General Nathan Bedford Forrest Signed limited numbered edition art print MINT

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Seller: scmbgetty (7,157) 100%, Location: Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Ships to: US, Item: 143355827401 GENERAL NATHAN BEDFORD FORREST - SIGNED AND NUMBERED LIMITED EDITION ART PRINT by MICHAEL GNATEK. Measures 16" x 21" and in mint condition with certificate of authenticity. Never framed. Limited to only 750 in the edition and sold out many year ago. Originally published in 1994 by renown artist Michael Gnatek. Insured Priority mail delivery in the continental US is $ 17.50. Will ship worldwide and will combine shipping when practical. Michael Gnatek, Jr. was long recognized as the premier portrait painter, both of American military and western figures. Born in Hadley, Massachusetts, he began his artistic career at the age of eleven. He attended Yale University’s School of Design, where he studied with noted abstract artist, Joseph Albers. Sadly, Mr. Gnatek passed away in Fall 2006. Michael’s work was featured in Southwest Art, The Artist’s Magazine, and in the book, Contemporary Western Artists, by Peggy and Harold Samuels. Nathan Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821 – October 29, 1877) was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. Although scholars admire Forrest as a military strategist, he has remained a highly controversial figure in Southern racial history, especially for his alleged role in the massacre of black soldiers at Fort Pillow, his 1867–1869 leadership of the white-supremacist/terrorist Ku Klux Klan, and his political influence as a Tennessee delegate at the 1868 Democratic National Convention. Before the war, Forrest amassed substantial wealth as a cotton plantation owner, horse and cattle trader, real estate broker, and slave trader. In June 1861, he enlisted in the Confederate Army, one of the few officers during the war to enlist as a private and be promoted to general without any prior military training. An expert cavalry leader, Forrest was given command of a corps and established new doctrines for mobile forces, earning the nickname "The Wizard of the Saddle". His methods influenced many future generations of military strategists, although the Confederate high command is seen to have underutilized his talents.[citation needed] In April 1864, in what has been called "one of the bleakest, saddest events of American military history.",[3] troops under Forrest's command massacred Union troops who had surrendered, most of them black soldiers along with some white Southern Tennesseans fighting for the Union, at the Battle of Fort Pillow. Forrest was blamed for the massacre in the Union press and that news may have strengthened the North's resolve. Forrest apparently joined the Ku Klux Klan in 1867 (two years after its founding) and was elected its first Grand Wizard. The group was a loose collection of local factions, throughout the former Confederacy, that used violence and the threat of violence to maintain white control over the newly-enfranchised slaves. The Klan, with Forrest at the lead, suppressed voting rights of blacks and Republicans in the South through violence and intimidation during the elections of 1868. In 1869, Forrest expressed disillusionment with the lack of discipline among the various white supremacist groups across the South, and issued a letter ordering the dissolution of the Ku Klux Klan and the destruction of its costumes; he then withdrew from the organization. Lacking coordinated leadership and facing strong opposition from President Grant, this first incarnation of the Klan gradually disappeared. In the last years of his life, Forrest publicly denounced the violence and racism of the Klan, insisted he had never been a member, and made at least one public speech (to a black audience) in favor of racial harmony. He and his wife moved onto President's Island in late 1875, established a home and started a business venture that relied on the Convict Lease System enacted in 1866 by the state of Mississippi, to secure a labor force of 117 convicts whose sentence would be served in clearing and cultivating 800 acres of the 1300 that Forrest had leased. "Among those convicts in his employ were eighteen black and four white female prisoners along with thirty-five white and sixty black male convicts who worked the land on Forrest's island plantation."[4] Contents1 Early life and career2 Marriage, family and personal characteristics3 American Civil War (1861–1865) 3.1 Early cavalry command3.2 Sacramento and Fort Donelson3.3 Shiloh and Murfreesboro3.4 West Tennessee raids3.5 Dover, Brentwood, and Chattanooga3.6 Day's Gap, Chickamauga, and Paducah3.7 Fort Pillow massacre3.8 Brice's Crossroads and Tupelo3.9 Tennessee Raids3.10 Murfreesboro, Nashville, and Selma4 Postwar years and later life 4.1 Business ventures4.2 Offers services to Sherman4.3 Ku Klux Klan membership 4.3.1 Democratic convention 18684.3.2 Election of 1868 and Grant4.3.3 Klan prosecution and Congressional testimony (1871)4.3.4 Speech to black Southerners (1875)4.4 Death5 Historical reputation and legacy 5.1 Military doctrines5.2 War record and promotions5.3 Fort Pillow controversy5.4 In popular culture5.5 Continued controversies6 See also7 Notes8 References 8.1 Author8.2 Internet9 Further reading10 External linksEarly life and career[edit] Memphis City Directory entry for Forrest's slave-trading business, 1855–1856 Nathan Bedford Forrest was born on July 13, 1821 to a poor settler family in a secluded frontier cabin near Chapel Hill hamlet, then part of Bedford County, Tennessee, but now encompassed in Marshall County.[5][6] Forrest was the first son of William and Mariam (Beck) Forrest.[6] His father William was of English descent and most of his biographers state that his mother Mariam was of Scotch-Irish descent, but the Memphis Genealogical Society says that she was of English descent as well.[7] He and his twin sister, Fanny, were the two eldest of blacksmith William Forrest's 12 children with wife Miriam Beck. Forrest's great-grandfather, Shadrach Forrest, possibly of English birth, moved from Virginia to North Carolina, between 1730–1740, and there his son and grandson were born; they moved to Tennessee in 1806.[6] Forrest's family lived in a log house (now preserved as the Nathan Bedford Forrest Boyhood Home) from 1830 to 1833.[8] John Allan Wyeth, who served in an Alabama regiment under Forrest, described it as a one-room building with a loft and no windows.[9] William Forrest worked as a blacksmith in Tennessee until 1834, when he moved to Mississippi.[6] William died in 1837 and Forrest became the primary caretaker of the family at the age of sixteen.[6] In 1841 Forrest went into business with his uncle Jonathan Forrest in Hernando, Mississippi. His uncle was killed there in 1845 during an argument with the Matlock brothers. In retaliation, Forrest shot and killed two of them with his two-shot pistol and wounded two others with a knife which had been thrown to him. One of the wounded Matlock men survived and served under Forrest during the Civil War.