Phoenician (?) bronze plate with images of people, animals and inscriptions

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Seller: ukr10 (818) 100%, Location: Clearwater Beach, Florida, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 180955128434 Phoenician (?) bronze plate with images of people, animals and inscriptions on both sides We have done a lot of research on archaic languages. We suggest that the inscriptions are made in old Phoenician language. Opinion of the experts will be highly appreciated. If it is so, this item has a high historical value, because Phoenician alphabet was the first in the history of Europe and Middle East and gave rise to alphabets of many European languages. Provenance: from the old collection of American gentleman, originally purchased in Mediterranean area. Condition: Authentic patina, one side of the plate with several letters inscription is separated. Size: 25.5 cm x 13.5 cm = 10.5" inches x 5.5" inches Weight: 350 g = 13 oz. Phoenicia(UK /fɨˈnɪʃə/, US /fəˈniË�ʃə/; from the Greek Greek: Φοινίκη: Phoinà kÄ“), was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the fertile Crescent. Several major Phoenician cities were built on the coastline of the Mediterranean. It was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550 BC to 300 BC. The Phoenicians used the galley, a man-powered sailing vessel, and are credited with the invention of the Bireme. They were famed in Classical Greece and Rome as 'traders in purple', referring to their monopoly on the precious purple dye of the Murex snail, used, among other things, for royal clothing, and for their spread of the alphabet (or abjad), upon which all major modern alphabets are derived. In the Amarna tablets of the 14th century BC, people from the region called themselves Kenaani or Kinaani (Canaanites), although these letters predate the invasion of the Sea Peoples by over a century. Much later, in the 6th century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus writes that Phoenicia was formerly called χνα, a name Philo of Byblos later adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix". Egyptian seafaring expeditions had already been made to Byblos to bring back "cedars of Lebanon" as early as the third millennium BC. "Phoenicia" is really a Classical Greek term used to refer to the region of the major Canaanite port towns, and does not correspond exactly to a cultural identity that would have been recognized by the Phoenicians themselves. It is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single ethnicity. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to ancient Greece. However, in terms of archaeology, language, life style and religion, there is little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other cultures of Canaan. As Canaanites, they were unique in their remarkable seafaring achievements. Each of their cities was a city-state which was politically an independent unit and they could come into conflict and one city could be dominated by another city-state, although they would collaborate in leagues or alliances. Though ancient boundaries of such city-centered cultures fluctuated, the city of Tyre seems to have been the southernmost. Sarepta (modern day Sarafand) between Sidon and Tyre is the most thoroughly excavated city of the Phoenician homeland. The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make extensive use of the alphabet. The Phoenician phonetic alphabet is generally believed to be the ancestor of almost all modern alphabets, although it did not contain any vowels (these were added later by the Greeks). From a traditional linguistic perspective, they spoke Phoenician, a Canaanite dialect. However, due to the very slight differences in language, and the insufficient records of the time, whether Phoenician formed a separate and united dialect, or was merely a superficially defined part of a broader language continuum, is unclear. Through their maritime trade, the Phoenicians spread the use of the alphabet to North Africa and Europe, where it was adopted by the Greeks, who later passed it on to the Etruscans, who in turn transmitted it to the Romans. In addition to their many inscriptions, the Phoenicians were believed to have left numerous other types of written sources, but most have not survived. Evangelical Preparation by Eusebius of Caesarea quotes extensively from Philo of Byblos and Sanchuniathon. History When the Phoenician alphabet was first uncovered in the 19th century, its origins were unknown. Scholars at first believed that the script was a direct variation of Egyptian hieroglyphs. This idea was especially popular due to the recent decipherment of hieroglyphs. However, scholars could not find any link between the two writing systems. Certain scholars hypothesized ties with Hieratic, Cuneiform, or even an independent creation, perhaps inspired by some other writing system. The theories of independent creation ranged from the idea of a single man conceiving it, to the Hyksos