although this has been significantly re-structured by EU fishing policies (the Southwest Handline Fishermen's Association has started to revive the fishing industry).[140]Agriculture[edit]Agriculture, once an important part of the Cornish economy has declined significantly. However, there is still a strong dairy industry producing products such as Cornish Clotted cream.Mining[edit]Main article: Mining in CornwallMining of tin and copper was also an industry, but today the derelict mine workings survive only as a World Heritage Site.[141] However, the Camborne School of Mines, which was relocated to Penryn in 2004, is still a world centre of excellence in the field of mining and applied geology[142] and the grant of World Heritage status has attracted funding for conservation and heritage tourism.[143] China clay extraction has also been an important industry in the St Austell area, but this sector has been in decline, and this, coupled with increased mechanisation, has led to a decrease in employment in this sector, although the industry still employs around 2,133 people in Cornwall, and generates over £80 Million to the local economy.[144]Aerospace[edit]The county's newest industry is aviation: Cornwall Airport Newquay is the only national and international airport west of Exeter, and is the home of a growing business park with Enterprise Zone status, known as Aerohub. There are also plans to establish Spaceport Cornwall at Newquay, in partnership with Goonhilly satellite tracking station near Helston in south Cornwall.[citation needed]Demographics[edit]Main articles: Demography of Cornwall and List of settlements in Cornwall by populationSee also: Cornish diaspora Graph showing Cornwall's population from 1800 to 2000Cornwall's population was 537,400 at the last census, with a population density of 144 people per square kilometre, ranking it 40th and 41st respectively among the 47 counties of England. Cornwall's population was 95.7% White British and has a relatively high level of population growth. At 11.2% in the 1980s and 5.3% in the 1990s, it had the fifth-highest population growth rate of the counties of England.[145] The natural change has been a small population decline, and the population increase is due to inward migration into Cornwall.[146] According to the 1991 census, the population was 469,800.Cornwall has a relatively high retired population, with 22.9% of pensionable age, compared with 20.3% for the United Kingdom as a whole.[147] This may be due to a combination of Cornwall's rural and coastal geography increasing its popularity as a retirement location, and outward migration of younger residents to more economically diverse areas.Education system[edit]See also: List of schools in Cornwall The Old School, Grampound RoadCornwall has a comprehensive education system, with 31 state and eight independent secondary schools. There are three further education colleges: Truro and Penwith College, Cornwall College and Callywith College which is due to open in September 2017. The Isles of Scilly only has one school while the former Restormel district has the highest school population, and school year sizes are around 200, with none above 270. Before the introduction of comprehensive schools there were a number of grammar schools and secondary modern schools, e.g. the schools that later became Sir James Smith's School and Wadebridge School. There are also primary schools in many villages and towns; e.g. St Mabyn Church of England Primary School.Higher education is provided by Falmouth University, the University of Exeter (including Camborne School of Mines), the Combined Universities in Cornwall, and by Truro College, Penwith College (which combined in 2008 to make Truro and Penwith College) and Cornwall College.See also[edit]iconGeography portalEurope portalflagUnited Kingdom portalflagEngland portalflagCornwall portalCelts portalOutline of Cornwall – overview of the wide range of topics covered by this subjectNotes[edit]Jump up ^ The Fox family of Falmouth, Cornwall, UK were very influential in the development of the town of Falmouth in the 19th century and of the Cornish Industrial Revolution.[1] In the 18th and 19th centuries, many of them were members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). Caroline's and Barclay's journals[edit]Caroline and Barclay Fox kept remarkable journals, which were published in the 1970s and provide historical and literary biographical sources for mid-nineteenth century Britain. Caroline's Journal was originally published in 1881, when it was a “surprise best-seller”. A new selection from the 1882 edition by Wendy Monk was published in 1972.