[10] Forrest became a successful businessman, planter and slaveholder. He also acquired several cotton plantations in the Delta region of West Tennessee.[6] He was also a slave trader, at a time when demand was booming in the Deep South; his trading business was based on Adams Street in Memphis.[11][6] [12] In 1858, Forrest was elected a Memphis city alderman as a Democrat and served two consecutive terms.[13][14] By the time the American Civil War started in 1861, he had become one of the richest men in the South, having amassed a "personal fortune that he claimed was worth $1.5 million".[15] Forrest was well known as a Memphis speculator and Mississippi gambler.[16] In 1859, he bought two large cotton plantations in Coahoma County, Mississippi and a half-interest in another plantation in Arkansas;[17] by October 1860 he owned at least 3,345 acres in Mississippi.[18] Marriage, family and personal characteristics[edit] Forrest had 12 brothers and sisters; two of his eight brothers and three of his four sisters died of typhoid fever at an early age, all at about the same time.[19][20] He also contracted the disease, but survived; his father recovered but died from residual effects of the disease five years later, when Bedford was 16. His mother Miriam then married James Horatio Luxton, of Marshall, Texas, in 1843 and gave birth to four more children.[21] In 1845, Forrest married Mary Ann Montgomery (1826–1893), the niece of a Presbyterian minister who was her legal guardian.[22] They had two children, William Montgomery Bedford Forrest (1846–1908), who enlisted at the age of 15 and served alongside his father in the war, and a daughter, Fanny (1849–1854), who died in childhood. His descendants continued the military tradition. A grandson, Nathan Bedford Forrest II (1872–1931), became commander-in-chief of the Sons of Confederate Veterans[23] and a Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia and secretary of the national organization.[24] A great-grandson, Nathan Bedford Forrest III (1905–1943), graduated from West Point and rose to the rank of brigadier general in the U.S. Army Air Corps; he was killed during a bombing raid over Nazi Germany in 1943, becoming the first American general to die in European combat in World War II.[25] Nathan Bedford Forrest was a tall man and had a commanding presence. Out of habit, he was mild mannered, quiet in speech, exemplary in language, considerate and generally kindhearted. Forrest rarely drank and he abstained from tobacco usage. When he was provoked or angered, however, he would become savage, profane and terrifying in appearance. Although he was not formally educated, Forrest was able to read and write in clear and grammatical English.[26] American Civil War (1861–1865)[edit]Early cavalry command[edit] After the Civil War broke out, Forrest returned to Tennessee from his Mississippi ventures and enlisted in the Confederate States Army (CSA) on June 14, 1861. He reported for training at Fort Wright near Randolph, Tennessee,[27] joining Captain Josiah White's cavalry company, the Tennessee Mounted Rifles (Seventh Tennessee Cavalry), as a private along with his youngest brother and 15-year-old son. Upon seeing how badly equipped the CSA was, Forrest offered to buy horses and equipment with his own money for a regiment of Tennessee volunteer soldiers.[12][28] His superior officers and Governor of Tennessee Isham G. Harris were surprised that someone of Forrest's wealth and prominence had enlisted as a soldier, especially since major planters were exempted from service. They commissioned him as a lieutenant colonel and authorized him to recruit and train a battalion of Confederate mounted rangers.[29] In October 1861, Forrest was given command of a regiment, the 3rd Tennessee Cavalry. Though Forrest had no prior formal military training or experience, he had exhibited leadership and soon proved he had a gift for successful tactics.[30][31] Public debate surrounded Tennessee's decision to join the Confederacy and both the Confederate and Union armies recruited soldiers from the state. More than 100,000 men from Tennessee served with the Confederacy and over 31,000 served with the Union.[32] Forrest posted advertisements to join his regiment, with the slogan, "Let's have some fun and kill some Yankees!".[33] Forrest's command included his Escort Company (his "Special Forces"), for which he selected the best soldiers available. This unit, which varied in size from 40 to 90 men, constituted the elite of his cavalry.[34] At six feet two inches (1.88 m) in height and about 180 pounds (13 st; 82 kg),[35][36][37][30] Forrest was physically imposing, especially compared to the average height of men at the time.[38] He used his skills as a hard rider and fierce swordsman to great effect; he was known to sharpen both the top and bottom edges of his heavy saber.[39] Forrest killed thirty enemy soldiers in hand-to hand combat.[40] Sacramento and Fort Donelson[edit] Col. Bedford Forrest Forrest received praise for his skill and courage during an early victory in the Battle of Sacramento in Kentucky, the first in which he commanded troops in the field, where he routed a Union force by personally leading a cavalry charge that was later commended by his commander, Brigadier General Charles Clark.[41][42] Forrest distinguished himself further at the Battle of Fort Donelson in February 1862. After his cavalry captured a Union artillery battery, he broke out of a siege headed by Major General Ulysses S. Grant, rallying nearly 4,000 troops and leading them to escape across the Cumberland River.[43] A few days after the Confederate surrender of Fort Donelson, with the fall of Nashville to Union forces imminent, Forrest took command of the city. All available carts and wagons were impressed into service to haul six hundred boxes of army clothing, 250,000 pounds of bacon and forty wagon-loads of ammunition to the railroad depots, to be sent off to Chattanooga and Decatur.[44][45] Forrest arranged for the heavy ordnance machinery, including a new cannon rifling machine and fourteen cannons built at Brennan's machine shop, as well as parts from the Nashville Armory, to be sent to Atlanta for use by the Confederate Army;[46] meanwhile the governor and legislature departed hastily for Memphis.[47][48] Shiloh and Murfreesboro[edit] A month later, Forrest was back in action at the Battle of Shiloh, fought April 6–7, 1862. He commanded a Confederate rear guard after the Union victory. In the battle of Fallen Timbers, he drove through the Union skirmish line. Not realizing that the rest of his men had halted their charge when reaching the full Union brigade, Forrest charged the brigade alone and soon found himself surrounded. He emptied his Colt Army revolvers into the swirling mass of Union soldiers and pulled out his saber, hacking and slashing. A Union infantryman on the ground beside Forrest fired a musket ball at him with a point-blank shot, nearly knocking him out of the saddle. The ball went through Forrest's pelvis and lodged near his spine. A surgeon removed the musket ball a week later, without anesthesia, which was unavailable.