Christian Controversy Later Eastern Roman Empire Arius Arians Constantine Nicaea

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Seller: ancientgifts (4,777) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 382402959931 Doctrine and Power: Theological Controversy and Christian Leadership in the Later Roman Empire by Carlos R. Galvao-Sobrinho. NOTE: We have 75,000 books in our library, almost 10,000 different titles. Odds are we have other copies of this same title in varying conditions, some less expensive, some better condition. We might also have different editions as well (some paperback, some hardcover, oftentimes international editions). If you don’t see what you want, please contact us and ask. We’re happy to send you a summary of the differing conditions and prices we may have for the same title. DESCRIPTION: Hardcover with dustjacket. Publisher: University of California (2003). Pages: 328. Size: 9¼ x 6¼ x 1¼ inches; 1¼ pounds. During the fourth century A.D., theological controversy divided Christian communities throughout the Eastern half of the Roman Empire. Not only was the truth about God at stake, but also the authority of church leaders, whose legitimacy depended on their claims to represent that truth. In this book, Galvao-Sobrinho argues that out of these disputes was born a new style of church leadership, one in which the power of the episcopal office was greatly increased. The author shows how these disputes compelled church leaders repeatedly to assert their orthodoxy and legitimacy—tasks that required them to mobilize their congregations and engage in action that continuously projected their power in the public arena. These developments were largely the work of prelates of the first half of the fourth century, but the style of command they inaugurated became the basis for a dynamic model of ecclesiastical leadership found throughout late antiquity. CONDITION: NEW. New hardcover. University of California (2013) 328 pages. Unblemished, unmarked, pristine in every respect. Pages are pristine; clean, crisp, unmarked, unmutilated, tightly bound, unambiguously unread. Satisfaction unconditionally guaranteed. In stock, ready to ship. No disappointments, no excuses. PROMPT SHIPPING! HEAVILY PADDED, DAMAGE-FREE PACKAGING! Selling rare and out-of-print ancient history books on-line since 1997. We accept returns for any reason within 14 days! #8409a. PLEASE SEE DESCRIPTIONS AND IMAGES BELOW FOR DETAILED REVIEWS AND FOR PAGES OF PICTURES FROM INSIDE OF BOOK. PLEASE SEE PUBLISHER, PROFESSIONAL, AND READER REVIEWS BELOW. PUBLISHER REVIEWS: REVIEW: Carlos R. Galvão-Sobrinho (PhD 1999, History), associate professor of history at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, has published Doctrine and Power: Theological Controversy and Christian Leadership in the Later Roman Empire(University of California Press). During the 4th century, theological controversy divided Christian communities throughout the Eastern half of the Roman Empire. Not only was the truth about God at stake, but also the authority of church leaders, whose legitimacy depended on their claims to represent that truth. In this book, Galvão-Sobrinho argues that out of these disputes was born a new style of church leadership, one in which the power of the episcopal office was greatly increased. Church leaders asserted their orthodoxy and legitimacy, mobilizing their congregations and engaging in actions that projected their power in the public arena. These developments were largely the work of prelates of the first half of the 4th century, but the style of command they inaugurated became the basis for a model of ecclesiastical leadership throughout late antiquity. According to H.A. Drake, author ofConstantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance, “Carlos Galvão-Sobrinho has taken the story of Arianism out of the stately tomes of theologians and into the streets of Alexandria. Here he finds that the search for greater precision and the new phenomenon of a Christian emperor do not sufficiently explain the devastating impact of this heresy on Christian unity. Instead, he exposes internal dynamics that spurned consensus and demonized opposition. The means by which extremists polarized the issue and eliminated middle ground will be sadly familiar to all students of the political process.” Before coming to Yale, Galvão-Sobrinho earned an MD degree from the Federal University of Pelotas in Brazil. He entered medical school when he was 15 years old and had no opportunity to study the humanities until after he completed his degree.' Carlos R. Galvão-Sobrinho at the museum of the Acropolis in Athens, Greece “The decision to go back to school to study history had a lot to do with sheer intellectual curiosity and the fact that I always enjoyed history, but had never before had a chance to study it,” he says. His research interests include the history of medicine, the social history of Rome, and late antiquity. Galvão-Sobrinho was awarded the Rome Prize fellowship in 2005 and is a Fellow of the American Academy in Rome. His oldest daughter, Carolina, graduated from Yale College in 2005, and his youngest, Rachel, is a freshman at Yale. REVIEW: Carlos Galvão-Sobrinho is Associate Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. REVIEW: TABLE OF CONTENTS: Acknowledgments. Introduction. PART I. Points of Departure: Theology and Christian Leadership in the Third-Century Church. 