Seller: darwins_origin_of_the_species (1,041) 100%, Location: Swindon, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 323210111343 NEOVENATOR Possibly the UK's biggest killer dinosaur. It once roamed the areas of Southern England around 120 million years ago, preying on the herds of Iguanodon and also, I would imagine, the numerous long necked sauropods that were around at this time. It is related to the T-Rex busting Carcharodontosaurus. NEOLITHIC Mesolithic Flake Knife ANCIENT ARTIFACT Period: Mesolithic Age Age: circa 10,000 to 5,000 years BC Material: Chert Location: Vejle, Denmark Relaxing in the comforts of our own homes, it is easy to forget how hard life must have been around 10,000 years ago. We can only try to appreciate the conditions that these 'stone age' people had to face. But, by attempting to compare the documentaries about certain lost tribes, like those of the Kalahari bush men and the Australian aborigines, it gives us a brief insight in to the possible lives of these ancient people. A lot of people say that modern man has lost some of his primitive instincts and senses over time e.g. the ability to make contact with the 'spirit world' etc. These are all fascinating subjects in their own right, but the craftsmanship in preparing a small piece of stone with such precision, such as this arrowhead, with only the use of primitive implements is incredible. I think we severely underestimate our ancestors too often. But first, a bit about the way they were made and the people that made them:- Tool Production: In order to achieve the desired implement, different methods of manufacture were used. Early man was very particular about the type of materials he used. In deed, he went to great lengths to obtain these. From this raw material, usually all silica based materail like flint/chert, the stone was prepared into a 'core' and this is referred to as 'dressing'. From this core, various assortments of stone tools could be made such as knives, spears, arrowheads and also axe-heads or 'celts'. Dressing involved the use of 'flaking tools' and a process called 'knapping'. A piece of bone, antler or stone employed as a hammer was used for this purpose. The 'knapper' would generally use a stone far larger than the tool or 'core' he was creating. There are planes of weakness within every rock (even in homogeneous materials like flint) and an experienced 'knapper' would take advantage of these. He would first tap the stone in order to identify the planes of weakness and then strike the surface at a desired angle in order to exploit it. Using a freshly cleaved face as a striking platform, he then strikes off a series of long parallel-sided flakes. Depending on how these flakes are made, sharp edged blades would be used as knives and the arrowheads would be worked further from a single flake. Direct and indirect 'percussion' and 'pressure flaking' would have been used to obtain the desired effect (see below for descriptions). Checking this arrowhead, you will notice points of percussion where the stone was stuck and some arrowheads will exhibit 'bulbs of percussion' where the stone is left with a 'fan shaped' mark where the striking pressure was applied. Some may also show a 'bulbar scar' where the stone was left with a shatter mark from a waste flake. Using a magnifying glass will help identify some of these features. Notes: Direct percussion: Using a stone (or other implement) to hit the surface directly. Indirect percussion: Using a stone (or other implement) to hit a chisel like tool (e.g. an antler) to strike the surface. Pressure flaking: The flake is held in the hand and a piece of bone (or other implement) is held in the other hand. The bone is used to put direct pressure on the edges of the arrow and 'nibble' away pieces to create a sharp edge. STONE TOOL DETAILS: Location: This stone tool comes from Vejle, Denmark an area well known for it's Mesolithic stone implements that have been recovered from an uncovered submerged valley. The tools are derived from the ancient Ertebølle Culture. Plentiful artefacts were recovered indicating a close source rock and an active period of civilization. The Tool: This stone flake knife measures aprox. 4 cm x 1.6 cm. You can see the percussion marks, ripples and other features here very well (some noted with labels), alas you can't readily make these out from the pictures. You can also see how it has been worked. It is fantastic to hold this ancient artefact in you hand knowing that thousands of years ago, a long forgotten person was once chipping away at this exact stone making state of the art implements of the time..... Truly awe inspiring!