[19][49] By early summer, Forrest commanded a new brigade of "green" cavalry regiments. In July, he led them into Middle Tennessee under orders to launch a cavalry raid, and on July 13, 1862, led them into the First Battle of Murfreesboro, as a result of which all of the Union units surrendered to Forrest, and the Confederates destroyed much of the Union's supplies and railroad track in the area.[50] West Tennessee raids[edit] Gen. Bedford Forrest Promoted on July 21, 1862 to brigadier general, Forrest was given command of a Confederate cavalry brigade.[51] In December 1862, Forrest's veteran troopers were reassigned by General Braxton Bragg to another officer, against his protest. Forrest had to recruit a new brigade, composed of about 2,000 inexperienced recruits, most of whom lacked weapons.[52] Again, Bragg ordered a series of raids, this time into west Tennessee, to disrupt the communications of the Union forces under Grant, which were threatening the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Forrest protested that to send such untrained men behind enemy lines was suicidal, but Bragg insisted, and Forrest obeyed his orders. In the ensuing raids he led thousands of Union soldiers in west Tennessee on a "wild goose chase" to try to locate his fast-moving forces. Never staying in one place long enough to be attacked, Forrest led his troops in raids as far north as the banks of the Ohio River in southwest Kentucky.[53] His destruction of railroads around Grant's headquarters at Holly Springs and his cutting down of telegraph lines slowed the implementation of Grant's notorious anti-semitic General Orders #11, which expelled Jewish cotton traders and their families from Grant's military district. Grant had blamed Jews for widespread cotton smuggling and speculation that affected his ability to fight the Confederate Army.[54] Forrest returned to his base in Mississippi with more men than he had started with. By then, all were fully armed with captured Union weapons. As a result, Grant was forced to revise and delay the strategy of his Vicksburg campaign. Newspaper correspondent Sylvanus Cadwallader, who traveled with Grant for three years during his campaigns, wrote that Forrest "was the only Confederate cavalryman of whom Grant stood in much dread".[55][56] Dover, Brentwood, and Chattanooga[edit] The Union Army gained military control of Tennessee in 1862 and occupied it for the duration of the war, having taken control of strategic cities and railroads. Forrest continued to lead his men in small-scale operations, including the Battle of Dover and the Battle of Brentwood until April 1863. The Confederate army dispatched him with a small force into the backcountry of northern Alabama and western Georgia to defend against an attack of 3,000 Union cavalrymen commanded by Colonel Abel Streight. Streight had orders to cut the Confederate railroad south of Chattanooga, Tennessee to seal off Bragg's supply line and force him to retreat into Georgia.[57] Forrest chased Streight's men for 16 days, harassing them all the way. Streight's goal changed from dismantling the railroad to escaping the pursuit. On May 3, Forrest caught up with Streight's unit east of Cedar Bluff, Alabama. Forrest had fewer men than the Union side but feigned having a larger force by parading some repeatedly around a hilltop until Streight was convinced to surrender his 1,500 or so exhausted troops (historians Kevin Dougherty and Keith S. Hebert say he had about 1,700 men).[58][59][60] Day's Gap, Chickamauga, and Paducah[edit] Not all of Forrest's feats of individual combat involved enemy troops. Lieutenant Andrew Wills Gould, an artillery officer in Forrest's command, was being transferred, presumably because cannons under his command[61] were spiked (disabled) by the enemy[62] during the Battle of Day's Gap. On June 13, 1863, Gould confronted Forrest about his transfer, which escalated into a violent exchange.[63] Gould shot Forrest in the hip and Forrest mortally stabbed Gould.[4] Forrest was thought to have been fatally wounded by Gould but he recovered and was ready for the Chickamauga Campaign.[6] Forrest served with the main army at the Battle of Chickamauga on September 18–20, 1863. He pursued the retreating Union army and took hundreds of prisoners.[64] Like several others under Bragg's command, he urged an immediate follow-up attack to recapture Chattanooga, which had fallen a few weeks before. Bragg failed to do so, upon which Forrest was quoted as saying, "What does he fight battles for?"[65][66] The story that Forrest confronted and threatened the life of Bragg in the fall of 1863, following the battle of Chickamauga, and that Bragg transferred Forrest to command in Mississippi as a direct result, is now considered to be apocryphal.[67][68][69] On December 4, 1863, Forrest was promoted to the rank of major general.[70] On March 25, 1864, Forrest's cavalry raided the town of Paducah, Kentucky in the Battle of Paducah, during which Forrest demanded the surrender of U.S. Colonel Stephen G. Hicks: "... if I have to storm your works, you may expect no quarter." The bluff failed and Hicks refused.[71][72][73] Fort Pillow massacre[edit]Main article: Battle of Fort Pillow Fort Pillow Massacre Fort Pillow, located 40 miles up river from Memphis (Henning), was originally constructed by Confederate general Gideon Johnson Pillow, on the bluffs of the Mississippi River, later taken over by Union forces in 1862, after the Confederates had abandoned the fort.[74] The fort was manned by 557 Union troops, 295 white and 262 black, under Union commander Maj. L.F. Booth.[74] On the early morning of April 12, 1864, Forrest's men, under Brig. Gen. James Chalmers, attacked and recaptured Fort Pillow.[74] Booth and his adjutant were killed in battle, leaving Fort Pillow under the command of Major William Bradford. [74] At 10:00 Forrest reached the fort after a hard ride from Mississippi. [74] Not shy of action, Forrest rode up to the battle, his horse was shot out from under him and he fell to the ground. Undaunted, Forrest mounted a second horse, which was shot out from under him as well, forcing him to mount a third horse.[74] By 3:30 pm, Forrest concluded the Fort could not be held anymore and ordered a flag of truce and that the fort be surrendered. [75] Bradford refused to surrender, believing his troops could escape to the Union gunboat, USS New Era, on the Mississippi River. [75] Forrest's men immediately took over the fort, while Union soldiers retreated to the lower bluffs of the river, but the USS New Era did not come to their rescue. [75] What happened next became known as the Fort Pillow Massacre[76] As the Union troops surrendered, Forrest's men opened fire, slaughtering both black and white soldiers. [76][77][78] White soldiers were killed at a rate of 31 percent, while black troops had a casualty rate of 64 percent.