CONSTANTIUS II son of Constantine the Great Roman Coin Wreath of success i39972

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Seller: highrating_lowprice (20,156) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 231220143175 Item: i39972 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Constantius II - Roman Emperor: 337-361 A.D. - Bronze AE4 14mm (1.33 grams) Constantinople mint circa 347-348 A.D. Reference: RIC VIII Constantinople 69. DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, rosette-diademed head only, right VOT XX MVLT XXX in four lines within wreath. Mintmark: CONSΓ You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II (7 August 317 – November 3 361) was a Roman Emperor (337-361) of the Constantinian dynasty . Constantius joins the lengthy list of emperors whose career was marked by a seemingly endless series of wars both domestic and foreign. He served as Caesar from 324 until his father's death in 337 at which time he shared the title of Augustus with two other brothers, Constantine II and Constans. To make sure no more Johnny-come-latelies in his family would try their hand at being emperor too it is thought that he engineered a bloodbath that left nary a relative. Constantine II died in battle and Constans was murdered by the men of Magnentius, the first of several usurpers. This left Constantius finally as sole legitimate emperor and he moved quickly to suppress Magnentius, an endeavor he eventually accomplished. The strife didn't end there, however, as he still had to deal with other revolts and wars on every corner of the empire. Caught in these never-ending battles he died while on his way to battle Julian II. Flavius Iulius Constantius was born at Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia ) in province of Pannonia , the third son of Constantine the Great , and second by his second wife Fausta , the daughter of Maximian . Constantius was made Caesar by his father on 13 November 324. When the elder Constantine died at Constantinople on 22 May 337, Constantius was nearest of his sons to that city, and despite being on campaign in the eastern provinces, immediately returned to the city to oversee his father's funeral. The Massacre of 337 The role of Constantius in the massacre of his relatives (those descended from the second marriage of his paternal grandfather Constantius Chlorus and Theodora ) is unclear. Zosimus , writing 498-518 claims that Constantius “caused” the soldiers to murder his relatives, as opposed to actually ordering the action. Eutropius , writing between 350 and 370, writes that Constantius merely sanctioned “the act, rather than commanding it”. However, it must be noted that both of these sources are hostile to Constantius - Zosimus being a pagan, Eutropius a friend of Julian , Constantius’ cousin and, ultimately, his enemy. Whatever the case, Constantius himself, his older brother Constantine II , his younger brother Constans and three cousins, Gallus , his half-brother Julian and Nepotianus , son of Eutropia , were left as the only surviving males related to Constantine. Division of the Empire Meeting at Sirmium not long after the massacre, the three brothers proceeded to divide the Roman Empire among them, according to their father's will. Constantine II received Britannia , Gaul and Hispania ; Constans (initially under the supervision of Constantine II) Italia , Africa , Illyricum, Thrace , Macedon and Achaea ; and Constantius the East. Reign in the East There are few details of the early years of Constantius' sole reign in the East. He seems to have spent most of his time defending the eastern border against invasions by the aggressive Sassanid Empire under Shapur II . These conflicts seem to have been mainly limited to Sassanid sieges of the various fortresses (Nisibis, Singara , Constantia and Amida ) of Roman Mesopotamia , which achieved little for either side. Although Shapur II seems to have been victorious in most of the confrontations - except the Battle of Narasara, where one of Shapur II 's brothers, Narses, was killed - the overall result must be considered a victory for Constantius because Shapur failed to make any significant gains. In the meantime, Constantine II 's desire to retain control of Constans ' realm had lead Constantius' two surviving brothers into open conflict; resulting in the death of the elder in 340. As a result, Constans took control of his deceased elder brother’s realms and became sole ruler of the Western two-thirds of the Empire. This division lasted until 350, when Constans was killed in battle by forces loyal to the usurper Magnentius . War against Magnentius This