Cumberland, England: Important Map By John Cary 1793- Engraving With Hand Work

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Seller: chapelstile (4,235) 100%, Location: Redhill, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 352404755790 VINTAGE MAP- SOLD FOR £35 ONLY- NO AUCTION- NO POSTAGE FEE FOR 2ND CLASS UK. seller's code: FOL 080520183 CUMBERLAND 1793 IMPORTANT AND HAND FINISHED MAP ENGRAVED BY J CARY A rare map engraved with hand colour by one of the most important late Georgian cartographers, John Cary. It shows the northern and eastern Lake District. This is the old county of Cumberland- which on some old maps, is the name of only part of this county: that in the west. Later this was to become part of the modern county of Cumbria which was to include Westmorland and the Furness region of North Lancashire. The coast of this county ran from the Duddon Estuary in the south to the Solway Firth. Inland the county is contiguous with Northumberland, Durham and Westmorland, then Lancashire in the south. Obviously the map predates the railway by about 50 years and, on this map, the turnpikes or coach roads are coloured ochre. Roads The London Road enters from Kendal. There seems to be no turnpike north from Lancaster. These coaching roads follow the coast south to Ponsonby near Egremont and north to the Wampool River: the name given to the inlet near Abbey and Wigton. These coast roads are accessed via Cockermouth and Keswick, from where the coach road runs to Penrith, from where turnpikes radiate out to Brough and Appleby, and Carlisle; thence east to Newcastle or north to Longtown from which coaches ran across the border to Edinburgh or west to Gretna and beyond. In the east of the county is Alston Moor where many roads meet and disperse. This was obviously a junction of great importance in the past , but one which failed to become one in the Turnpike age and so faded from history THE LAKES. Bassenthwaite seems small by modern standards and the isthmus between it and Derwent water seems larger than today. Ulleswater is divided between Cumbria and Westmorland, through the Patterdale end is entirely in Westmorland. The communities on “Ulles Water” are New Church and Dacre so no Pooley Bridge and no How Town. Wasdale and Wast Water lead to Scafell (which might be the modern Scafell Pike rather than Scafell itself – which may be just marked “Screes”) where Steeple and Pillar are marked but not Great Gable. Ennerdale Water is named and has an island at its western end. Crummock Water leads to “Buttermire Water”. Lowes Water may be marked “Lewes Water”. FELLS the few named fells have quite modern names for the time: Skiddaw and Saddle Back in the north, Grasmore and Whiteside, Harter Fell and Cross Fell off in the the East. Others are less familiar: Dent, Black Comb, Thackmoor Fell. The fells are relief shaded, so by the time of Cary the old manner of a pictogram for a hill- as used by Speed and Morden is gone. The coast This is particularly interesting given its history and what was to follow: Allonby the the most northern substantial sea side town followed by Maryport, Workington and Whitehaven, Egremont a little inland and Ravenglass seems substantial by the standards of the day. The region now dominated by nuclear reprocessing is marked with Seascale and Gosforth a little inland. There are no definite collieries yet marked in the coastal regions of West Cumberland. THE PARKS OF GENTLEMEN These are marked in green and include Ulpha Park, Gawbarton Park, Greystock Park, Barren Wood Park, Clee Hall and Brayton Hall. There is also an extensive rough in the vicinity of High Hesket, which might be enclosed. These parks were important to map making, for the information for the early Morden maps cam from estate holders who were required by the Queen’s minister to help the cartographer in his work. Hence the maps of the 16th century grew out from local knowledge of these parks and their owners and that was combined with marine charts which already accurately plotted the coast. It is an interesting fact that on the very earliest maps of North Britain: the alignment was quite good up to the Firth of Forth-Clyde and then the northern half of Scotland was plotted running at a right angle east from there. I think this (seen on Ptolemy’s map) shows that mapping was quite good where Roman writ ran- but beyond that coasts were charted without a firm