Kyzikos in MYSIA 2ndCenBC Persephone Authentic Ancient Greek Coin i37422

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Seller: highrating_lowprice (20,379) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 321314906802 Item: i37422 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Greek city of Kyzikos in Mysia Bronze 19mm (6.11 grams) Struck circa 2nd-1st Century B.C. Reference: Sear 3864 Head of Persephone right, wreathed with corn. KY/II above and below monogram; all within oak-wreath. A colony of Miletos, founded mid-8th century B.C., Kyzikos was situated on the island of Arktonnesos, just off the southern coastline of the Propontis. It occupied a position of great commercial importance and its electrum staters, called "Kyzikenes', circulated widely in international trade throughout the 5th and most of the 4th century B.C. In Hellenistic times Kyzikos preserved its prosperity by maintaining friendly relations with Pergamene kings and, later, with Rome. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. In Greek mythology , Persephone also called Kore (the maiden)is the daughter of Zeus and the harvest-goddess Demeter , and queen of the underworld . Homer describes her as the formidable, venerable majestic queen of the shades, who carries into effect the curses of men upon the souls of the dead. Kore was abducted by Hades , the god-king of the underworld [2] The myth of her abduction represents her function as the personification of vegetation which shoots forth in spring and withdraws into the earth after harvest; hence she is also associated with spring and with the seeds of the fruits of the fields. Similar myths appear in the Orient , in the cults of male gods like Attis , Adonis and Osiris ,[3] and in Minoan Crete . Persephone as a vegetation goddess (Kore) and her mother Demeter were the central figures of the Eleusinian mysteries that predated the Olympian pantheon , and promised to the initiated a more enjoyable prospect after death. The mystic Persephone is further said to have become by Zeus the mother of Dionysos , Iacchus , or Zagreus . The origins of her cult are uncertain, but it was based on very old agrarian cults of agricultural communities. Persephone was commonly worshipped along with Demeter, and with the same mysteries. To her alone were dedicated the mysteries celebrated at Athens in the month of Anthesterion . In Classical Greek art , Persephone is invariably portrayed robed; often carrying a sheaf of grain. She may appear as a mystical divinity with a sceptre and a little box, but she was mostly represented in the act of being carried off by Hades . In Roman mythology , she is called Proserpina . Her name Etymology Triptolemus , Demeter , and Persephone by the Triptolemos Painter ,ca 470BC In a Linear B (Mycenean Greek) inscription on a tablet found at Pylos dated 1400-1200 BC, John Chadwick reconstructs the name of a goddess *Preswa who could be identified with Persa , daughter of Oceanus and finds speculative the further identification with the first element of Persephone.[4] Persephonē (Greek: Περσεφόνη) is her name in the Ionic Greek of epic literature. The Homeric form of her name is Persephoneia (Περσεφονεία,[5] Persephonēia). In other dialects she was known under variant names: Persephassa (Περσεφάσσα), Persephatta (Περσεφάττα), or simply Korē (Κόρη, "girl, maiden").[6] Plato calls her Pherepapha (Φερέπαφα) in his Cratylus , "because she is wise and touches that which is in motion". There also the forms Perifona (Πηριφόνα) and Phersephassa (Φερσέφασσα). The existence of so many different forms shows how difficult it was for the Greeks to pronounce the word in their own language and suggests that the name has probably a pre-Greek origin.[7] An alternative etymology is from φέρειν φόνον, pherein phonon, "to bring (or cause) death".[8] Another mythical personage of the name of Persephione is called a daughter of Minyas and the mother of Chloris , a nymph of spring, flower and new growth.[8] The Minyans were a group considered autochthonous , but some scholars assert that they were the first wave of Proto-Greek speakers in the second milemnium BC.[9] The Roman Proserpina The Romans first heard of her from the Aeolian and Dorian cities of Magna Graecia , who used the dialectal variant Proserpinē (Προσερπινη). Hence, in Roman mythology she was called Proserpina , a name erroneously derived by the Romans from "proserpere", "to shoot forth"[10] and as such became an emblematic figure of the Renaissance .