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** JUSTINIAN II ** Ancient Silver Byzantine Ring** TOP **AMAZING**

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Seller: antique_store-1 (1,090) 100%, Location: Serbia, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 253754739164 ** JUSTINIAN II **Ancient Silver Byzantine Ring** CROSS **AMAZING** **SILVER BYZANTINE RING ** JUSTINIAN II CROSS ** VERY RARE** **EXTREMELY RARE****PERFECT CONDITION** Inner Diameter:17-18mm Weight:2,69g Justinian II ( Ioustinianos II; Latin: Flavius Iustinianus Augustus; 668 – 11 December 711), surnamed the Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus, was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711. Justinian II was an ambitious and passionate ruler who was keen to restore the Roman Empire to its former glories, but he responded poorly to any opposition to his will and lacked the finesse of his father, Constantine IV.[1] Consequently, he generated enormous opposition to his reign, resulting in his deposition in 695 in a popular uprising, and he only returned to the throne in 705 with the help of a Bulgar and Slav army. His second reign was even more despotic than the first, and it too saw his eventual overthrow in 711, abandoned by his army who turned on him before killing him. Justinian II was the eldest son of Emperor Constantine IV and Anastasia.[2] His father raised him to the throne as joint emperor in 681 on the fall of his uncles Heraclius and Tiberius.[3] In 685, at the age of sixteen, Justinian II succeeded his father as sole emperor.[4] Due to Constantine IV's victories, the situation in the Eastern provinces of the Empire was stable when Justinian ascended the throne.[5] After a preliminary strike against the Arabs in Armenia,[6] Justinian managed to augment the sum paid by the Umayyad Caliphs as an annual tribute, and to regain control of part of Cyprus.[5] The incomes of the provinces of Armenia and Iberia were divided among the two empires.[1] In 687, as part of his agreements with the Caliphate, Justinian removed from their native Lebanon 12,000 Christian Maronites, who continually resisted the Arabs.[7] Additional resettlement efforts, aimed at the Mardaites and inhabitants of Cyprus allowed Justinian to reinforce naval forces depleted by earlier conflicts.[1] In 688, Justinian signed a treaty with the Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan which rendered Cyprus neutral ground, with its tax revenue split.[8] Justinian took advantage of the peace in the East to regain possession of the Balkans, which were before then almost totally under the heel of Slavic tribes.[7] In 687 Justinian transferred cavalry troops from Anatolia to Thrace. With a great military campaign in 688–689, Justinian defeated the Bulgars of Macedonia and was finally able to enter Thessalonica, the second most important Byzantine city in Europe.[1] The subdued Slavs were resettled in Anatolia, where they were to provide a military force of 30,000 men.[1] Emboldened by the increase of his forces in Anatolia, Justinian now renewed the war against the Arabs.[9] With the help of his new troops, Justinian won a battle against the enemy in Armenia in 693, but they were soon bribed to revolt by the Arabs. The result was that Justinian was comprehensively defeated at the Battle of Sebastopolis,[10] caused by the defection of most of his Slavic troops, while he himself was forced to flee to the Propontis.[9] There, according to Theophanes,[11] he took out his frustration by slaughtering as many of the Slavs in and around Opsikion as he could lay his hands on.[12] In the meantime, a Patrician by the name of Symbatius proceeded to rebel in Armenia,[9] and opened up the province to the Arabs, who proceeded to conquer it in 694–695.[1] The Mutilation of the Byzantine Emperors Justinian II and Phillipicus Meanwhile, the Emperor's bloody persecution of the Manichaeans and suppression of popular traditions of non-Orthodox origin caused dissension within the Church.[4] In 692 Justinian convened the so-called Quinisext Council at Constantinople to put his religious policies into effect.[13] The Council expanded and clarified the rulings of the Fifth and Sixth ecumenical councils, but by highlighting differences between the Eastern and Western observances (such as the marriage of priests and the Roman practice of fasting on Saturdays) the council compromised Byzantine relations with the Roman Church.[14] The emperor ordered Pope Sergius I arrested, but the militias of Rome and Ravenna rebelled and took the Pope's side.[1] Justinian contributed to the development of the thematic organization of the Empire, creating a new theme of Hellas in southern Greece and numbering the heads of the five major themes- Thrace in Europe, Opsikion, the Anatolikon, and Armeniakon themes in Asia Minor, and the maritime corps of the Karabisianoi- among the senior administrators of the Empire.[1] He also sought to protect the rights of peasant freeholders, who served as the main recruitment pool for the armed forces of the Empire, against attempts by the aristocracy to acquire their land. This put him in direct conflict with some of the largest landholders in the Empire

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