grasp of longitude or latitude. THE ROMAN WALL This is called the Picts Wall and it is shows quite complete from where it enters the county at Waterhead Common to its coastal termination at Bowness on the Solway. There were forts south of this point too. The implication of the map is that the great destruction of the Western Roman Wall might have been largely post 1793. CARTOGRAPHY John Cary is probably mapping on copper- but if he is, it is of a finesse usually only seen on steel plate 1820+. He shades the coastal waters and makes some attempt to map the towns where as he uses a church symbol for the smaller villages. I think this is an interesting date: 1793 is in the reign of George III and some 128 years before the Regency. It is the year in which Matthew Bolton and George Watt were working together on steam driven factory machinery and in this year Bolton produced the famous Cartwheel pennies and w penny pieces on that steam driven machine- in Birmingham. So with one foot in the modern age- the map is also only 48 years after the last great Jacobite rising in which Bonny Prince Charlie was turned at Derby before his defeat at Culloden. That, at the time of this map and perhaps contemporary with Samuel Johnson's perambulations in Scotland: that region musty have seen barely pacified. Also contemporary to this map was the early life of Wordsworth: born at Cockermouth on this map- he died in about 1837; and so like Constable was mainly 19th century but entirely un-Victorian John Cary was greatly respected and when he died his map plates were bought out by George Cruchley who used them- enlarged and crudely printed for his early Railway maps. John Cary publishes this map from the Strand in 1793. He cites longitude from London and an old map recently studied shows that this is not necessarily Greenwich, with Charing Cross sometimes being the datum. Cary cites the headland near Whitehaven at 3 degrees 30 minutes west of “London”. MAP STATS: OLDMAPSHOP: IS MY SOURCE ONLINE FOR MAP & CARTOGRAPHIC HISTORY TITLE: JOHN CARY’S CUMBERLAND 1793 DATES: 1793- PUBLISHER: John Cary from the Strand EDITION: Unknown PRINTER: John Cary The Strand London 1793 PRINTING CODE: NOT SEEN PRINTING PROCESS: Must be copper plate intaglio engraving with wash colour, but engraving is very fine SCALE: about 6 1/2 miles to the inch GRID: no grid OVERALL DIMENSIONS: about 12 ½ inches by 9 1/2 inches COVER DIMENSIONS: no cover COVER DETAIL: no cover COVER CONDITION: no cover MAP PAPER OR LINEN BACKED: on copper plate engraving paper FOLD WEAR: no folds PIN HOLES AT FOLD JUNCTIONS: no VERSO: plain paper FOXING: no REINFORCING: no SURFACE MARKING: no FOLDED INTO: not folded ANNOTATION: all the colour work- turnpikes, parks of gentlemen and borders INTEREST: considerable: per-railway Georgian map, fell names, old lake names, old coaching roads and turnpikes, older junctions now ignored by the turnpikes. Contemporary to the young Wordsworth- clean very good piece b y the best of late Georgian cartographers GENERAL CONDITION: good THE NORTH WEST OF THIS MAP IS AT: Scotland beyond Gretna THE NORTH EAST OF THIS MAP IS AT: Northumberland beyond Blackshaw Hill THE SOUTH EAST OF THIS MAP IS AT: Title and compass Westmorland beyond Ulles Water THE SOUTH WEST OF THIS MAP IS AT: The Irish Sea off Millam THE CENTRE OF THIS MAP IS AT: About Mungrisdale and Greystock Park XXXXXXXXXX Condition: VERY GOOD, OLD 1793 CITED ON THE MAP- ENGRAVED AND PUBLISHED BY CARY FROM THE STRAND: DINE ENGRAVING, NOT FOLDED, FINISHED IN WATER COLOUR WASH BY HAND. VERSO PLAIN- LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE MARKED- PARKS AND TURNPIKES, FELLS AND LAKES WITH OLD NAMES, County: PART WESTMORLAND, Cartographer/Publisher: JOHN CARY FROM THE STRAND IN LONDON, Printing Technique: INTAGIO ENGRAVING WITH WATERCOLOUR WASH, Original/Reproduction: Antique Original, GEORGIAN CUMBERLAND- FIEN MAP: JOHN CARY BEST OF LATE GEORGIAN CARTOGRAPHERS, Format: SHEET PLAIN VERSO, INTAGLIO WITH COLOUR, JOHN CARY'S CUMBERLAND MAP: ANTIQUE CUMBERLAND MAP, NORTH WEST ENGLAND, Type: INTAGION ENGRAVED MAP GEORGIAN WITH HAND COLOUR, Year: 1793- IN PUBLISHING DETAILS, Date Range: 1793- PRINTED IN ENGRAVER AND PUBLISHING DETAILS, City: CARLISLE, PENRITH, WHITEHAVEN, Country/Region: England, State: NORTH WEST ENGLAND- LAKE DISTRICT, Era: GEORGE II PERIOD- 18TH CENTURY ENGLAND

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