new state of affairs proved unacceptable to Constantius, who felt that, as the only surviving son of Constantine the Great , the position of Emperor was his alone. As such, he determined to march west to enforce his claims. However, feeling that the east still required some sort of imperial control, he elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to Caesar of the East. As an extra measure to ensure the loyalty of his cousin, he married the elder of his two sisters, Constantina , to Gallus . Before facing Magnentius , Constantius first came to terms with Vetranio , a loyal Constantian general, who had previously accepted the position of Augustus in order to retain the loyalty of his troops, and probably to stop Magnentius from gaining more support. This action may have been carried out at the urging of Constantius’ own sister, Constantina , who had since traveled east to marry Gallus . Constantius for his own part had previously sent Vetranio the imperial diadem and acknowledged the general‘s new position. However, when Constantius arrived, Vetranio willingly and gladly resigned his position and accepted Constantius’ offer of a comfortable retirement in Bithynia . The following year, Constantius finally met Magnentius in the Battle of Mursa Major , one of the bloodiest battles in Roman history. The result was a defeat for the usurper, who withdrew back to his Gaulish domains. As a result, the cities of Italy switched their allegiance to Constantius and ejected all of Magnentius ’ garrisons. Constantius spent the early months of 352 on a campaign against the Sarmatians , before moving on to invade Italy . When Constantius and Magnentius finally met again, at the Battle of Mons Seleucus in southern Gaul, Constantius once again emerged the victor. Soon after, Magnentius , realising the futility of continuing his revolt, committed suicide 10 August 353. Sole Ruler of the Roman Empire Constantius spent much of the rest of 353 and early 354 on campaign against the Alemanni on the Danubian borders. The exact details of this campaign are uncertain, though it seems to have ended with victory for Constantius. The Downfall of Gallus In the meantime, Constantius had been receiving some disturbing reports regarding the actions of his cousin, Gallus . Possibly as a result of these reports, Constantius concluded a peace with the Alemanni , and withdrew to Milan . Once there, he decided to first call Ursicinus , Gallus’ magister equitum, to Milan for reasons that remain unclear. Constantius then requested the presence of Gallus and Constantina . Although at first Gallus and Constantina complied with this order, when Constantina died in Bithynia , Gallus begun to hesitate. However, after some convincing by one of Constantius’ agents, Gallus continued his journey west, passing through Constantinople and Thrace to Petobio in the province of Noricum . It was there that Gallus was arrested by the soldiers of Constantius under the command of Barbatio . He was then moved to Pola , and interrogated. Once there, Gallus claimed that it was Constantina who was to blame for all the trouble that had been caused while he was in charge of the east. Apparently, at first, this so greatly angered Constantius that he immediately ordered the death of Gallus . However, soon after, he changed his mind, and recanted his execution order. Unfortunately for Gallus, this order was delayed by Eusebius , one of Constantius‘ eunuchs, and, as a result, Gallus was executed. More Usurpers and Julian Caesar On 11 August 355, the magister militum Claudius Silvanus revolted in Gaul. Silvanus had surrendered to Constantius after the battle of Mursa Major . Constantius had made him magister militum in 353, with the purpose of blocking the German threats, a feat that Silvanus achieved by bribing the German tribes with the money he had collected. A plot organized by members of Constantius' court led the emperor to recall Silvanus. After Silvanus revolted, he received a letter by Constantius that recalled him to Milan, but which made no reference to the revolt. Ursicinus , who was meant to replace Silvanus, bribed some troops, and Silvanus was killed. However, Constantius realised that too many threats still faced the Empire, and he could not possibly handle all of them by himself, so on 6 November 355, he elevated his last remaining relative, Julian, to the rank of Caesar . A few days later, Julian was married to Helena , the last surviving sister of Constantius. Not long after Constantius sent Julian off to Gaul. Constantius in the West and Return to the East Constantius spent the next few years overseeing affairs in the western part