Manuel I, Comnenus 1143AD Ancient Medieval Genuine Byzantine Coin St. George

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Seller: highrating_lowprice (20,566) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 320748279066 Item: i22646 Authentic Ancient Roman Coin of: Byzantine - Manuel I , Comnenus - Byzantine Emperor: 8 April 1143 - 24 September 1180 A.D. Bronze Tetarteron 22mm (4.29 grams) Struck at the mint of Thessalonica 1143-1180 A.D. Reference: Sear 1975. Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear and shield; to left, Θ / Γ / Є; to right, WP / ΓI / O / C. MANYHΛ ΔΕCΠΟΤ, Bust of Manuel facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globe topped with a cross. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. The Chi Rho is one of the earliest christograms used by Christians. It is formed by superimposing the first two letters in the Greek spelling of the word Christ ( Greek : "Χριστός" ), chi = ch and rho = r, in such a way to produce the monogram ☧. The Chi-Rho symbol was also used by pagan Greek scribes to mark, in the margin, a particularly valuable or relevant passage; the combined letters Chi and Rho standing for chrēston, meaning "good." Although not technically a cross, the Chi Rho invokes the crucifixion of Jesus as well as symbolizing his status as the Christ. There is early evidence of the Chi Rho symbol on Christian Rings of the third century. The labarum (Greek: λάβαρον) was a vexillum (military standard) that displayed the "Chi-Rho" symbol, formed from the first two Greek letters of the word "Christ" (Greek: ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ, or Χριστός) — Chi (χ) and Rho (ρ). It was first used by the Roman emperor Constantine I . Since the vexillum consisted of a flag suspended from the crossbar of a cross, it was ideally suited to symbolize crucifixion . The Chi-Rho symbol was also used by Greek scribes to mark, in the margin, a particularly valuable or relevant passage; the combined letters Chi and Rho standing for chrēston, meaning "good." Saint George (ca. 275/281 – 23 April 303) was, according to tradition, a Roman soldier and a priest in the Guard of Diocletian , who is venerated as a Christian martyr . In hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Catholic (Western and Eastern Rites ), Anglican , Eastern Orthodox , and the Oriental Orthodox churches. He is immortalized in the tale of Saint George and the Dragon and is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers . His memorial is celebrated on 23 April, and he is regarded as one of the most prominent military saints . Many Patronages of Saint George exist around the world, including: Aragon , Catalonia , England , Ethiopia , Georgia , Greece , Iraq, Lithuania , Palestine , Portugal , Serbia and Russia , as well as the cities of Genoa , Amersfoort , Beirut , Fakiha , Bteghrine , Cáceres , Ferrara , Freiburg , Ljubljana , Pomorie , Preston , Qormi , Rio de Janeiro , Lod, Barcelona , Moscow , Tamworth and the Maltese island of Gozo, as well as a wide range of professions, organizations and disease sufferers. Comnenus, or Manuel I Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos, November 28 , 1118 – September 24 , 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean . Eager to restore his empire to its past glories as the superpower of the Mediterranean world, Manuel pursued an energetic and ambitious foreign policy. In the process he made alliances with the Pope and the resurgent west, invaded Italy , successfully handled the passage of the dangerous Second Crusade through his empire, and established a Byzantine protectorate over the Crusader kingdoms of Outremer . Facing Muslim advances in the Holy Land , he made common cause with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and participated in a combined invasion of Fatimid Egypt . Manuel reshaped the political maps of the Balkans and the east Mediterranean, placing the kingdoms of Hungary and Outremer under Byzantine hegemony and campaigning aggressively against his neighbours both in the west and in the east. However, towards the end of his reign Manuel's achievements in the east were compromised by a serious defeat at Myriokephalon , which in large part resulted from his arrogance in attacking a well-defended Seljuk position. Called ho Megas (Greek: ὁ Μέγας, translated as "the Great") by the Greeks , Manuel is known to have inspired intense loyalty in those who served him. He also appears as the hero of a history written by his secretary, John Kinnamos , in which every virtue is attributed to him. Manuel, who was influenced by his contact with western Crusaders, enjoyed the reputation of "the most blessed emperor of Constantinople " in parts of the Latin world as well.[1] Modern historians, however, have been less enthusiastic about him. Some of them assert that the great power he wielded was not his own personal achievement, but that of the dynasty he represented; they also argue that, since Byzantine imperial power declined so rapidly after Manuel's death, it is only natural to look for the causes of this decline in his reign. 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