[2]Caroline Fox kept her journal from 1835 to 1871.[3] Barclay Fox kept his journal from 1832 to 1854 (but with few entries after 1844).[4] Barclay's journal was published in a scholarly but accessible edition by Raymond L. Brett in 1979, reprinted with additional material in 2008.Family friends, mentioned in the journals of Caroline and Barclay Fox[edit]Henry de la BecheJohn BowringJohn BrightThomas and Jane CarlyleDerwent ColeridgeWilliam ForsterDavies GilbertRobert HuntThomas Brown JordanCharles KingsleyCharles LemonF.D.MauriceJohn Stuart MillJohn Rogers (divine)Dean StanleyJohn SterlingGeorge Wightwick View of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, in Falmouth. The building was designed by George WightwickRoyal Cornwall Polytechnic Society[edit]The idea for the foundation of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society was created by Caroline, Barclay and their older sister, Anna Maria. The first Committee of the "Poly", elected in January 1833, was rather dominated by Fox family members: "Dr. Fox , Mr & Mrs RW Fox, Mr & Mrs GC Fox, Mr TW Fox, Mr GP Fox, Mr & Mrs A Fox, Mr J Fox, Mr & Mrs C Fox of Perran, Miss Fox and Misses AM and C Fox and Mr RB Fox of Bank.".[5]In 1870, the Falmouth & Penryn Committee included Charles Fox (President), Miss AM Fox, A.Fox, N.Fox, RW Fox, Howard Fox, Mrs Howard Fox, Robert Fox, Samuel Fox and George Henry Fox. Miss AM Fox judged the Needlework that had been exhibited in the Annual Exhibition.[6]The Poly in Church Street, Falmouth hit serious financial problems in January 2010 and closed its commercial arm. It recovered and is still operating (October, 2014).Science and technology[edit]R.W.Fox FRS[edit]Caroline and Barclay's father and uncle were both scientists. Their father, Robert Were Fox, was an FRS with interests in mineralogy, metallurgy and geomagnetism. He was a live wire in the British Association. He invented an improved version of the Dipping Needle Deflector, a navigational aid for polar explorers.Charles Fox[edit]Their uncle, Charles Fox also published scientific papers and ran an innovative Iron Foundry at Perranarworthal.Fox family and the BAAS[edit]The Fox family descended from R W Fox the Elder had a long engagement with the British Association for the Advancement of Science (now called the British Science Association), founded in 1831.In August 1835, Barclay Fox, aged 19, recorded in his Journal his visit to Dublin, for the BAAS Annual Meeting, with his father, Robert Were Fox the younger and his uncle, Charles Fox. R W Fox read a paper to the Physics section and demonstrated his instrument.[7] In 1836, Barclay Fox records a large family visit to Bristol, at the time of the BAAS Annual Meeting in 1836.[8] His younger sister, Caroline was in the party and attended the Physics`section.[9]In 1837, the family made a tour of the North of England, and this included the BAAS Annual Meeting in Liverpool.[10] Caroline was also present at this event.[11]In 1841, Barclay attended the Annual Meeting held at Plymouth, with his two sisters and became a life member.[12][13]Caroline Fox also attended the 1857 Annual meeting, in Dublin. Her father read a paper on the temperature in mines in the Geological Section.[14]In August, 1884, Barclay and Caroline's older sister, Anna Maria visited Canada and the USA, with her nephew, Howard Fox, to attend the British Association meeting in Montreal and the meeting of the BAAS with the American Association in Philadelphia.At the British Association's Annual Meeting held in Nottingham in September 1893, Howard Fox read a paper to the Geology Section "The radiolarian cherts of Cornwall".Gardens[edit]Robert, Charles and their brother, Alfred, were deeply engaged in exotic botany and horticulture. They founded the gardens at Trebah, Glendurgan (now a National Trust property), Penjerrick and Rosehill, in Falmouth, all currently open to the public and containing mature specimens on exotic plants and trees.Minerals[edit]George Croker Fox (1784–1850), Robert Were Fox FRS and Alfred Fox assembled excellent collections of minerals, which are now in the British Museum (Natural History), given by Arthur Russell. Edward Fox (1749–1817), merchant, of Wadebridge, supplied the great collector Philip Rashleigh with mineral specimens.