of the Empire primarily from his base at Milan . However, he also visited Rome - for the first and only time in his life - in 357, and, in that same year, he forced Sarmatian and Quadi invaders out of Pannonia and Moesia Inferior , then led a successful campaign across the Danube against the Sarmatians and the Germanic Quadi tribe. Around 357/8, Constantius received ambassadors from Shapur II , who demanded that Constantius restore the lands surrendered by Narseh . Despite rejecting these terms, Constantius still tried to avert war with the Sassanid Empire by sending two embassies to Shapur II . As a result of Constantius' rejection of his terms, Shapur II launched another invasion of Roman Mesopotamia. When news reached Constantius that Shapur II had not only invaded Roman territory, but taken Amida [46], destroyed Singara and taken Bezabde he decided to return to there to face this re-emergent threat in 360. The usurpation of Julian and Problems in the East In the meantime, Julian had won some victories against the Alemanni tribe, who had once again invaded Roman Gaul . As such, Constantius requested reinforcements from Julian for his own campaign against Shapur II. However, when he requested reinforcements from Julian ’s Gaulish army, the Gaulish legions revolted and proclaimed Julian Augustus. However, on account of the immediate Sassanid threat, Constantius was unable to directly respond to his cousin’s usurpation other than by sending missives by which he tried to convince Julian to resign the title of Augustus and be satisfied with that of Caesar. By 361, Constantius saw no alternative but to face the usurper with violent force; and yet the threat of the Sassanids remained. Constantius had already spent part of early 361 unsuccessfully attempting to take the fortress of Bezabde . After a time, he had withdrawn to Antioch to regroup, and prepare for a confrontation with Shapur II . However, as it turned out, the campaigns of the previous year had inflicted such heavy losses on the Sassanids that they did not attempt another round of engagements in 361. This allowed Constantius to turn his full attention to facing the usurpation of Julian [55]. Death As such, Constantius immediately gathered his forces and set off west. However, by the time he reached Mopsuestia in Cicilia, it was clear that he was fatally ill and would not survive to face Julian . Apparently, realising his death was near, Constantius had himself baptised by Euzoius , the Semi-Arian bishop of Antioch , and then declared that Julian was his rightful successor. Constantius II died of fever on 3 November 361. Marriages and Children Constantius II was married three times: First to a daughter of his half-uncle Julius Constantius , whose name is unknown. She was a full-sister of Gallus and a half-sister of Julian. She died c. 352/3. Second, to Eusebia, a woman of Macedonian origin from the city of Thessaloniki , whom he married before Constantius' defeat of Magnentius in 353. She died in 360. Third and lastly, in 360, to Faustina (empress) , who gave birth to Constantius' only child, a posthumous daughter named Flavia Maxima Constantia , who later married Emperor Gratian . Religious Issues Constantius seems to have had a particular interest in the religious state of the Roman Empire . As a Christian Roman Emperor , Constantius made a concerted effort to promote Christianity at the expense of Roman polytheism (‘paganism’). As such, over the course of his reign, he issued a number of different edicts designed specifically to carry out this agenda (see below). Constantius also took an active part in attempting to shape the Christian church. Paganism under Constantius In spite of the some of the edicts issued by Constantius, it should be recognised that he was not fanatically anti-pagan - he never made any attempt to disband the various Roman priestly colleges or the Vestal Virgins , he never acted against the various pagan schools, and, at times, he actually even made some effort to protect paganism. Also, most notably, he remained pontifex maximus until his death, and was actually deified by the Roman Senate after his death. The relative moderation of Constantius' actions toward paganism is reflected by the fact that it was not until over 20 years after Constantius' death, during the reign of Gratian , that any pagan senators protested their religion's treatment. Christianity under Constantius Although often considered an Arian , Constantius ultimately preferred a third, compromise version that lay somewhere in between Arianism and the Nicaean Creed , retrospectively called Semi-Arianism [61][62]. As such, during his