[79][80] The atrocities at Fort Pillow continued throughout the night. Conflicting accounts of what actually occurred were given later.[81][82][83] Forrest's Confederate forces were accused of subjecting Union captured soldiers to extreme brutality, with allegations of back-shooting soldiers who fled into the river, shooting wounded soldiers, burning men alive, nailing men to barrels and igniting them, crucifixion and hacking men to death with sabers.[84] Forrest's men were alleged to have set fire to a Union barracks with wounded Union soldiers inside[85][86] In defense of their actions, Forrest's men insisted that the Union soldiers, although fleeing, kept their weapons and frequently turned to shoot, forcing the Confederates to keep firing in self-defense.[87] The rebels said the Union flag was still flying over the fort, which indicated that the force had not formally surrendered. A contemporary newspaper account from Jackson, Tennessee stated that "General Forrest begged them to surrender" but "not the first sign of surrender was ever given". Similar accounts were reported in many Southern newspapers at the time.[88] These statements, however, were contradicted by Union survivors, as well as by the letter of a Confederate soldier who graphically recounted a massacre. Achilles Clark, a soldier with the 20th Tennessee cavalry, wrote to his sisters immediately after the battle: The slaughter was awful. Words cannot describe the scene. The poor deluded negroes would run up to our men fall upon their knees and with uplifted hands scream for mercy but they were ordered to their feet and then shot down. The white men fared but little better. Their fort turned out to be a great slaughter pen. Blood, human blood stood about in pools and brains could have been gathered up in any quantity.[89][90][91] Following the cessation of hostilities, Forrest transferred the 14 most seriously wounded United States Colored Troops (USCT) to the U.S. steamer Silver Cloud.[92] The 226 Union troops taken prisoner at Fort Pillow were marched under guard to Holly Springs, Mississippi and then convoyed to Demopolis, Alabama. On April 21, Capt. John Goodwin, of Forrest's cavalry command, forwarded a dispatch listing the prisoners captured. The list included the names of 7 officers and 219 white enlisted soldiers. According to Richard L. Fuchs, records concerning the black prisoners are "nonexistent or unreliable."[93] President Abraham Lincoln asked his cabinet for opinions as to how the Union should respond to the massacre.[94] At the time of the massacre, General Grant was no longer in Tennessee but had transferred to the east to command all Union troops. He wrote in his memoirs that Forrest in his report of the battle had "left out the part which shocks humanity to read."[95] The Northern public and press viewed Forrest as a butcher and a war criminal over Fort Pillow.[96] The Chicago Tribune said Forrest and his brothers were "slave drivers and woman whippers", while Forrest himself was described as a tall, snake-eyed man, who was "mean, vindictive, cruel, and unscrupulous."[96]The Southern press steadfastly defended Forrest's reputation.[97][98] Brice's Crossroads and Tupelo[edit]Main article: Battle of Brice's Crossroads Battle of Brice's Crossroads Forrest's greatest victory came on June 10, 1864, when his 3,500-man force clashed with 8,500 men commanded by Union Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis at the Battle of Brice's Crossroads in northeastern Mississippi.[99] Here, the mobility of the troops under his command and his superior tactics led to victory,[100][101] allowing him to continue harassing Union forces in southwestern Tennessee and northern Mississippi throughout the war.[102] Forrest set up a position for an attack to repulse a pursuing force commanded by Sturgis, who had been sent to impede Forrest from destroying Union supply lines and fortifications.[103] When Sturgis's Federal army came upon the crossroads, they collided with Forrest's cavalry.[104] Sturgis ordered his infantry to advance to the front line to counteract the cavalry. The infantry, tired, weary and suffering under the heat, were quickly broken and sent into mass retreat. Forrest sent a full charge after the retreating army and captured 16 artillery pieces, 176 wagons and 1,500 stands of small arms. In all, the maneuver cost Forrest 96 men killed and 396 wounded. The day was worse for Union troops, which suffered 223 killed, 394 wounded and 1,623 missing. The losses were a deep blow to the black regiment under Sturgis's command. In the hasty retreat, they stripped off commemorative badges that read "Remember Fort Pillow" to avoid goading the Confederate force pursuing them.[105] One month later, while serving under General Stephen D. Lee, Forrest experienced tactical defeat at the Battle of Tupelo in 1864.[106] Concerned about Union supply lines, Maj. Gen. Sherman sent a force under the command of Maj. Gen. Andrew J. Smith to deal with Forrest.[107] Union forces drove the Confederates from the field and Forrest was wounded in the foot, but his forces were not wholly destroyed.[108] He continued to oppose Union efforts in the West for the remainder of the war. Tennessee Raids[edit] Forrest's raid into Memphis Forrest led other raids that summer and fall, including a famous one into Union-held downtown Memphis in August 1864 (the Second Battle of Memphis)[108] and another on a major Union supply depot at Johnsonville, Tennessee. On November 4, 1864, during the Battle of Johnsonville, the Confederates shelled the city, sinking three gunboats and nearly thirty other ships and destroying many tons of supplies.[109] During Hood's Tennessee Campaign, he fought alongside General John Bell Hood, the newest (and last) commander of the Confederate Army of Tennessee, in the Second Battle of Franklin on November 30.[110] Facing a disastrous defeat, Forrest argued bitterly with Hood (his superior officer) demanding permission to cross the Harpeth River and cut off the escape route of Union Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield's army.[111] He eventually made the attempt, but it was too late. Murfreesboro, Nashville, and Selma[edit] After his bloody defeat at Franklin, Hood continued on to Nashville. Hood ordered Forrest to conduct an independent raid against the Murfreesboro garrison. After success in achieving the objectives specified by Hood, Forrest engaged Union forces near Murfreesboro on December 5, 1864. In what would be known as the Third Battle of Murfreesboro, a portion of Forrest's command broke and ran.[112] When Hood's battle-hardened Army of Tennessee, consisting of 40,000 men deployed in three infantry corps plus 10,000 to 15,000 cavalry, was all but destroyed on December 15–16, at the Battle of Nashville,[113] Forrest distinguished himself by commanding the Confederate rear guard in a series of actions that allowed what was left of the army to escape. For this, he would later be promoted to the rank of lieutenant general on March 2, 1865.