1. Christian Leadership and the Challenge of Theology. 2. “Not in the Spirit of Controversy”: Truth, Leadership, and Solidarity. PART II. God in Dispute: Devotion and Truth, A.D. 318–325. 3. Precision, Devotion, and Controversy in Alexandria. 4. Making the People a Partner to the Dispute. 5. “For the Sake of the Logos”: Spreading the Controversy. 6. “To Please the Overseer of All”: The Emperor’s Involvement and the Politicization of Theology. PART III. Defining God: Truth and Power, A.D. 325–361. 7. Claiming Truth, Projecting Power, A.D. 325–337. 8. The Challenge of Theology and Power in Action: Bishops, Cities, and Empire, A.D. 337–361. Conclusion. Appendix. Bishops Investigated or Deposed for Doctrinal Reasons before the Arian Controversy. Compromise and Solidarity in Doctrinal Controversy in the Early Church The Workshops of Alexandria. Kolluthus’s Schism and the Arians. The Recall of Arius and the Bithynian Bishops. The Arian Community of Alexandria after Nicaea. Athanasius and Arsenius of Hypsele. Events Involving Athanasius from Spring 330 to Winter 332. From Athanasius’s Flight to the Councils of Rome and Antioch, 339–341. List of Abbreviations. Notes. Bibliography. Index. PROFESSIONAL REVIEWS: REVIEW: One day in March 339, Philagrius, the prefect of Egypt, attempted to dislodge a group of Christians from their church buildings in Alexandria. He was preparing the city for the arrival of its new bishop, Gregory, whose theological views differed from those of the protestors, but who enjoyed the support of the emperor. According to the account written by Athanasius, Philagrius—the rival claimant to this episcopal see—along with soldiers, pagans and Jews, looted and burned a church, beat up monks, stripped virgins naked, sacrificed pinecones on the altar, cavorted naked in the baptistery and generally behaved so badly that it was legitimate to state that ‘there is a persecution here, a persecution the like of which has never before arisen against the Church’. This is one of many episodes that Galvão-Sobrinho discusses in his vigorous account of the early decades of the ‘Arian controversy’, a set of theological disputes that created uncertainty and upheaval for many fourth-century Christians, especially in the eastern part of the Roman empire. As well as reconstructing many details of the sequence of events involved, especially in the early part of the conflict, this book also argues that the Arian controversy marks a watershed in the history of the Christian church. Galvão-Sobrinho presents the view that, while the dominant model for the settlement of disagreements had previously been debate and compromise, this changed rapidly in the context of growing tensions between the Alexandrian priest Arius and his bishop, Alexander, even before the involvement of the emperor Constantine and the calling of the Council of Nicaea in 325. The book’s chronological narrative is divided into three parts, with the first devoted to supplying context on episcopal authority and theological disputes in the decades before Arius. Galvão-Sobrinho provides an account of attempts to define the tenets of Christian belief more sharply, but also characterises the period as one in which leading churchmen ‘approached theological dissent in a markedly cautious, tolerant, and more or less predictable manner, striving to achieve consensus and compromise'. By examining a number of writings from the third century, most notably those by Origen, the first chapter argues coherently that, although bishops did not hold an exclusive right to pronounce on matters of doctrine, their positions as leaders within their Christian communities were intrinsically linked to, and reliant upon, their perceived possession of ‘spiritual authority’ and orthodoxy. Despite this potential vulnerability in their status, ‘in contrast to priests, prophets, teachers, deacons, and others, who were often excommunicated and expelled from the community, we hardly ever hear of bishops being deposed or removed from office for doctrinal reasons’. In chapter 2, Galvão-Sobrinho explains this phenomenon as resulting from bishops’ success in developing strategies for dealing with challenges, most notably in the calling of councils for discussing points of disagreement, but also through taking refuge in the security of theological imprecision. Part II provides a detailed reconstruction of events from the outbreak of the Arian controversy in 318 up to the Council of Nicaea seven years later. The narrative presented here not only traces a gradual drive towards greater definition and the consequent breakdown in the ‘compromise’ model of the third century, but also argues that this process ‘gave birth to a new style of church leadership’. The sequence of events is reconstructed carefully with close attention being paid to a wealth of contemporary and near-contemporary accounts. As might be expected, the priest Arius features prominently in this story, as does Alexander, bishop of Alexandria, who is often overshadowed in modern accounts of the dispute, which tend to pay much more attention to his