[15]Quaker interests[edit] Gravestones at the Quaker Burial Ground, Budock, where many members of the Fox family were buried, along with their Friends, of the Tregelles and Stephens families.Many of the family were Quakers, but they were not related to the George Fox (1624–1691) who was one of the founders of the movement.They were active locally in the Falmouth Meeting, Cornwall Monthly Meeting and Devon and Cornwall Quarterly Meeting. According to the Journals of Caroline and Barclay Fox, their parents and uncles usually attended the annual gathering of Quakers called London Yearly Meeting, when, as well as attending the sessions of Yearly Meeting, they met their Quaker relations and friends from all over the United Kingdom. Caroline and Anna Maria Fox were "Plain Quakers" all their lives, their unfashionable narrow skirts inspiring the names of two mine chimneys. However, the Falmouth Quakers were not "plain" in their appreciation and practice of art and literature. During the period that Barclay Fox kept his Journal, he abandoned the numbering of months for the "pagan" names, previously avoided by Friends.The Fox family intermarried with local Quaker families and prominent Quaker mercantile families,[16] such as Backhouse and Pease of Darlington, Hustler, Lloyd and Barclay of Bury Hill.Charles Fox (1797–1878)) and Alfred Fox's eldest son, Alfred Lloyd Fox played a part in the Society of Friends overseas missions.[17]Business interests of the Fox family[edit]The family worked in partnership with other Quaker families, Tregelles of Falmouth and Price of South Wales and with the Methodist family of Williams.Shipbroking[edit]G.C. Fox (Shipping Brokers)[18] was a major shipping agency and broker in the growing freight port of Falmouth. The company was established in 1762 and passed out of family control on 30 September 2003. It remains the oldest ship agency company in Falmouth[19]Pilchard fishery, processing and export[edit]Alfred Fox was heavily engaged in the Pilchard industry of Cornwall. Much of the output was salted fish for export to Catholic Southern Europe.In 1882 Howard, George and Robert Fox formed the Falmouth Fishery Company Ltd., which also purchased G.C. Fox's ship towage business; in 1893 it was transformed into the Falmouth Towage Company Ltd.[20]Iron founding[edit]Perran FoundryGeneral manager of the Foundry: George Fox the Second ( -1825), Charles Fox (1825–1842), Barclay Fox (1842– )Neath Abbey Iron Foundry.Metal mining[edit]Tin and Copper mining – supplying credit, pumping engines, imported materials: timber balks, coal. In partnership with the Williams family, developing the harbour at Portreath and the Portreath Tramway to the mines from there.[21] Portreath Harbour when the tide is outCoal mining[edit]Neath Abbey Coal Company (in partnership with the Price and Tregelles families).[22]Timber trade[edit]For 200 years, the Fox family carried out the timber trade, with depots at Penryn, Falmouth, Truro and Grampound Road. In 1957, the business was merged with Harvey's of Hayle.[23]Consulships[edit]Consulships of various foreign countries, held successively by members of the Fox family."U.S. State Department FAQs: Have there been multi-generational foreign affairs families in U.S. history? . . . .A family of English Quaker merchants named Fox were U.S. Consuls at Falmouth, England. Robert Were Fox served from 1794 to 1812, and again from 1815 to his death in 1818. Robert Were Fox , Jr. served from 1819 to 1854 (their middle name is sometimes spelled "Weare" or "Ware"). Somehow the Consulate passed out of the family between 1854 and 1863. Two more generations of Foxes then served.Alfred Fox was appointed in 1863, and Howard Fox served from 1874 until the post was closed in December 1905.".[24]U.S. Consuls1792–1794 Edward Long Fox.[25][26]1794–1812, 1815–1818 R.W.Fox the Elder.[27]1818–1854 R.W. Fox the Younger.[27]1854–1863 [Unknown] The American Civil War(1861–1865)1863–1874 Alfred Fox, brother of R.W.Fox the Younger.[27]1874–1905 Howard Fox, son of Alfred Fox[24]Medicine and Surgery[edit]Several members of the family were surgeons and physicians, some based in Falmouth. The most distinguished of these seems to have been Edward Long Fox (1762–1835), lunatic asylum proprietor at Brislington and developer of Weston-super-Mare as a sea-bathing resort. He married twice and had 15 daughters and 8 sons.