Seller: frascatius (16,584) 100%, Location: Saint Paul, Minnesota, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 232931355265 12Q09 FRASCATIUS ANCIENTS A BEAUTIFUL LARGE SILVER DRACHM OF HORMAZD IV OF THE SASSANIAN EMPIRE FROM 579 - 590 AD . Hormazd protected the common people while maintaining severe discipline in his army and court. NICE DETAIL ON THIS COIN, WITH A SILVER PURITY THAT AVERAGES OVER 95% THE SIZE IS 30.7 MM AND 4.06 GRAMS. OBVERSE – Head of Hormazd IV wearing a ornate crown REVERSE – Two fire attendants next to a fire altar, date and mint to sides THE KING According to one ancient source, Hormazd protected the common people while maintaining severe discipline in his army and court. When the priests demanded a persecution of the Christians, he refused on the grounds that the throne and government could be safe only with the goodwill of both religions. From his father, Hormazd inherited wars against the Byzantine Empire and the Turks. Though negotiations for peace had begun with the Byzantine emperor Maurice, Hormazd declined to cede any of his father’s conquests. In 588 his general, Bahrām Chūbīn, defeated the Turks but in 589 was beaten by the Romans. When Hormazd dismissed Bahrām, the general rebelled with his army; an insurrection followed. Hormazd was deposed and killed, and his son was proclaimed king as Khosrow II. SASSANIAN EMPIRE The Sassanian Empire was the last pre-Islamic Persian empire, established in 224 AD by Ardeshir I, son of Papak, descendant of Sasan. The Empire lasted until 651 AD when it was overthrown by the Arab Caliphate. It is considered by the Iranian people to be a highlight of their civilization, for after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire at the hands of Alexander the Great in 330 BC until the fall of the Parthian Empire, there was not be another state that truly felt ”Iranian". After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the Iranian Plateau fell into the hands of Seleucus I Nicator, one of the Diadochoi (Alexander's generals). He established a Hellenistic state known as the Seleucid Empire, mainly on what is today the Islamic Republic of Iran, although at its height the Empire extended from modern-day Turkey to modern-day Pakistan. The Seleucids, although certainly influenced by the Iranian people over whom they ruled, still kept true to their Greco-Macedonian origins and hence were not seen as native rulers by their subjects. By 155 BC, the Parthians had conquered all of the Iranian territories of the Seleucid Empire. The Parthians, a group of Northeastern Iranians, who, although certainly refreshing to their Iranian subjects, were still heavily influenced by Hellenistic culture. They are mostly known to the European world as antagonists of the Roman Empire, and their culture is often neglected in history books. The Parthians themselves fell to Ardeshir I, who was a Persian for he came from the province of Fars (originally known as Pars, which is where the word Persian comes from) from where the Achaemenids came. He installed his own dynasty under the family name of his forefather Sasan. The Sasanians then started a process that would reinstate the values of Iranian culture. Although certainly still Hellenized, the Sasanians started a process of "Iranization" unlike the Parthians before them: Zoroastrianism became one of the founding stones of the Empire -- nevertheless religious minorities such as Jews, Christians, Manicheans, and other faiths of the Iranian people would play an important part. Some of the Sasanian kings even married Jewish and Christian women. For 400 years the Sasanian Empire was the major power in the Near East as the rival of the Late Roman Empire. Not only that, but they sustained relations with the Tang Dynasty of China and several Indian Kingdoms where their products and culture were held in high esteem. A True Auction Environment – Auctions start at $.99 with No Minimums and No Reserves. FULL UNCONDITIONAL GUARANTEE OF AUTHENTICITY If the buyer feels that the coin received is not as represented - just return the coin and the buyer will be fully reimbursed for the cost of the coin; the original shipping charge; and the cost to ship the coin back… No Questions Asked. If the buyer is not happy, please let me know, and I will do what I can to make it right. If you have any questions regarding this auction, please click on “Ask seller a question”. I will be more than happy to provide you with a response. VISIT MY EBAY STORE: FRASCATIUS ANCIENT COINS For those new to ancient coins, please contact me, and I will e-mail to you my "Beginners Guide for Ancient Coin Collectors - FAQ" . SHIPPING:To the U.S. = $3.00 Insured Flat RateInternational = $4.50 Insured Flat Rate Multiple items may be grouped at no additional charge at the above rates. All items will be carefully packaged, protected & insured (private insurance).