reign, Constantius made a concerted attempt to mold the Christian church to follow this compromise position, and to this end, he convened several Christian councils during his reign, the most notable of which were one at Rimini and its twin at Seleuca , which met in 359 and 360 respectively. "Unfortunately for his memory the theologians whose advice he took were ultimately discredited and the malcontents whom he pressed to conform emerged victorious," writes the historian A.H.M. Jones . "The great councils of 359-60 are therefore not reckoned ecumenical in the tradition of the church, and Constantius II is not remembered as a restorer of unity, but as a heretic who arbitrarily imposed his will on the church." Judaism under Constantius Judaism faced some severe restrictions under Constantius, who seems to have followed an anti-Jewish policy in line with that of his father. Early in his reign, Constantius issued a double edict in concert with his brothers limiting the ownership of slaves by Jewish people and banning marriages between Jews and Christian women. A later edict (issued by Constantius after becoming sole Emperor ) decreed that a person who was proven to have converted from Christianity to Judaism would have their entire property confiscated by the state. However, it should be noted that Constantius' actions in this regard may not have been so much to do with Jewish religion as Jewish business; apparently, it was often the case that privately-owned Jewish businesses were in competition with state-owned businesses. As such, Constantius may have sought to provide as much of an advantage to the state-owned businesses as possible by limiting the skilled workers and the slaves available to the Jewish businesses. Religious Edicts Issued by Constantius Pagan-related edicts issued by Constantius (by himself or with others) included: The banning of sacrifices; The closing of pagan temples; Edicts against soothsayers and magicians. Christian-related edicts issued by Constantius (by himself or with others) included: Exemption from compulsory public service for the clergy; * Exemption from compulsory public service for the sons of clergy; Tax exemptions for clergy and their servants, also later for their family; Clergy and the issue of private property; Bishops exempted from being tried in secular courts; Christian prostitutes only able to be bought by Christians. Jew-related edicts issued by Constantius (by himself or with others) included: Weaving women who moved from working for the government to working for Jews, must be restored to the government; Jews may not marry Christian women; Jews may not attempt to convert Christian women; Any non-Jewish slave bought by a Jew will be confiscated by the state; if a Jew attempts to circumcise a non-Jewish slave, the slave will be freed and the Jew shall face capital punishment; any Christian slaves owned by a Jew will be taken away and freed; A person who is proven to have converted from Christianity to Judaism shall have their property confiscated by the state. Reputation Constantius II is a particularly difficult figure to judge properly, mainly as a result of the hostility of most every source that mentions him. A.H.M Jones writes that Constantius "appears in the pages of Ammianus as a conscientious emperor but a vain and stupid man, an easy prey to flatterers. He was timid and suspicious, and interested persons could easily play on his fears for their own advantage." However, Kent & M. and A. Hirmer suggest that Constantius "has suffered at the hands of unsympathetic authors, ecclesiastical and civil alike. To orthodox churchmen he was a bigoted supporter of the Arian heresy, to Julian the Apostate and the many who have subsequently taken his part he was a murderer, a tyrant and inept as a ruler". They go on to add, "Most contemporaries seem in fact to have held him in high esteem, and he certainly inspired loyalty in a way his brother could not". A laurel wreath is a circular wreath made of interlocking branches and leaves of the bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), an aromatic broadleaf evergreen, or later from spineless butcher's broom (Ruscus hypoglossum) or cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus). In Greek mythology , Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head. In ancient Greece wreaths were awarded to victors, both in athletic competitions, including the ancient Olympics made of wild olive-tree known as "kotinos" (κότινος),[1] (sc. at Olympia ) and in poetic meets; in Rome they were symbols of martial victory, crowning a successful commander during his triumph . Whereas ancient laurel