people forming it from corrupt Egyptian. Parent scripts The Proto-Sinaitic alphabet was in use from ca. 1850 BC in the Sinai by Canaanite speakers. There are sporadic attestations of very short Proto-Sinaitic inscriptions in Canaan in the late Middle and Late Bronze Age, but the script was not widely used until the rise of new Semitic kingdoms in the 13th and 12th centuries BC. The oldest known inscription that goes by the name of Phoenician is the Ahiram epitaph, engraved on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram from circa 1200 BC. It has become conventional to refer to the script as "Proto-Canaanite" until the mid-11th century, when it is first attested on inscribed bronze arrowheads, and as "Phoenician" only after 1050 BC. Spread of the alphabet and its social effects Letter Uni. Name Meaning Ph. Corresponding letter in He. Sy. Ar. Greek Latin Cyr. ð�¤€â€Ž alf ox ʾ [Ê”] ×� Ü� ïº� Αα Aa Ð�а ð�¤�‎ bet house b [b] ב Ü’ ïº� Ββ Bb Бб, Вв ð�¤‚‎ gaml camel g [É¡] ×’ Ü“ ïº� Γγ Cc, Gg Гг, Ò�Ò‘ ð�¤ƒâ€Ž delt door d [d] ד Ü• د Δδ Dd Дд ð�¤„‎ he window h [h] ×” Ü— Ú¾ Εε Ee Ее, Єє, Ð Ñ� ð�¤…‎ wau hook w [w] ו ܘ ï» (ÏœÏ�), Υυ Ff, Uu, Vv, Yy, Ww (Ѵѵ), Уу, ÐŽÑž ð�¤†â€Ž zai weapon z [z] ×– Ü™ ﺯ, Ø° Ζζ Zz Жж, Зз ð�¤‡â€Ž het wall ḥ [ħ] ×— Üš Ø , Ø® Ηη Hh Ии, Йй ð�¤ˆâ€Ž tet wheel á¹ [tˤ] ט Ü› Ø· Θθ (Ѳѳ) ð�¤‰â€Ž yod hand y [j] ×™ Ü� ÙŠ Ιι Ii, Jj Іі, Її, Јј ð�¤Šâ€Ž kaf palm (of a hand) k [k] כך ÜŸ ï»™ Κκ Kk Кк ð�¤‹â€Ž lamd goad l [l] ל Ü ï»� Λλ Ll Лл ð�¤Œâ€Ž mem water m [m] מ×� Ü¡ ﻡ Μμ Mm Мм ð�¤�‎ nun serpent n [n] × ×Ÿ Ü¢ ﻥ Î�ν Nn Ð�н ð�¤Žâ€Ž semk fish s [s] ס Ü£, ܤ س Ξξ, poss. Χχ poss. Xx (Ѯѯ), poss. Хх ð�¤�‎ ain eye Ê¿ [Ê•] ×¢ Ü¥ ع, غ Οο, Ωω Oo Оо ð�¤�‎ pe mouth p [p] פף ܦ Ù� Ππ Pp Пп ð�¤‘‎ sade hunt á¹£ [sˤ] צץ ܨ ص, ض, ظ (Ϻϻ) Цц, Чч, Ð�ÑŸ ð�¤’‎ qof needle head q [q] ק Ü© ﻕ (Ϙϙ), poss. Φφ, Ψψ Qq (Ò€Ò�), poss. Фф, (Ѱѱ) ð�¤“‎ rosh head r [r] ר ܪ ïº Î¡Ï� Rr Рр ð�¤”‎ shin tooth Å¡ [ʃ] ש Ü« Ø´, س, Ø« Σσς Ss СÑ�, Шш, Щщ ð�¤•â€Ž tau mark t [t] ת ܬ ت Ττ Tt Тт The Phoenician adaptation of the alphabet was extremely successful, and variants were adapted around the Mediterranean from about the 9th century, notably giving rise to the Greek, Old Italic, Anatolian and Paleo-hispanic scripts. The alphabet's success was due in part to its phonetic nature; Phoenician was the first widely used script in which one sound was represented by one symbol. This simple system contrasted with the other scripts in use at the time, such as Cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs, which employed many complex characters and were difficult to learn. Another reason of its success was the maritime trading culture of Phoenician merchants, which spread the use of the alphabet into parts of North Africa and Europe. Phoenician inscriptions have been found in archaeological sites at a number of former Phoenician cities and colonies around the Mediterranean, such as Byblos (in present-day Lebanon) and Carthage in North Africa. Later finds indicate earlier use in Egypt. Phoenician had long-term effects on the social structures of the civilizations which came in contact with it. As mentioned above, the script was the first widespread phonetic script. Its simplicity not only allowed it to be used in multiple languages, but it also allowed the common people to learn how to write. This upset the long-standing status of writing systems only being learned and employed by members of the royal and religious hierarchies of society, who used writing as an instrument of power to control access to information by the larger population. The appearance of Phoenician disintegrated many of these class divisions, although many Middle Eastern kingdoms would continue to use cuneiform for legal and liturgical matters well into the Common Era. Another possibility - it is a Lydian scrypt. Lydian The Lydian alphabet was adapted from an archaic version of the Greek alphabet. The majority of letters are based on Greek letters, though ten of them were new inventiones to write sounds unique to Lydian. The pronunciation of some of the letters, the one transliterated as for example, is uncertain. Approximately 100 Lydian inscriptions and bits of graffiti dating from the 5th and 4th centuries BC are known. A number of Lydian coins from the 7th century BC have also been found. The inscriptions are mainly epitaphs on graves typically beginning with eś w?naś(this grave). Notable features Type of writing system: alphabet Writing direction: mainly right to left in horizontal lines. Occasionally written from left to right. Number of letters: 26 Some letters have several variant forms Used to write Lydian, a member of the Anatolian branch of Indo-European languages that was spoken in western Anatolia (modern Turkey) up to about the 1st Century BC, when the Lydians adopted Greek as their language. Lydian alphabet Sample text in Lydian Condition: used,authentic patina, one side of the plate with several letters inscribed is separated, Material: Bronze

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