deacon, Athanasius, who succeeded him as bishop in 328. In fact, alongside an admirable critique of the traditional view of Arius as a troublesome instigator of heresy, Galvão-Sobrinho consistently presents Alexander as a rather hot-headed and insecure figure, whose (over-)reaction to Arius’ theological statements inflamed tensions significantly. As chapter 3 describes, although the bishop did originally try to settle the matter through debate, he soon presented his own views as ecclesiastical orthodoxy, before calling a council to condemn Arius and his supporters. As the dispute spread outside Egypt, Alexander ‘selfishly claimed for himself the authority to define the orthodox position on the matter for the entire church’, before condemning Eusebius of Nicomedia in a manner that was ‘callous and enormously divisive’, since ‘in one cavalier stroke, Alexander assailed a noted bishop who also happened to be a pious and learned man, admired throughout the East’. Similarly, at the Council of Nicaea, Alexander was ‘unforgiving’ and acted ‘disingenuously’, and also ‘continuously sabotaged the bishops’ efforts to reach a consensus’. Moreover, in describing Alexander’s inflammatory rhetoric, chapter 4 states that the bishop ‘actually distorted the controversy, describing it not as a disagreement over a difficult theological matter but as a struggle of the true church against the forces of darkness’. While these chapters do much to illuminate the escalation of the dispute and the significant role played by Alexander in this process, such phrases run the risk of assigning ‘blame’ solely to this one individual, as well as implying that a theological disagreement was, objectively, not a dangerous attack on the church. Heresy is, after all, always in the eye of the beholder, and we must be careful in suggesting that Alexander did not perceive his opponents in this way. In contrast, Arius emerges from this account in a more positive light, certainly playing a part in increasing tensions, but usually being reactive in the face of Alexander’s provocations. In particular, chapter 4 contains a very interesting reconstruction of the spread of Arius’ ideas within Alexandria itself, including the ways in which he and his followers might have created and mobilised a base of support among many of the ordinary people of the city. Galvão-Sobrinho bases this work on Arius’ fragmentary poem, the Thalia, as well as Philostorgius’ claim that the priest wrote songs for sailors, millers and other groups of men, and goes on to imagine clandestine meetings where, ‘in the flickering light of candles and lamps, amid singing and dancing, devout Christians could bond with one another’. Sometimes these suggestions become a little speculative, especially in the suggestion that Alexander’s supporters ‘may have infiltrated or heckled Arian assemblies’, or the use of phrases such as ‘we can picture…’ or ‘we can imagine…’. Nonetheless, most, if not all, of the reconstructions are perfectly reasonable and do not conflict with the small amount of surviving evidence, thus providing a useful, if sadly unprovable, way to visualise the urban dynamics of religious proselytisation. The text of the Thalia itself is also analysed carefully, with Galvão-Sobrinho arguing that it promoted a less hierarchical notion of religious instruction, where ‘the path to the truth lay in individual learning and understanding, not in conformity to the injunctions of bishops and priests’. This in particular clashed with Alexander’s understanding of the Church, since he ‘not only drew a line separating bishops and teachers, but also emphasized the gulf dividing the members of the priesthood from everyone else’. Galvão-Sobrinho is undoubtedly right to stress the fact that the Thalia adopts the voice of an ‘ordinary’ Christian addressing other laypeople and providing them with theological statements, yet it is not clear that this meant that ‘Arius exalted the human intellect, not blind obedience to authority’. While the translation includes a line that states, ‘learning under God, I have gained wisdom and knowledge’, it also opens with a statement of the speaker’s reliance on others: ‘These are the things I have learned from the partakers of wisdom / Sharp-minded men, taught by God, and wise in all things’. This could be a reference to the Apostles and the authors of Scripture, but it may also refer to Arius and other educated men, on whose theological expertise anyone reciting the Thalia explicitly declared themselves to depend. In addition, by writing such a poem, Arius did not democratise theological debate, but rather closed down opportunities, presenting a form of words to be recited by other Christians, whose role was imitation, not innovation. Although he would not accept the authority of his own (possibly heretical) bishop, Arius was, nonetheless, a priest who sought the support of the authority possessed by priests, bishops and an emperor. The book’s third part takes the narrative beyond Nicaea to look at the remainder of Constantine’s reign, as well as the reigns of his sons, concentrating on the period up to the return of eastern episcopal exiles in 345–6. These chapters, like those which precede them, demonstrate an impressive command of the ancient material and modern