wreaths are most often depicted as a horseshoe shape, modern versions are usually complete rings. In common modern idiomatic usage it refers to a victory. The expression "resting on one's laurels" refers to someone relying entirely on long-past successes for continued fame or recognition, where to "look to one's laurels" means to be careful of losing rank to competition. Academic use Ovid with laurel wreath, common in poets. In some countries the laurel wreath is used as symbol of the master's degree . The wreath is given to young masters in the graduation ceremony of the university. The word "Laureate" in 'poet laureate' refers to being signified by the laurel wreath. The medieval Florentine poet and philosopher Dante Alighieri ,[dubious – discuss ] a graduate of the Sicilian School , is often represented in paintings and sculpture wearing a laurel wreath. Laureato[3] is the term used in Italy to refer to any graduated student. In some italian regions (Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino ), right after the graduation ceremony (in Italian: laurea), the student receives a laurel wreath and is allowed to wear it for the rest of the day. This tradition was born in the University of Padua and since the end of the 19th century is common to all northeastern Italian universities. At Connecticut College in the United States, members of the junior class carry a laurel chain , which the seniors pass through during commencement. It represents nature and the continuation of life from year to year. Immediately following commencement, the junior girls write out with the laurels their class year, symbolizing they have officially become seniors and the cycle will repeat itself the following spring. At Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts , United States, laurel has been a fixture of commencement traditions since 1900, when graduating students carried or wore laurel wreaths. In 1902, the chain of mountain laurel was introduced; since then, tradition has been for seniors to march across campus, carrying and linked by the chain. The mountain laurel represents the bay laurel used by the Romans in wreaths and crowns of honor.[4] At Reed College in Portland, Oregon , United States, members of the senior class receive laurel wreaths upon submitting their senior thesis in May. The tradition stems from the use of laurel wreaths in athletic competitions; the seniors have "crossed the finish line," so to speak. At St. Mark's School in Southborough, Massachusetts , students who successfully complete three years of one classical language and two of the other earn the distinction of the Classics Diploma and the honor of wearing a laurel wreath on Prize Day. In Sweden , those receiving a Doctorate or an Honorary Doctorate at the Faculty of Philosophy (meaning Philosophy, Languages, Arts, History and Social Sciences), receive a laurel wreath during the ceremony of conferral of the degree. Architectural and decorative arts motif Alexander Garden Grille "Victory, A Knight Being Crowned With A Laurel Wreath" by Frank Dicksee . The laurel wreath is a common motif in architecture , furniture , and textiles . The laurel wreath is seen carved in the stone and decorative plaster works of Robert Adam , and in Federal , Regency , Directoire , and Beaux-Arts periods of architecture. In decorative arts, especially during the Empire period , the laurel wreath is seen woven in textiles, inlaid in marquetry, and applied to furniture in the form of gilded brass mounts. Alfa Romeoo added a laurel wreath to their logo after they won the inaugural Automobile World Championship in 1925 with the P2 The Principate Julio-Claudian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 16 January 27 BC to 19 August AD 14 Augustus 19 August 14 to 16 March 37 Tiberius 18 March 37 to 24 January 41 Caligula Murdered by Praetorian Guard 24 January 41 to 13 October 54 Claudius Poisoned by his wife Agrippina, mother of Nero 13 October 54 to 11 June 68 Nero Made a slave kill him Year of the Four Emperors (Civil War) Reign Incumbent Notes 8 June 68 to 15 January 69 Galba Murdered in favour of Otho 15 January 69 to 16 April 69 Otho Committed suicide 2 January 69 to 20 December 69 Vitellius Murdered in favour of Vespasian Flavian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 1 July 69 to 24 June 79 Vespasian 24 June 79 to 13 September 81 Titus Possibly assassinated by Domitian 14 September 81 to 18 September 96 Domitian Assassinated Nervan-Antonian dynasty Main article: Five Good Emperors Reign Incumbent Notes 18 September 96 to 27 January 98 Nerva Proclaimed emperor by senate 28 January 98 to 7 August 117 