[citation needed] At Locri , perhaps uniquely, Persephone was the protector of marriage, a role usually assumed by Hera; in the iconography of votive plaques at Locri, her abduction and marriage to Hades served as an emblem of the marital state, children at Locri were dedicated to Proserpina, and maidens about to be wed brought their peplos to be blessed.[11] Nestis In a Classical period text ascribed to Empedocles , c. 490–430 BC,[12] describing a correspondence among four deities and the classical elements , the name Nestis for water apparently refers to Persephone: "Now hear the fourfold roots of everything: enlivening Hera, Hades, shining Zeus. And Nestis, moistening mortal springs with tears."[13] Of the four deities of Empedocles's elements, it is the name of Persephone alone that is taboo —Nestis is a euphemistic cult title[14]—for she was also the terrible Queen of the Dead, whose name was not safe to speak aloud, who was euphemistically named simply as Kore or "the Maiden", a vestige of her archaic role as the deity ruling the underworld. Titles and functions The Eleusinian trio : Persephone, Triptolemus and Demeter on a marble bas-relief from Eleusis , 440-430 BC The epithets of Persephone reveal her double function as chthonic and vegetation goddess. The surnames given to her by the poets refer to her character as Queen of the lower world and the dead, or her symbolic meaning of the power that shoots forth and withdraws into the earth. Her common name as a vegetation goddess is Kore and in Arcadia she was worshipped under the title Despoina "the mistress", a very old chthonic divinity. Plutarch identifies her with spring and Cicero calls her the seed of the fruits of the fields. In the Eleusinian mysteries her return is the symbol of immortality and hence she was frequently represented on sarcophagi.[8] In the mystical theories of the Orphics and the Platonists , Kore is described as the all-pervading goddess of nature [15] who both produces and destroys everything and she is therefore mentioned along or identified with other mystic divinities such as Isis , Rhea , Ge , Hestia , Pandora , Artemis , and Hecate .[16] The mystic Persephone is further said to have become by Zeus the mother of Dionysos , Iacchus , or Zagreus .[8] Demeter and Persephone were often referred to as "the two goddesses" or "the mistresses".[17] Origins Lady of Auxerre Louvre -An Archaic (640 BC) image from Crete , probably a version of the Minoan Goddess identified with Kore . The myth of the rape of the vegetation goddess is Pre-Greek. In the original Near eastern myth of the primitive agricultural societies, every year the fertility goddess bore the "god of the new year", who then became her lover, and died immediately in order to be reborn and face the same destiny. Similar myths appear in the Orient in the cults of Attis , Adonis and Osiris ,[18] and in Minoan Crete , where the myth is related with a female vegetation goddess.[19] The cult of Persephone and Demeter in the Eleusinian mysteries and in the Thesmophoria was based on very old agrarian cults. Ancient cults like age-old cults of the dead, worship of animal headed gods, and rituals for the new crop, had their position in Greek religion because they were connected with daily or seasonal tasks and concecrated by immemorial practices. A lot of ancient beliefs was based on initiation in jealously guided mysteries (secret rites) because they oferred prospects after death more enjoyable than the final end at the gloomy space of the Greek Hades . However it is doubtful if the idea of immortality which appears in the syncretistic religions of Near East existed in the Eleusinian mysteries at the very beginning.[20][21] It seems that the Eleusinian mysteries were established during the Mycenean period.[22] In the mysteries Demeter and Kore were usually referred to as "the two goddesses" or "the mistresses" in historical times.[23] The names Demeter and Kore are Greek, and this probably indicates that the Greeks adopted these divinities during their wandering, and that they were later fused with local divinities in the ancient cults.[24] In the Mycenean Greek tablets dated 1400-1200 BC, the "two mistresses and the king" are mentioned. John Chadwick believes that these were the precursor divinities of Demeter , Persephone and Poseidon .[25] The cult was originally private, and we have no information for it, but it seems that it had similarities with the cult of Despoina , "the mistress" in isolated Arcadia .[26] Despoine was one of her surnames just as the surname of Persephone Kore.