[25][28] He should not be confused with another Edward Long Fox (1832–1902), in whose name an annual public lecture has been endowed, at the University of Bristol.[29] The Oxford Companion to Medicine states there were 21 doctors in the Fox dynasty.[30]Politics[edit]In his journal for 1839 and 1840, Barclay Fox records his enthusiastic support for the Liberal candidate for Penryn & Falmouth, Edward John Hutchins, his approval of the reformed electoral process and his delight at victory.[31] In March 1840, he campaigned for Cornish MPs to support Ewart's bill to abolish the Death Penalty for all offences.[32]Barclay, his father, R W Fox and his uncle, Alfred Fox were involved in lobbying Ministers and officials in Westminster and Whitehall with other Cornish gentry and merchants for the Post Office Packet Service, the fishing and mining industries and the extension of a railway service west of Plymouth.At the 1868 general election, Charles Fox of Trebah was one of two representatives of Falmouth on the committee to elect the Liberal candidate, Pendarves Vivian to Parliament, representing West Cornwall. Howard Fox was the Treasurer of the Falmouth Liberal Association.[33]Robert Barclay Fox, Barclay's grandson, was a Conservative County Councillor in Cornwall.Genealogy[edit]Children and grandchildren of George Fox of Par[edit]George Fox of Par was the son of Francis Fox of St Germans, Cornwall, and his second wife, Tabitha Croker.[34] Francis's father, also Francis, and his mother, Dorothy, were early converts to the revolutionary Quaker faith. George Fox married twice, first, to Mary Bealing and, second, to Anna Debell.[25] Advertisement for lawnmowers, supplied by Nathaniel Fox, ironmonger, of Church Street, Falmouth. He was a son of Joseph (1729–1784) and Elizabeth FoxChildren of first marriage of George Fox to Mary BealingEdward Fox (born 1719) of Wadebridge, married Anna Were (1719–1788).[16] They had nine children, includingGeorge Fox (11 July 1746 – 22 June 1816) of Perranarworthal near Falmouth, Cornwall, merchant[16]Thomas Fox (17 January 1747/8 – 29 April 1821) of Wellington, Somerset (woollen manufacturer and banker).[16]Edward Fox (13 December 1749 – 8 April 1817) of Wadebridge, Merchant.[16]Robert Were Fox (1758–1818) of Wadebridge (not to be confused with his son, Robert Were Fox (1792–1872) or his cousin or cousin's son, both also called "Robert Were Fox").Children of George Fox's second marriage to Anna DebellGeorge Croker Fox the First (1727/8-1781)[16] (See below).Joseph Fox (1729–1784) of Falmouth.[25] Joseph was the first Falmouth Fox, and founder of the medical dynasty. He was also a man of character, as is plain from the affair of the Prize Money. He married Elizabeth Hingston (28 October 1733 – 1802) on 17 May 1754.[35] He was Mayor of Falmouth at the time of the visit of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, on 1 September 1843.The eleven children of Joseph Fox (1729–1784) and Elizabeth Hingston included two who became medical doctors-Joseph Fox (1754–1832), of Falmouth, who married his 2nd cousin Elizabeth Peters. Joseph became a catholic.Edward Long Fox (1762–1835), lunatic asylum proprietor at Brislington and developer of Weston-super-Mare as a sea-bathing resort (Described above under "Medicine and Surgery"). Edward Long Fox married first, Catherine Brown, and second, Isabella Ker, and had 22 children.The other children of Joseph Fox (1729–1784) and Elizabeth Hingston were:Anna, who married first, William Rawes, and second, Thomas ThompsonElizabeth married John AllenSarahTabithaRachelRichard married Hannah ForsterNathanielFrancis married Hester MillsPhilipChildren of George Croker Fox the First (1727–1781) and Mary Were, his wife[edit]George Croker Fox the First was the son of George Fox of Par and his second wife, Anna Debell. In 1749, he and Mary Were (died 1796) were married. Their children were:George Croker Fox the Second (2 June 1752 – 31 December 1807).[16][27] He married Catherine Young (1751? – 1809) in 1780. The home of Lucy and George Croker Fox in Wood Lane: Grove Hill HouseTheir son, also called, George Croker Fox (1784–1850),[36] in 1810, married Lucy Barclay (b.1783),[36] whose sister, Maria, who married R.W. Fox the Younger. Lucy and Maria were daughters of Robert Barclay (1751–1830) of Bury Hill, near Dorking, Surrey.