[114] A portion of his command, now dismounted, was surprised and captured in their camp at Verona, Mississippi on December 25, 1864, during a raid of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad by a brigade of Brig. Gen. Benjamin Grierson's cavalry division.[115] In the spring of 1865, Forrest led an unsuccessful defense of the state of Alabama against Wilson's Raid. His opponent, Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson, defeated Forrest at the Battle of Selma on April 2, 1865.[116] A week later, General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Grant in Virginia. When he received news of Lee's surrender, Forrest also chose to surrender. On May 9, 1865, at Gainesville, Forrest read his farewell address to the men under his command, enjoining them to "submit to the powers to be, and to aid in restoring peace and establishing law and order throughout the land."[117] Postwar years and later life[edit]Business ventures[edit] With slavery abolished after the war, Forrest suffered a major financial setback as a former slave trader. He became interested in the area around Crowley's Ridge during the war and settled in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1866, Forrest and C.C. McCreanor contracted to finish the Memphis & Little Rock Railroad.[118] The commissary he built as a provisioning store for the 1,000 Irish laborers hired to lay the rails became the nucleus of a town, which most residents called "Forrest's Town" and which was incorporated as Forrest City, Arkansas in 1870.[119] The historian Court Carney writes that Forrest was not universally popular in the white Memphis community: he alienated many of the city's businessmen in his commercial dealings and he was criticized for questionable business practices that caused him to default on debts.[120] He later found employment at the Selma-based Marion & Memphis Railroad and eventually became the company president. He was not as successful in railroad promoting as in war and, under his direction, the company went bankrupt. Nearly ruined as the result of this failure, Forrest spent his final days running an eight-hundred acre farm on land he leased on President's Island in the Mississippi River, where he and his wife lived in a log cabin. There, with the labor of over a hundred prison convicts, he grew corn, potatoes, vegetables and cotton profitably, but his health was in steady decline.[121][122] Offers services to Sherman[edit] During the Virginius Affair of 1873, some of Forrest's old Southern friends were filibusters aboard the vessel so he wrote a letter to then General-in-Chief of the United States Army William T. Sherman and offered his services in case of war with Spain. Sherman, who in the Civil War had recognized what a deadly foe Forrest was, replied after the crisis settled down. He thanked Forrest for the offer and stated that had war broken out, he would have considered it an honor to have served side-by-side with him.[123][124][125][126][127][128][129][130] Ku Klux Klan membership[edit]Wikisource has original text related to this article: Interview with Nathan Bedford Forrest Forrest was an early member of the Ku Klux Klan ("KKK" or simply "the Klan"), which was formed by six veterans of the Confederate Army in Pulaski, Tennessee during the spring of 1866[131][132][133] and soon expanded throughout the state and beyond. Forrest became involved sometime in late 1866 or early 1867. A common report is that Forrest arrived in Nashville in April 1867 while the Klan was meeting at the Maxwell House Hotel, probably at the encouragement of a state Klan leader, former Confederate general George Gordon.[134] The organization had grown to the point where an experienced commander was needed, and Forrest was well-suited to the role. In Room 10 of the Maxwell, Forrest was sworn in as a member by John W. Morton.[135][136] Brian Steel Wills quotes two KKK members who identified Forrest as a Klan leader.[137] James R. Crowe stated, "After the order grew to large numbers we found it necessary to have someone of large experience to command. We chose General Forrest".[138] Another member wrote, "N. B. Forest of Confederate fame was at our head, and was known as the Grand Wizard. I heard him make a speech in one of our Dens".[137] The title "Grand Wizard" was chosen because General Forrest had been known as "The Wizard of the Saddle" during the war.[139] According to Jack Hurst's 1993 biography, "Two years after Appomattox, Forrest was reincarnated as grand wizard of the Ku Klux Klan. As the Klan's first national leader, he became the Lost Cause's avenging angel, galvanizing a loose collection of boyish secret social clubs into a reactionary instrument of terror still feared today."[140] Forrest was the Klan's first and only Grand Wizard, and he was active in recruitment for the Klan from 1867 to 1868.[141][142][143][144][145][146][147] Following the war, the United States Congress began passing the Reconstruction Acts to lay out requirements for the former Confederate States to be readmitted to the Union,[148][149][150] to include ratification of the Fourteenth (1868), and Fifteenth (1870) Amendments to the United States Constitution. The Fourteenth addressed citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws for former slaves, while the Fifteenth specifically secured the voting rights of black men.[151] According to Wills, in the August 1867 state elections the Klan was relatively restrained in its actions. White Americans who made up the KKK hoped to persuade black voters that a return to their pre-war state of bondage was in their best interest. Forrest assisted in maintaining order. It was after these efforts failed that Klan violence and intimidation escalated and became widespread.[152] Author Andrew Ward, however, writes, "In the spring of 1867, Forrest and his dragoons launched a campaign of midnight parades; 'ghost' masquerades; and 'whipping' and even 'killing Negro voters and white Republicans, to scare blacks off voting and running for office'".[153] In an 1868 interview by a Cincinnati newspaper, Forrest claimed that the Klan had 40,000 members in Tennessee and 550,000 total members throughout the Southern states.[154][155] He said he sympathized with them, but denied any formal connection. He claimed he could muster thousands of men himself. He described the Klan as "a protective political military organization ... The members are sworn to recognize the government of the United States ... Its objects originally were protection against Loyal Leagues and the Grand Army of the Republic ...".[156][157] After only a year as Grand Wizard, in January 1869, faced with an ungovernable membership employing methods that seemed increasingly counterproductive, Forrest dissolved the Klan, ordered their costumes destroyed",[158] and withdrew from participation. His declaration had little effect, however, and few Klansmen destroyed their robes and hoods.