[27] Demeter and Persephone, were the two Great Goddesses, "the mistresses" of the Arcadian mysteries . Despoina, whose name was not allowed to be revealed to the not initiated, was daughter of Demeter, who was united with the god of the storms and earthquakes Poseidon Hippios (horse).[28] The union of the fertility goddess with the beast in a ritual copulation is an old Near Eastern myth, which appears in many primitive agricultural societies.[19] Processions of women with animal-masks in a ritual dance,[29] or processions of daemons in front of a goddess appear in the temple of Despoina at Lycosura , and on Mycenean frescoes and goldrings.[30][31] Kerenyi theorizes that the cult of Pesephone was the continuation of the worship of a Minoan Great goddess, and he identifies her with the nameless “mistress of the labyrinth “ who appears in a Mycenean Greek inscription from Knossos in Crete . He suggests that the Greeks gave to her euphemistically the name Ariadne ( derived from αγνή, hagne, "pure").[32][33] The Greeks used to give to the deities of the underworld euphemistically friendly names, and such were the common epithets of Persephone despoina , "mistress" and Hagne, "pure" .[34][35] However besides these similarities, Burkert notifies that up to now we don’t know to what extent one can and must differentiate between Minoan and Mycenean religion [36] It seems that the Minoan vegetation goddess Ariadne was absorbed by more powerful divinities.[37] She survived in Greek folklore as the consort of Dionysos , with whom she was worshipped in some local cults like the Anthesteria . Greek mythology Abduction myth The Return of Persephone by Frederic Leighton (1891) Persephone used to live far away from the other deities, a goddess within Nature herself before the days of planting seeds and nurturing plants. In the Olympian telling, the gods Hermes , Ares, Apollo , and Hephaestus had all wooed Persephone; but Demeter rejected all their gifts and hid her daughter away from the company of the Olympian deities.[38] The story of her abduction by Pluto against her will, is traditionally referred to as the Rape of Persephone . It is first mentioned in Hesiod 's Theogony .[39] Zeus, it is said, advised Pluto (Hades) who was in love with the beautiful Persephone, to carry her off, as her mother Demeter , was not likely to allow her daughter to go down to Hades. Persephone was gathering flowers with Artemis and Athena , the Homeric hymn says—or Leucippe, or Oceanids —in a field when Hades came to abduct her, bursting through a cleft in the earth. Demeter , when she found her daughter had disappeared, searched for her all over the earth with torches. In most versions she forbids the earth to produce, or she neglects the earth and in the depth of her despair she causes nothing to grow. Helios , the sun, who sees everything, eventually told Demeter what had happened and at length she discovered the place of her abode. Finally, Zeus, pressed by the cries of the hungry people and by the other deities who also heard their anguish, forced Hades to return Persephone.[40] Hades indeed complied with the request, but first he tricked her giving her a kernel of a pomegranate to eat. She ate four seeds, which correspond to the dry summer months in Greece . It was a rule of the Fates that whoever consumed food or drink in the Underworld was doomed to spend eternity there. Persephone was released by Hermes , who had been sent to retrieve her, but she was obliged to spend four months of a year in the underworld, and the remaining two thirds with the gods above.[40] The various local traditions each place Persephone's abduction in a different locatiom. The Sicilians , among whom her worship was probably introduced by the Corinthian and Megarian colonists, believed that Hades found her in the meadows near Enna , and that a well arose on the spot where he descended with her into the lower world. The Cretans thought that their own island had been the scene of the rape, and the Eleusinians mentioned the Nysaean plain in Boeotia, and said that Persephone had descended with Hades into the lower world at the entrance of the western Oceanus . Later accounts place the rape in Attica , near Athens , or near Eleusis .[8][40] In some versions, Ascalaphus informed the other deities that Persephone had eaten the pomegranate seeds. When Demeter and her daughter were reunited, the Earth flourished with vegetation and color, but for some months each year, when Persephone returned to the underworld, the earth once again became a barren realm. This is an origin story to explain the seasons. In an earlier version, Hecate rescued Persephone. On an Attic red-figured bell krater of ca 440 BC in the Metropolitan Museum of Art , Persephone is rising as if up stairs from a cleft in the earth, while Hermes stands aside; Hecate, holding two torches, looks back as she leads her to the enthroned Demeter.