reconstructions of events, as do the supporting sections of the appendix, which present detailed arguments for both the dating of the recall of Arius and the exiled Bithynian bishops and the sequence of letters, envoys and councils in 339–41. In this final section, Galvão-Sobrinho charts the continuing escalation of violence in ecclesiastical disputes, with bishops mustering support from official, imperial channels, as well as from urban populations. The marshalling of popular support is also explored further here, with charitable activities given an important role in the creation of communities loyal to particular clerics. These chapters also give a generally balanced view of the widespread use of violence, although the bishops of Alexandria again come in for a fair amount of criticism, including for one occasion when ‘Athanasius’ goons went on a rampage’. This picture is largely a result of the surviving material for this period, in which we can see accusations against many of the major figures involved. So, for example, the famous Melitian letter in PLond. 1914 provides the account of the aforementioned misbehaviour by Athanasius’ subordinates, but in a number of places quotations from Athanasius’ tendentious accounts of his own mistreatment are relied upon as clear descriptions of events. In a footnote about the passage from Athanasius described at the start of this review, Galvão-Sobrinho notes that David Gwynn ‘sees these episodes of violence as rhetorical constructions’, but dismisses this objection by stating that ‘despite the polemical nature of the evidence, acts of violence were not rhetorical topoi’. Although describing an urban riot was not one of the exercises to be found in schoolroom progymnasmata in late antiquity, fourth-century authors had many influential literary models available when composing such accounts, including stories of persecution and martyrdom under earlier pagan emperors. I would certainly not want to argue that we should dismiss all accounts of violence in this period: much of what they describe almost certainly happened, but they must nonetheless always be read cautiously and critically. Throughout this book, Galvão-Sobrinho presents a carefully researched and clearly written reconstruction of this vital period of theological and political upheaval. There are also important conclusions about changes in the roles and activities of bishops, including the mobilisation of popular support and the use of violence. Significantly, the early years of the Arian controversy are presented as central to this shift, which ‘owed little to imperial patronage of the church’, although there is a suggestion in the conclusion that ‘the disputants might have hammered out a compromise solution’ if Constantine had not become involved. More ‘literary minded’ historians (in which group I count myself) might have some reservations about the ways in which ancient polemical writings are used here, while certain suggestions made about Alexandrian popular religion necessarily remain speculative. This is, however, a thoughtful and scholarly volume that has much to offer to anyone interested in either the Arian controversy itself or the wider subject of episcopal authority in late antiquity. [Bryn Mawr Classical Review]. REVIEW: REVIEW: Carlos Galvão-Sobrinho has taken the story of Arianism out of the stately tomes of theologians and into the streets of Alexandria. Here he finds that the search for greater precision and the new phenomenon of a Christian emperor do not sufficiently explain the devastating impact of this heresy on Christian unity. Instead, he exposes internal dynamics that spurned consensus and demonized opponent. The means by which extremists polarized the issue and eliminated middle ground will be sadly familiar to all students of the political process. [H.A. Drake, author of “Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance”]. REVIEW: In this expansion of his doctoral dissertation, the author documents the appalling descent by Christian bishops in the East from engaging charitably in debate and discussion when matters of contention in the faith arose, in search of reconciliation and inter-communion, to mutual exclusion, excommunication, and deposition, not excluding mobilizing entire populations and armed thugs to violence, that began in the early fourth century over the Arian conflict, lasted into the fifth, and cost the lives of thousands. There is no question but that this is a terrible witness to give to the world of ‘See how these Christians love one another’. REVIEW: Galvão-Sobrinho’s recent monograph proves again that the so-called Arian controversy, despite numerous studies dedicated to the topic, has lost nothing of its fascination and intrigue. In the last two hundred years or so, it has attracted some of the most inquisitive, meticulous, and imaginative historians of the early church. The book under review is an invigorating and stimulating approach to the tempestuous first fifty years of the fourth-century theological confrontation. This period marked a watershed in Christian theology, spirituality, and, as the author claims, especially in ecclesiastical politics of disagreement and debate, with large-scale implications for the church’s social standing and internal power structures. The author’s expressed intent, however, is not to untangle the theological intricacies of the debate but to use its dramatic historical trajectory to highlight what he identifies as a major shift in the power structures of the church, particularly in how episcopal power was exercised in late antiquity. The study’s argument is helpfully summarized in the Introduction and Conclusion. While the thesis is shaped on the classic “before-and-after-model” to highlight the revolution in episcopal leadership, which the author diagnoses as emerging out of the Arian controversy, there is a...reconstruction of two contrasting “patterns of conduct”. The former pattern of episcopal authority (ca. pre-300 c.e.)