[159] After the lynch mob murder of four blacks, arrested for defending themselves at a barbecue, Forrest wrote to Tennessee Governor John C. Brown in August 1874 and "volunteered to help 'exterminate' those men responsible for the continued violence against the blacks", offering "to exterminate the white marauders who disgrace their race by this cowardly murder of Negroes".[123] Democratic convention 1868[edit]Main article: 1868 Democratic National Convention The Klan's activity infiltrated the Democrat's campaign for the presidential election of 1868. Prominent ex-Confederates, including Forrest, the Grand Wizard of the Klan, and South Carolina's Wade Hampton, attended as delegates at the 1868 Democratic Convention, held at Tammany Hall headquarters at 141 East 14th Street in New York City.[160] Forrest rode to the convention on a train that stopped in a small Northern town along the way, where he faced a protester who wanted to fight the "damned butcher" of Fort Pillow.[161] Former Governor of New York Horatio Seymour was nominated as the Democratic presidential candidate, while Forrest's friend, Frank Blair, Jr. was nominated as the Democratic vice presidential candidate, Seymour's running mate. [162] The Seymour-Blair Democratic ticket's campaign slogan was: "Our Ticket, Our Motto, This Is a White Man's Country; Let White Men Rule." [162] The Democratic Party platform denounced the Reconstruction Acts as unconstitutional, void, and revolutionary.[163] The party advocated termination of the Freedman's Bureau and any government policy designed to aid blacks in the South. [163] All of this worked into the Republicans' hands, who focused on the Democratic Party's alleged disloyalty during and after the Civil War.[163] Election of 1868 and Grant[edit] Prominent Republican organizer George Ashburn as murdered in Georgia by the Ku Klux Klan on March 31, 1868. During the presidential election of 1868, the Ku Klux Klan under the leadership of Forrest, and other terrorist groups, used brutal violence and intimidation against blacks and Republican voters.[164][165] Forrest played a prominent role in the spread of the Klan in the South, meeting with racist whites in Atlanta several times between February and March 1868. Forrest probably organized a statewide Klan network in Georgia during these visits.[166] On March 31 the Klan struck, killing prominent Republican organizer George Ashburn in Columbus.[166] The Republicans had nominated one of Forrest's battle adversaries, Union war hero Ulysses S. Grant, for the Presidency at their convention held in October. Klansmen took their orders from their former Confederate officers.[165] In Louisiana, 1,000 blacks were killed to suppress Republican voting. In Georgia, blacks and Republicans also faced a lot of violence. The Klan's violence was primarily designed to intimidate voters, targeting black and white supporters of the Republican Party.[166] The Klan's violent tactics backfired, as Grant, whose slogan was "Let us have peace," won the election and Republicans gained a majority in Congress.[164] Grant defeated Horatio Seymour, the Democratic presidential candidate, by a comfortable electoral margin, 214 to 80.[167] The popular vote was much closer, as Grant received 3,013,365 (52.7%) votes, while Seymour received 2,708,744 (47.3%) votes.[167] Grant lost Georgia and Louisiana, where the violence and intimidation against blacks was most prominent. Klan prosecution and Congressional testimony (1871)[edit] Many in the north, including President Grant, backed the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment, that gave voting rights to Americans regardless of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude". Congress and Grant passed the Enforcement Acts from 1870 to 1871, to protect "registration, voting, officeholding, or jury service" of African Americans. Under these laws enforced by Grant and the newly-formed Department of Justice, there were over 5,000 indictments and 1,000 convictions of Klan members across the South.[164] Forrest testified before the Congressional investigation of Klan activities on June 27, 1871. He denied membership, but his individual role in the KKK was beyond the scope of the investigating committee, which wrote: "Our design is not to connect General Forrest with this order (the reader may form his own conclusion upon this question)..."[168] The committee also noted, "The natural tendency of all such organizations is to violence and crime; hence it was that General Forrest and other men of influence in the state, by the exercise of their moral power, induced them to disband".[169] George Cantor, a biographer of Confederate generals, wrote, "Forrest ducked and weaved, denying all knowledge, but admitted he knew some of the people involved. He sidestepped some questions and pleaded failure of memory on others. Afterwards, he admitted to 'gentlemanly lies.' He wanted nothing more to do with the Klan, but felt honor bound to protect former associates."[170] Speech to black Southerners (1875)[edit] On July 5, 1875, Forrest demonstrated that his personal sentiments on the issue of race now differed from those of the Klan when he was invited to give a speech before the Independent Order of Pole-Bearers Association, a post-war organization of black Southerners advocating to improve the economic condition of blacks and to gain equal rights for all citizens. At this, his last public appearance, he made what The New York Times described as a "friendly speech"[171][172] during which, when offered a bouquet of flowers by a young black woman, he accepted them,[173] thanked her and kissed her on the cheek as a token of reconciliation between the races. Forrest ignored his critics and spoke in encouragement of black advancement and of endeavoring to be a proponent for espousing peace and harmony between black and white Americans.[174] In response to the Pole-Bearers speech, the Cavalry Survivors Association of Augusta, the first Confederate organization formed after the war, called a meeting in which Captain F. Edgeworth Eve gave a speech expressing unmitigated disapproval of Forrest's remarks promoting inter-ethnic harmony, ridiculing his faculties and judgment and berating the woman who gave Forrest flowers as "a mulatto wench". The association voted unanimously to amend its constitution to expressly forbid publicly advocating for or hinting at any association of white women and girls as being in the same classes as "females of the negro race".[175][176] The Macon Weekly Telegraph newspaper also condemned Forrest for his speech, describing the event as "the recent disgusting exhibition of himself at the negro [sic] jamboree" and quoting part of a Charlotte Observer article, which read "We have infinitely more respect for Longstreet, who fraternizes with negro men on public occasions, with the pay for the treason to his race in his pocket, than with Forrest and [General] Pillow, who equalize with the negro women, with only 'futures' in payment".