[41] The tenth-century Byzantine encyclopedia Suda introduces a goddess of a blessed afterlife assured to Orphic mystery initiates. This Macaria is asserted to be the daughter of Hades, but no mother is mentioned.[42] Pluto-Interpretetion of the myth In the myth Pluto abducts Persephone to be his wife and the queen of his realm.[43] Pluto ( Πλούτων, Ploutōn) was a name for the ruler of the underworld ; the god was also known as Hades , a name for the underworld itself. The name Pluton was conflated with that of Ploutos ( Πλούτος Ploutos, "wealth"), a god of wealth, because mineral wealth was found underground, and because Pluto as a chthonic god ruled the deep earth that contained the seeds necessary for a bountiful harvest.[43] Plouton is lord of the dead, but as Persephone's husband he has serious claims to the powers of fertility.[44] In the Theogony of Hesiod Demeter was united with the hero Iasion in Crete and she bore Ploutos , who can make everyone rich.[39] This union seems to be a reference to a hieros gamos (ritual copulation) to ensure the earth's fertility.[44] This ritual copulation appears in Minoan Crete , in many Near Eastern agricultural societies, and also in the Anthesteria [45] Nilsson believes that the original cult of Ploutos ( or Pluto ) in Eleusis was similar with the Minoan cult of the "divine child", who died in order to be reborn. The child was abandoned by his mother and then it was brought up by the powers of nature. Similar myths appear in the cults of Hyakinthos (Amyklai), Erichthonios (Athens), and later in the cult of Dionysos .[46] The Greek version of the abduction myth, is related with the corn which was the most important and rare in the Greek environment, and the return (ascent) of Persephone was celebrated at the autumn sowing. Pluto (Ploutos) represents the wealth of the corn that was stored in underground silos or ceramic jars (pithoi), during summer months. Similar subterranean pithoi were used in ancient times for burials and Pluto is fused with Hades , the King of the realm of the dead. During summer months, the Greek Corn-Maiden (Kore) is lying in the corn of the underground silos, in the realm of Hades and she is fused with Persephone, the Queen of the underworld. At the beginning of the autumn, when the seeds of the old crop are laid on the fields, she ascends and is reunited with her mother Demeter , for at that time the old crop and the new meet each other. For the initiated this union was the symbol of the eternity of human life that flows from the generations which spring from each other.[47][48] Elysion Hesiod refers to the island of the "happy dead" [49] and it is the Elysion , where according to an old Minoan belief, the departed could have a different, but happier existence.[50] Elysion is probably counterpart with Eleusis , the city of the Eleusinian mysteries, and it may have been oferred like a reward to the initiated. The Greeks believed that only the beloved of the gods could exist there.[51] Pindar in some fragments speeks for the immortality of the souls, which may spent in Elysion a happy eternity.[52] In Odyssey Homer carries the old belief to the ideal island for mortals Scheria , the imaginary perfect world that was offered to the future emigrants. This island, which the tradition relates with Elysion , became the lost dream of the Greek world.[53] The Arcadian myths The primitive myths of isolated Arcadia seem to be related with the first Greek-speaking people who came from the north-east during the bronze age . Despoina , (the mistress) the goddess of the Arcadian mysteries, is the daughter of Demeter and Poseidon Hippios (horse), who represents the river spirit of the underworld that appears as a horse as often happens in northern-European folklore. He pursues the mare-Demeter and from the union she bears the horse Arion and a daughter who originally had the form or the shape of a mare. The two goddesses were not clearly separated and they were closely connected with the springs and the animals. They were related with the god of rivers and springs; Poseidon and especially with Artemis , the Mistress of the Animals who was the first nymph .[2] According to the Greek tradition a hunt-goddess preceded the harvest goddess.[54] In Arcadia Demeter and Persephone were often called Despoinai (Δέσποιναι, "the mistresses") in historical times. They are the two Great Goddesses of the Arcadian cults, and evidently they come from a more primitive religion.