—which is characterized as having emphasized compromise, reconciliation, and solidarity when it came to doctrinal divergences within Christian communities—is covered in two short chapters (One and Two). However, the rise and consolidation of the “new” pattern, defined as “aggressive, bold, and militant”, is covered in six chapters (Three through Eight). The bulk of the book is dedicated to a narrative of the seemingly never-ending ramifications of the “Arian controversy” up to the death of Constantius II. The detailed index at the end of the book is handy as a useful navigational instrument. The book also contains nine appendices, the first two of which are extremely relevant for the author’s overall argument. The first is a list of the small number of bishops (the author lists ten cases) who, based upon the extent sources, have suffered investigations of their teachings on suspicion of heresy (or have been accused thereof) before the Arian controversy. From this already small number, only two suffered public deposition: Privatus of Lambaesis (North Africa) and Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch (Syria). There are many aspects that commend the book, such as Galvão-Sobrinho’s engaging narrative and detailed knowledge of the primary sources of one of the perhaps most convoluted episodes of the ancient church. The author’s methodological approach is a welcome provocation to re-think the most basic assumptions of the traditional explanation models for the emergence of the post-Nicene church (e.g. the imperial involvement in the politics of the church; the prelates’ struggle for imperial patronage, wealth, and civic support; regional and cultural rivalries; the completion of the canonization process; the role of liturgy; cultural democratization, etc.). [Project Muse]. REVIEW: A thoughtful and scholarly volume that has much to offer to anyone interested in either the Arian controversy itself or the wider subject of episcopal authority in late antiquity. [Bryn Mawr Classical Review]. REVIEW: Scholars of early Christianity and of Christian theology more generally will find this fascinating reading…Highly recommended. [Choice]. REVIEW: A fascinating and innovative study…Galvão-Sobrinho succeeds. [The Classical Journal]. REVIEW: Cogently argued. [Robert J. Forman "Louvain Studies"]. READER REVIEWS: REVIEW: Exceptional analysis of the controversies of the early Eastern Church. Particularly noteworthy examination of the Arian Controversy and the Council of Nicaea. Highly recommended, erudite, well-present and cogent. I always ship books Media Mail in a padded mailer. This book is shipped FOR FREE via USPS INSURED media mail (“book rate”). All domestic shipments and most international shipments will include free USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site) and free insurance coverage. A small percentage of international shipments may require an additional fee for tracking and/or delivery confirmation. If you are concerned about a little wear and tear to the book in transit, I would suggest a boxed shipment - it is an extra $1.00. Whether via padded mailer or box, we will give discounts for multiple purchases. International orders are welcome, but shipping costs are substantially higher. Most international orders cost an additional $12.99 to $33.99 for an insuredshipment in a heavily padded mailer, and typically includes some form of rudimentary tracking and/or delivery confirmation (though for some countries, this is only available at additional cost). There is also a discount program which can cut postage costs by 50% to 75% if you’re buying about half-a-dozen books or more (5 kilos+). Rates and available services vary a bit from country to country. You can email or message me for a shipping cost quote, but I assure you they are as reasonable as USPS rates allow, and if it turns out the rate is too high for your pocketbook, we will cancel the sale at your request. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per book (for each additional book after the first) so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. 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Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world - but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the "business" of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly - even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE." Title: Doctrine and Power, Subtitle: Theological Controversy and Christian Leadership i

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