[177][178] Death[edit] Forrest reportedly died from acute complications of diabetes at the Memphis home of his brother Jesse on October 29, 1877.[179] His eulogy was delivered by his recent spiritual mentor, former Confederate chaplain George Tucker Stainback, who declared in his eulogy: "Lieutenant-General Nathan Bedford Forrest, though dead, yet speaketh. His acts have photographed themselves upon the hearts of thousands, and will speak there forever.[180] Forrest was buried at Elmwood Cemetery in Memphis.[181] In 1904, the remains of Forrest and his wife Mary were disinterred from Elmwood and moved to a Memphis city park that was originally named Forrest Park in his honor, but has since been renamed Health Sciences Park.[182] On July 7, 2015, the Memphis City Council unanimously voted to remove the statue of Forrest from Health Sciences Park, and to return the remains of Forrest and his wife to Elmwood Cemetery.[183] However, on October 13, 2017, the Tennessee Historical Commission invoked the Tennessee Heritage Protection Act of 2013 and U.S. Public Law 85-425: Sec. 410 to overrule the city.[184] Consequently, Memphis sold the park land to a non-profit entity not subject to the Tennessee Heritage Protection Act (Memphis Greenspace), which immediately removed the monument as explained below. Historical reputation and legacy[edit] Bronze bust of Forrest at Nathan Bedford Forrest State Park Many memorials have been erected to Forrest, especially in Tennessee and adjacent Southern states. Forrest County, Mississippi is named after him, as is Forrest City, Arkansas. Obelisks in his memory were placed at his birthplace in Chapel Hill, Tennessee and at Nathan Bedford Forrest State Park near Camden.[185] Forrest was elevated in Memphis in particular—where he lived and died—to the status of folk hero. "Embarrassed by their city's early capitulation during the Civil War, white Memphians desperately needed a hero and therefore crafted a distorted depiction of Forrest's role in the war."[186] A memorial to him, the first Civil War memorial in Memphis, was erected in 1905 in a new Nathan Bedford Forrest Park. A bust sculpted by Jane Baxendale is on display at the Tennessee State Capitol building in Nashville.[187] The World War II Army base Camp Forrest in Tullahoma, Tennessee was named after him.[188] It is now the site of the Arnold Engineering Development Center.[189] As of 2007[update], Tennessee had 32 dedicated historical markers linked to Nathan Bedford Forrest, more than are dedicated to all three former Presidents associated with the state combined: Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, and Andrew Johnson (none of whom were born in Tennessee).[190] The Tennessee legislature established July 13 as "Nathan Bedford Forrest Day".[191] A Tennessee-based organization, the Sons of Confederate Veterans, posthumously awarded Forrest their Confederate Medal of Honor, created in 1977.[192] Nathan Bedford Forrest monument in Myrtle Hill Cemetery, Rome, Georgia A monument to Forrest in the Confederate Circle section of Old Live Oak Cemetery in Selma, Alabama reads "Defender of Selma, Wizard of the Saddle, Untutored Genius, The first with the most. This monument stands as testament of our perpetual devotion and respect for Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest. CSA 1821–1877, one of the South's finest heroes. In honor of Gen. Forrest's unwavering defense of Selma, the great state of Alabama, and the Confederacy, this memorial is dedicated. DEO VINDICE".[193] As an armory for the Confederacy, Selma provided a substantial part of the South's ammunition during the Civil War.[194] The bust of Forrest was stolen from the cemetery monument in March 2012 and replaced in May 2015.[195][196] A monument to Forrest at a corner of Veterans Plaza in Rome, Georgia was erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1909 to honor his bravery for saving Rome from Union Army Colonel Abel Streight and his cavalry.[197] High schools named for Forrest were built in Chapel Hill, Tennessee and Jacksonville, Florida. In 2008, the Duval County School Board voted 5–2 against a push to change the name of Nathan Bedford Forrest High School in Jacksonville.[198] In 2013, the board voted 7–0 to begin the process to rename the school.[198] The school was named for Forrest in 1959 at the urging of the Daughters of the Confederacy because they were upset about the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision. At the time the school was all white, but now more than half the student body is black.[199] After several public forums and discussions, Westside High School was unanimously approved in January 2014 as the school's new name. In August 2000, a road on Fort Bliss named for Forrest decades earlier was renamed for former post commander Richard T. Cassidy.[200][201][202] In 2005, Shelby County Commissioner Walter Bailey started an effort to move the statue over Forrest's grave and rename Forrest Park. Former Memphis Mayor Willie Herenton, who is black, blocked the move. Others have tried to get a bust of Forrest removed from the Tennessee House of Representatives chamber.[203] Leaders in other localities have also tried to remove or eliminate Forrest monuments, with mixed success. In 1978, Middle Tennessee State University abandoned imagery it had formerly used (in 1951, the school's yearbook, The Midlander, featured the first appearance of Forrest's likeness as MTSU's official mascot) and MTSU president M.G Scarlett removed the General's image from the university's official seal. The Blue Raiders' athletic mascot was changed to an ambiguous swash-buckler character called the "Blue Raider", to avoid association with Forrest or the Confederacy. The school unveiled its latest mascot, a winged horse called "Lightning" inspired by the mythological Pegasus, during halftime of a basketball game against rival Tennessee State University on January 17, 1998.[204] The ROTC building at MTSU was named Forrest Hall to honor him in 1958. In 2006, the frieze depicting General Forrest on horseback that had adorned the side of this building was removed amid protests,[205] but a major push to change its name failed on February 16, 2018, when the governor-controlled Tennessee Historical Commission denied Middle Tennessee State University's petition to rename Forrest Hall.[206] Great-grandson Nathan Bedford Forrest III first pursued a military career in cavalry, then in aviation attained the rank of brigadier general in the United States Army Air Forces where he became the first U.S. general to be killed in action in World War II, while participating in a June 13, 1943 bombing raid over Germany.[25] His family received the Distinguished Service Cross (second only to the Medal of Honor) he was awarded posthumously for staying with the controls of his B-17 bomber while his crew bailed out.[207] Military doctrines[edit] Forrest is considered one of the Civil War's most brilliant tacticians by the historian Spencer C. Tucker.