[23] The Greek god Poseidon probably substituted the companion (Paredros, Πάρεδρος) of the Minoan Great goddess .[55] in the Arcadian mysteries. Queen of the Underworld Seated goddess, probably Persephone on her throne in the underworld, Severe style ca 480–60, found at Tarentum , Magna Graecia (Pergamon Museum, Berlin) Persephone held an ancient role as the dread queen of the Underworld, within which tradition it was forbidden to speak her name. This tradition comes from her conflation with the very old chthonic divinity Despoina (the mistress), whose real name could not be revealed to anyone except those initiated to her mysteries.[28] As goddess of death she was also called a daughter of Zeus and Styx ,[56] the river that formed the boundary between Earth and the underworld. Homer describes her as the formidable, venerable majestic queen of the shades, who carries into effect the curses of men upon the souls of the dead, along with her husband Hades.[57] In the reformulation of Greek mythology expressed in the Orphic Hymns , Dionysus and Melinoe are separately called children of Zeus and Persephone.[58] Groves sacred to her stood at the western extremity of the earth on the frontiers of the lower world, which itself was called "house of Persephone".[59] Her central myth served as the context for the secret rites of regeneration at Eleusis ,[60] which promised immortality to initiates. Cult of Persephone Persephone was worshipped along with her mother Demeter and in the same mysteries. Her cults included agrarian magic, dancing, and rituals. The priests used special vessels and holy symbols, and the people participated with rhymes. In Eleusis there is evidence of sacred laws and other inscriptios [61] Cult of Demeter and the Maiden is found at Attica , in the main festivals Thesmophoria and Eleusinian mysteries and in a lot of local cults. These festivals were almost always celebrated at the autunn showing, and at full-moon according to the Greek tradition. In some local cults the fests were dedicated to Demeter. Thesmophoria Thesmophoria , were celebrated in Athens , and the festival was widely spread in Greece. This was a festival of secret women-only rituals connected with marriage customs and commemorated the third of the year when Kore was abducted and Demeter abstained from her role as goddess of harvest and growth. The ceremony involved sinking sacrifices into the earth by night and retrieving the decaying remains of pigs that had been placed in the megara of Demeter, ( trenches and pits or natural clefts in rock) , the previous year. [62] This agrarian magic was also used in the cult of the earth-goddesses "potniai" ( mistresses) in the Cabeirian , and in Knidos . [63] . The festival was celebrated in three days. The first was the "way up" to the sacred space, the second the day of festing when they ate pomegranate seeds and the third was a meat fest in celebration of "Kalligeneia" a goddess of beautiful birth. Zeus [62] which is an euphemistical name of Hades (Chthonios Zeus).[64]. Eleusinian mysteries The Eleusinian mysteries was a festival celebrated at the autumn sowing in the city Eleusis . Inscriptions are referring to "the two Goddesses" accompanied by the agricultural god Triptolemus probably son of Ge and Oceanus [65] and "the God and the Goddess" (Persephone and Ploutos) accompanied by Eubuleus who probably led the way back from the underworld. [66] The myth was represented in a cycle with three phases: the "descent", the "search", and the "ascent", with contrasted emotions from sorrow to joy which roused the mystae to exultation. The main theme was the ascent of Persephone and the reunion with her mother Demeter. [47] The festival activities included dancing, probably across the Rharian field, where according to the myth the first corn grew. At the beggining of the fest the priests filled two special vessels and poured out, the one towards the west, the other towards the east. The people looking both to the sky and the earth shouted in a magical rhyme "rain and conceive". In a ritual a child initiated from the herth ( the divine fire). It was the ritual of the "divine child" who originally was Ploutos . In the Homeric hymn the ritual is connected with the myth of the agricultural god Triptolemos [67] The high point of the celebration was "an ear of corn cut in silence", which represented the force of the new life. The idea of immortality didn't exist in the mysteries at the beginning, but the initiated believed that they would have a better fate in the underworld. Death remained a reality, but at the same time a new