[37] Lucy and George Croker Fox the Third had no children. He was the author of the following translations:The Prometheus of Æschylus and the Electra of Sophocles. Translated ... With notes, intended to illustrate the typical character of the former. Also, a few original poems. By George Croker Fox. London, Darton & Harvey, 1835.The death of Demosthenes, and other original poems: with the Prometheus and Agamemnon of Æschylus, translated from the Greek; London, 1839.Joshua Fox (?1752–1791).[27] (Not to be confused with Joshua Fox (1792–1877).Robert Were Fox the Elder, (1754–1818), businessman See below.Thomas Were Fox (1 July 1766 – 23 July 1844) married Mary Tregelles (1770–1835). They had four sons, He moved to Plymouth after his wife's death[16]William Were Fox (d.1775)Philip Fox (d.1775). William and Philip were drowned "in a great storm, off the coast of Holland."[27]Three other children.[25]Children of R.W. Fox the Elder and Elizabeth Tregelles (1768–1848), his wife[edit]Robert Were Fox the Younger (1789–1877), F.R.S. and businessman. (See below)George Philip Fox (1790–1854) Gravestone of Joshua Fox (17 April 1792 – 27 March 1887) of Tregedna, and his second daughter, Marie Louise Triebner (1825 – July 1894) in the Quaker Burial Ground at Budock, Falmouth.Joshua Fox (17 April 1792 – 27 March 1887)[38] of Tregenda, married Joanna Flannering,[39] who died 1826. Three daughters:Joanna Ellen FoxMarie Louise Fox (1825 – July 1894) – married Harry Triebner in October 1877.[40]Josephine FoxAlfred Fox (1794–1894), businessman. Twelve children. (Details of his marriage and children are given in his Wikipedia article).Henry (d.1809)Charles Fox (scientist) (1797–1878) of Trebah, general manager of the Perran FoundryCharlotte Fox (1799–1879) married Samuel Fox (1794–1874), of Wellington, his second marriage, 18 April 1849.[41] The family moved to Tottenham in 1837 and on his retirement in 1857, to Falmouth.[16] At the time of Charlotte's death she resided at Lamorva.[42]Elizabeth Tregelles Fox (1800–1837) married Will Gibbins (1791 – 15 February 1843), of Birmingham and later of Falmouth, banker, in 1833.[16] No children.Lewis Fox (15 February 1803 – 6 December 1839), unmarried. Merchant at Perran Wharf.[43]Mariana Fox (1807–1863) married Francis Tuckett (1802–1868), of Frenchay, leather factor, in 1833[16]Children of R.W. Fox the Younger and Maria Barclay, his wife[edit]Anna Maria Fox (1816.[44] – 1897)[45]), promoter of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. No children. Amateur painter and organiser of the Art section of the Annual Exhibition at the “Poly”. The first purpose-built building of Falmouth School of Art, in Arwenack Avenue, was given in memory of her.[46] The 1904 building was refurbished in 2007.Barclay Fox (1817–1855), author of Journal, published in 1979[44] (Details of his marriage and children are given in his Wikipedia article).Caroline Fox (1819–1871), author of Journal, published in 1881[47] and 1972.[48]Other relations[edit]Edmund Backhouse (MP) (1824–1906), son-in-law of Charles Fox.Horace Pym, editor of Caroline Fox's Journal, published 1881[47] and husband, successively of two of her relations.Josiah Fox (1763–1847), naval architect and a relation of this family.Howard Fox, (10 February 1836 – 15 November 1922), son of Alfred and Sarah Fox, Chair of the Falmouth Harbour Board and the Falmouth Docks Company for 45 years. Married Olivia Blanche Orme, a non-Quaker. They had two sons, Charles Masson Fox and Howard Orme Fox, and two daughters, Olivia Lloyd Fox and Stella Fox.[43]Charles Masson Fox (6 November 1866 – 11 October 1935), chess player. Son of Howard Fox and Olivia Blanche Orme, his wife.[43] Partner in the Fox family's businesses and Consul to Russia and Sweden.Charles Fox (1740?–1809), poet and orientalist of Falmouth and Bristol. This Charles Fox is the subject of a DNB article.[49] It is not clear whether or how he was related to other Falmouth Foxes.Robert Barclay Fox (24 July 1873 – 22 April 1934), Son of Robert Fox and Ellen Bassett, his wife. Grandson of Barclay Fox. Cornwall County Councillor, High Sheriff of Cornwall, 1920–1921, Partner in G.C. Fox.[50] Condition: Fairly good overall - see description for complete details., Binding: Hardcover, Subject: History, Topic: Historical, Special Attributes: 1st Edition, Origin: English, Printing Year: 1817, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom, Year Printed: 1817, Original/Facsimile: Original, Language: English, Region: Europe

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