[208] Forrest fought by simple rules: he maintained, "war means fighting and fighting means killing" and the way to win was "to get there first with the most men".[209] Union General William Tecumseh Sherman called him "that devil Forrest" in wartime communications with Ulysses S. Grant and considered him "the most remarkable man our civil war produced on either side".[210][211][212] Forrest became well known for his early use of maneuver tactics as applied to a mobile horse cavalry deployment.[213] He grasped the doctrines of mobile warfare[214] that would eventually become prevalent in the 20th century. Paramount in his strategy was fast movement, even if it meant pushing his horses at a killing pace, to constantly harass his enemy during raids and disrupt supply trains and enemy communications by destroying railroad tracks and cutting telegraph lines, as he wheeled around his opponent's flank. Noted Civil War scholar Bruce Catton writes: Forrest ... used his horsemen as a modern general would use motorized infantry. He liked horses because he liked fast movement, and his mounted men could get from here to there much faster than any infantry could; but when they reached the field they usually tied their horses to trees and fought on foot, and they were as good as the very best infantry.[215] Forrest is often erroneously quoted as saying his strategy was to "git thar fustest with the mostest". Now often recast as "Getting there firstest with the mostest",[216] this misquote first appeared in a New York Tribune article written to provide colorful comments in reaction to European interest in Civil War generals. The aphorism was addressed and corrected as "Ma'am, I got there first with the most men" by a New York Times story in 1918.[217] Though it was a novel and succinct condensation of the military principles of mass and maneuver, Bruce Catton writes of the spurious quote: Do not, under any circumstances whatever, quote Forrest as saying 'fustest' and 'mostest'. He did not say it that way, and nobody who knows anything about him imagines that he did.[218] War record and promotions[edit]Enlisted as Private July 1861. (White's Company "E", Tennessee Mounted Rifles)Commissioned as lieutenant colonel, October 1861 (3rd Tennessee Cavalry)Promoted to colonel, February 1862Battle of Fort Donelson, February 12–16, 1862Wounded at Battle of Shiloh, April 6–8, 1862Promoted to brigadier general, July 21, 1862First Battle of Murfreesboro, July 1862Raids in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Mississippi, Early December 1862 – Early January 1863Battle of Day's Gap, April 30 – May 2, 1863Assigned to command Forrest's Cavalry Corps, May 1863Battle of Chickamauga, September 18–20, 1863Promoted to major general, December 4, 1863Battle of Paducah, March 25, 1864Battle of Fort Pillow, April 12, 1864Battle of Brice's Crossroads, June 10, 1864Battle of Tupelo, July 14–15, 1864Raids in Tennessee, August–October 1864Battle of Spring Hill, November 29, 1864Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864Third Battle of Murfreesboro, December 5–7, 1864Battle of Nashville, December 15–16, 1864Promoted to lieutenant general, February 28, 1865[51]Battle of Selma, April 2, 1865Farewell address to his troops, May 9, 1865Fort Pillow controversy[edit] Modern historians generally believe that Forrest's attack on Fort Pillow was a massacre, noting high casualty rates, and the rebels targeting black soldiers.[219] It was the South's publicly stated position that slaves firing on whites would be killed on the spot, along with Southern whites that fought for the Union, whom the Confederacy considered traitors.[220] According to this analysis, Forrest's troops were carrying out Confederate policy. By his inaction Forrest showed that he felt no compunction to stop the slaughter. His repeated denials that he never knew a massacre was taking place, or even that a massacre had occurred at all, are not credible. Consequently his role at Fort Pillow was a stigmatizing one for him the rest of his life, both professionally and personally,[221][222] and contributed to his business problems after the war. After Forrest's death, The New York Times reported that "General Bedford Forrest, the great Confederate cavalry officer, died at 7:30 o'clock this evening at the residence of his brother, Colonel Jesse Forrest," but also reported that it would not be for military victories that Forrest would pass into history, i.e., he would be most remembered for Fort Pillow.[223] Forrest's claim that the Fort Pillow massacre was an invention of Northern reporters is contradicted by letters written by Confederate soldiers to their own families, which described wanton brutality on the part of Confederate troops.[91] The New York newspaper obituary stated: Since the war, Forrest has lived at Memphis, and his principal occupation seems to have been to try and explain away the Fort Pillow affair. He wrote several letters about it, which were published, and always had something to say about it in any public speech he delivered. He seemed as if he were trying always to rub away the blood stains which marked him.[223] Historians have differed in their interpretations of the events at Fort Pillow. Richard L. Fuchs, author of An Unerring Fire, concluded: The affair at Fort Pillow was simply an orgy of death, a mass lynching to satisfy the basest of conduct—intentional murder—for the vilest of reasons—racism and personal enmity.[224] Andrew Ward downplays the controversy: Whether the massacre was premeditated or spontaneous does not address the more fundamental question of whether a massacre took place ... it certainly did, in every dictionary sense of the word.[225] John Cimprich states: The new paradigm in social attitudes and the fuller use of available evidence has favored a massacre interpretation ... Debate over the memory of this incident formed a part of sectional and racial conflicts for many years after the war, but the reinterpretation of the event during the last thirty years offers some hope that society can move beyond past intolerance.[226] The site is now a Tennessee State Historic Park.[227] Grant himself described Forrest as "a brave and intrepid cavalry general" while noting that Forrest sent a dispatch on the Fort Pillow Massacre "in which he left out the part which shocks humanity to read."[228] In popular culture[edit] In the 1990 PBS documentary The Civil War by Ken Burns, historian Shelby Foote states in Episode 7 that the Civil War produced two "authentic geniuses": Abraham Lincoln and Nathan Bedford Forrest. When expressing this opinion to one of General Forrest's granddaughters, she replied after a pause, "You know, we never thought much of Mr. Lincoln in my family".[229] Foote also made Forrest a major character in his novel Shiloh, which used numerous first-person stories to illustrate a detailed timeline and account of the battle.[230][231] Condition: New

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