beggining like the plant which grows from the burried seed. [61] In the earliest depictions Persephone is an armless and legless deity, who grows out of the ground. [68] Local cults Local cults of Demeter an Kore existed in Greece, Asia Minor , Sicily and Magna Graecia : Attica: Piraeus : The Skirophoria, a festival related with the Thesmophoria [69] Boeotia: Thebes , which Zeus is said to have been given to her as an acknowledgement for a favour she had bestown to him. [70] Pausanias records a grove of Cabeirian Demeter and the Maid, three miles outside the gates of Thebes, where a ritual was performed, so called on the grounds that Demeter gave it to the Cabeiri , who established it at Thebes. The Thebans told Pausanias that some inhabitants of Naupactus had performed the same rituals there, and had met with divine vengeance.[71] Thebes : Cult of Demeter and Kore in a fest named Thesmophoria but probably different. It was celebrated in the summer month Bukatios [69] . [72] Peloponnese (except Arcadia) [69] Hermione : An old cult of Demeter Chthonia , Kore, and Klymenos (Hades). It is possible that Hermione was a mythical name, the place of the souls. [64] Asine : Cult of Demeter Chthonia . The cult seems to be related with the original cult of Demeter in Hermione. [64] Sparta : Temple of Demeter Eleusinia. The name was given before the relation of Demeter with the cult of Eleusis .Corinth : Cult of Demeter, Kore and Pluton. [64] Triphylia in Elis : Cult of Demeter, Kore and Hades. [64] Lakonia at Aigila: Dedicated to Demeter. Men were excluded.Pellene : Dedicated to the Mysian Demeter. Men were excluded.Megara :Temple consecrated to Demeter or to the Maid .[8] Arcadia [73] Pheneos : Mysteries of Demeter Thesmia and Demeter Eleusinia. The Eleusinian cult was introduced later. The priest used the mask of Demeter Kidaria,and a kind of agrarian magic. Karyai : Cult of Kore and Pluton. [64] Tegea : Cult of Demeter and Kore, the Karpophoroi, "Fruit givers". Megalopolis : Cult of the Great goddesses, Demeter and Kore Sotira, (probably Trapezus) "the savior ". Mantinea : Cult of Demeter and Kore in the fest Koragia.[74] Trapezus : Mysteries of the Great goddesses, Demeter and Kore.Andania : Cult of the Great goddesses, Demeter and Hagne. Hagne , a goddess of the spring, was the original deity before Demeter.near Thelpusa in Onkeion: Temple of Demeter Erinys (vengeful) and Demeter Lusia (bathing). She bears the horse Arion and the unnamed. The name Despoina was given in West Arcadia.Phigalia : Cult of the mare-headed Demeter ( black), and Despoina . Demeter was depicted in her archaic form , a Medusa type with a horse's head with snaky hair, holding a dove and a dolphin. [75] Lycosura , Main article: Despoina Cult of Demeter and Despoina . In the portico of the temple of Despoina there was a tablet with the inscriptions of the mysteries. In front of the temple there was an altar to Demeter and another to Despoine, after which was one of the Great Mother. By the sides stood Artemis and Anytos, the Titan who brought up Despoine. Besides the temple there was the hall where the Arcadians celebrated the mysteries . [76] [77] Islands Paros : Cult of Demeter, Kore and Zeus-Eubuleus. [64] Amorgos : Cult of Demeter, Kore and Zeus-Eubuleus. [64] Delos : Cult of Demeter, Kore, and Zeus-Eubuleus. Probably a different fest with the name Thesmophoria , celebrated in a summer month ( the same month in Thebes) [69] [72] Asia Minor Knidos : Cult of Demeter, Kore and Pluton. [64] Agrarian magic similar with the one used in Thesmophoria and in the cult of the “potniai” ( Cabeirian ).[69] Ephesos [78] Sicily Syracuse : There was a harvest festival of Demeter and Persephone at Syracuse when the grain was ripe (about May). [79] Magna Graecia Epizephyrian Locri : A temple associated with childbirth; its treasure was looted by Pyrrhus .[80]Archaeological finds suggest that worship of Demeter and Persephone was widespread in Sicily and Greek Italy. Cyzicus (Greek: Κύζικος, Kyzikos, Medieval Ottoman Turkish : آیدینجق Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia , situated in Balıkesir Province on the shoreward side of the present peninsula of Kapu-Dagh (Arctonnesus), which is said to have been originally an island in the Sea of Marmara , and to have been artificially connected with the mainland in historic times. Now, Cyzicus is protected by the Turkey 's Ministry of Culture, and located on the Erdek and Bandırma roads in Turkey. // History The city was probably founded by Pelasgians from Thessaly , according to tradition at the coming of the Argonauts ; later it received many colonies from Miletus , allegedly in 756 BC, but its importance began only after the Peloponnesian war, when the decay of Athens and Miletus set in. Alcibiades defeated the Lacedaemonians there (410 BC). The era of its Olympiads was reckoned from 135 or 139. Owing to its advantageous position it speedily acquired commercial importance, and the gold staters of Cyzicus were a staple currency in the ancient world till they were superseded by those of Philip of Macedon . Its unique and characteristic coin, the Cyzicenus, was worth 28 drachmae. During the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) Cyzicus was subject to the Athenians and Lacedaemonians alternately. In the naval Battle of Cyzicus in 410 during the Peloponnesian War , an Athenian fleet routed and completely destroyed a Spartan fleet. At the peace of Antalcidas (387 BC), like the other Greek cities in Asia, it was made over to Persia . Alexander the Great later captured it from the Persians in 334 BC. The history of the town in Hellenistic times is closely connected with that of the Attalids of Pergamon , with whose extinction it came into direct relations with Rome. Cyzicus was held for the Romans against king Mithridates VI of Pontus who besieged it with 300,000 men in 74 BC, but it withstood him stoutly, and the siege was raised by Lucullus : the loyalty of the city was rewarded by an extension of territory and other privileges. The Romans favoured it and recognized its municipal independence. Cyzicus was the leading city of Northern Mysia as far as Troas . Bas-relief of a charioteer, late 6th century B.C., shows Hittite influence at Cyzicus. Under Roman Emperor Tiberius it was incorporated with the empire, but remained the capital of Mysia , afterwards of Hellespontus, and became one of the greatest cities in the ancient world. Cyzicus was captured temporarily by the Arabs in 675. It appears to have been ruined by a series of earthquakes since 443 — the last in AD 1063; it began to be deserted as early as the eleventh century and the population was transferred to Artaki at least as early as the 13th century, when the peninsula was occupied by the Crusades . In the Ottoman era it was part of the caza of Erdek , in the Anatolian vilayet of Brusa . Ecclesiastical history A titular see of Asia Minor, metropolitan of the ancient ecclesiastical province of Hellespontus. As ecclesiastical metropolis of the Roman Hellespontus province, Cyzicus had a catalogue of bishops beginning with the first century; Michel Le Quien (I, 747) mentions fifty-nine. A more complete list is found in Nicodemos, in the Greek "Office of St. Emilian" (Constantinople, 1876), 34-36, which has eighty-five names. Of particular importance are the famous Arian ; Eunomius of Cyzicus ; Saint Dalmatius ; Proclus of Constantinople and Germanus of Auxerre , who became Patriarchs of Constantinople; and Saint Emilian, a martyr in the eighth century. Another Saint who came from Cyzicus is Saint Tryphaena of Cyzicus . Tryphaena is the patron saint of the city. Gelasius , a historian of Arianism, who wrote about 475, was born at Cyzicus. Lequien (III, 941) mentions a Latin bishop in 1477. Cyzicus is still a metropolitan title for the Greek Orthodox, the metropolitan residing at Artake (Erdek), a little port on the western shore of the peninsula. Opposite to Artake is another port, Peramos (Perama), where an Assumptionist Father founded a Greek parish. At Panormos (Panderma), another more important port nine miles (14 km) south-east of the ruins of Cyzicus (10,000 inhabitants), there is a Catholic Armenian parish. At the Dardanelles there is also a Latin parish. It remains a Catholic titular see. Monuments The site amid the marshes of Balkiz Serai is known as Bal-Kiz and entirely uninhabited, though under cultivation. The principal extant ruins are the walls, dating from the fourth century, which are traceable for nearly their whole extent, and the substructures of the temple of Hadrian , the ruins of a Roman aqueduct and a theatre. The picturesque amphitheatre, intersected by a stream, built in the third century B.C., was one of the largest in the world; its diameter was nearly 500 feet (150 m). Of this magnificent building, sometimes ranked among the seven wonders of the ancient world, thirty-one immense columns still stood erect in 1444. These have since been carried away piecemeal for building purposes. Colossal foundations of a temple dedicated to the Emperor Hadrian are still visible: the columns were 21.35 metres high (about 70 feet), while the highest known elsewhere, those at Baalbek in Syria are only 19.35 metres (about 63 feet). The monuments of Cyzicus were used by the Byzantine emperor Justinian as a quarry for the building of his Saint Sophia cathedral, and were still exploited by the Ottomans. Mysia was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor or Anatolia (part of modern Turkey ). It was located on the south coast of the Sea of Marmara . It was bounded by Bithynia on the east, Phrygia on the southeast, Lydia on the south, Aeolis on the southwest, Troad on the west and by the Propontis on the north. In ancient times it was inhabited by the Mysians , Phrygians , Aeolian Greeks , and other groups. Geography The precise limits of Mysia are difficult to assign. The Phrygian frontier was fluctuating, while in the northwest the Troad was only sometimes included in Mysia. The northern portion was known as Lesser Phrygia or Phrygia Minor (Ancient Greek: μικρὰ Φρυγία), while the southern was called Major or Pergamene. Mysia was in later times also known as Phrygia Hellespontica (Ἑλλησποντιακὴ Φρυγία, "Hellespontine Phrygia") or Phrygia Epictetus (ἐπίκτητος Φρυγία, "acquired Phrygia"), so named by the Attalids when they annexed the region to the Kingdom of Pergamon . Land and elevation Coin of Mysia, 4th century BCE. The chief physical features of Mysia are the two mountains —Mount Olympus at (7600 ft) in the north and Mount Temnus in the south, which for some distance separates Mysia from Lydia and is afterwards prolonged through Mysia to the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Adramyttium. The major rivers in the northern part of the province are the Macestus and its tributary the Rhyndacus , both of which rise in Phrygia and, after diverging widely through Mysia, unite their waters below the lake of Apolloniatis about 15 miles (24 km) from the Propontis. The Caïcus in the south rises in Temnus, and from thence flows westward to the Aegean Sea , passing within a few miles of Pergamon . In the northern portion of the province are two considerable lakes, Artynia or Apolloniatis (Abulliont Geul) and Aphnitis (Maniyas Geul), which discharge their waters into the Macestus from the east and west respectively. Cities in Mysia The most important cities were Pergamon in the valley of the Caïcus, and Cyzicus on the Propontis. The whole sea-coast was studded with Greek towns, several of which were places of considerable importance; thus the northern portion included Parium , Lampsacus and Abydos , and the southern Assos , Adramyttium . Further south, on the Eleatic Gulf, were Elaea , Myrina and Cyme . History A minor episode in the Trojan War cycle in Greek mythology has the Greek fleet land at Mysia, mistaking it for Troy . Achilles wounds their king, Telephus , after he slays a Greek; Telephus later pleads with Achilles to heal the wound. This coastal region ruled by Telephus is alternatively named Teuthrania in Greek mythology, and was previously ruled by a King Teuthras. In the Iliad , Homer represents the Mysians as allies of Troy, with the Mysian forces led by Ennomus (a prophet) and Chromius , sons of Arsinous. Homeric Mysia appears to have been much smaller in extent than historical Mysia, and did not extend north to the Hellespont or the Propontis. Homer does not mention any cities or landmarks in Mysia, and it is not clear exactly where Homeric Mysia was situated, although it was probably located somewhere between the Troad (to the northwest of Mysia) and Lydia/Maeonia (to its south). There are a number of Mysian inscriptions in a dialect of the Phrygian language , in a variant of the Phrygian alphabet . There are also a small number of references to a Lutescan language indigenous to Mysia in Aeolic Greek sources. Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped? Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped? After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. After you shipped the order, how long will the mail take? USPS First Class mail takes about 3-5 business days to arrive in the U.S., international shipping times cannot be estimated as they vary from country to country. I am not responsible for any USPS delivery delays, especially for an international package. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? Each of the items sold here, is provided with a Certificate of Authenticity, and a Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity, issued by a world-renowned numismatic and antique expert that has identified over 10000 ancient coins and has provided them with the same guarantee. You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. 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