Trajan 11 August 117 to 10 July 138 Hadrian 10 July 138 to 7 March 161 Antoninus Pius 7 March 161 to 17 March 180 Marcus Aurelius 7 March 161 to March 169 Lucius Verus Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius 175 Avidius Cassius Usurper; ruled in Egypt and Syria; murdered by his own army 177 to 31 December 192 Commodus Assassinated Year of the Five Emperors & Severan dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 1 January 193 to 28 March 193 Pertinax Proclaimed emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard 28 March 193 to 1 June 193 Didius Julianus Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian Guard; executed on orders of the Senate 9 April 193 to 4 February 211 Septimius Severus Proclaimed emperor by Pannonian troops; accepted by senate 193 to 194/195 Pescennius Niger Proclaimed emperor by Syrian troops, defeated in battle by Septimius Severus 193/195 to 197 Clodius Albinus Proclaimed emperor by British troops, defeated in battle by Septimius Severus 198 to 8 April 217 Caracalla Assassinated at the behest of Macrinus 209 to 4 February 211 Geta Co-emperor with Caracalla ; assassinated on orders of Caracalla 11 April 217 to June 218 Macrinus Proclaimed himself emperor; executed on orders of Elagabalus May 217 to June 218 Diadumenian Junior co-emperor under Macrinus ; executed June 218 to 222 Elagabalus Proclaimed emperor by army; murdered by his own troops 13 March 222 to ?March 235 Alexander Severus Murdered by his own troops Rulers during the Crisis of the Third Century Reign Incumbent Notes February/March 235 to March/April 238 Maximinus Thrax Proclaimed emperor by the army; murdered by Praetorian Guard earlyJanuary/March 238 to lateJanuary/April 238 Gordian I Proclaimed emperor in Africa; committed suicide after Gordian II 's death earlyJanuary March 238 to lateJanuary/April 238 Gordian II Proclaimed emperor with Gordian I , killed in battle earlyFebruary 238 to earlyMay 238 Pupienus Proclaimed joint emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard earlyFebruary 238 to earlyMay 238 Balbinus Proclaimed joint emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard May 238 to February 244 Gordian III Nephew of Gordian II ; death unclear, probably murdered 240 Sabinianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; defeated in battle February 244 to September/October 249 Philip the Arab Proclaimed emperor after death of Gordian III ; killed in battle by Decius 248 Pacatianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; murdered by his own soldiers 248 to 249 Iotapianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor in the east; murdered by his own soldiers 248? or 253? Silbannacus Usurper; details essentially unknown 249 to June 251 Decius Killed in battle 249 to 252 Priscus Proclaimed himself emperor in the east in opposition to Decius 250 to 250 Licinianus Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Rome; rebellion suppressed early251 to June 251 Herennius Etruscus Junior co-emperor under Decius ; killed in battle 251 Hostilian Son of Decius ; died of plague June 251 to August 253 Gallus Proclaimed emperor by his troops after Decius's death; murdered by them in favour of Aemilianus July 251 to August 253 Volusianus Junior co-emperor under Gallus ; murdered by army August 253 to October 253 Aemilian Proclaimed emperor by his troops; murdered by them in favour of Valerian 253 to June 260 Valerian Proclaimed emperor by his troops; captured in battle by the Persians ; died in captivity 253 to September 268 Gallienus Junior co-emperor under Valerian to 260; probably murdered by his generals 260 Saloninus Son of Gallienus ; proclaimed emperor by army; murdered shortly after by troops of Postumus June 260 (or 258) Ingenuus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after Valerian 's capture; defeated in battle 260 Regalianus Usurper; proclaimed emperor after Ingenuus 's defeat; fate unclear 260 to 261 Macrianus Major Usurper; proclaimed emperor by eastern army; defeated and killed in battle 260 to 261 Macrianus Minor Usurper; son of Macrianus Major ; defeated and killed in battle 260 to 261 Quietus Usurper; son of Macrianus Major ; defeated and killed in battle 261 to 261 or 262 Mussius Aemilianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after the defeat of the Macriani; defeated and executed 268 to 268 Aureolus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after Gallienus 's death; surrendered to Claudius II Gothicus ; murdered by Praetorian Guard 268 to August 270 Claudius II Gothicus Proclaimed emperor by the army August 270 to September 270 Quintillus Proclaimed himself emperor; cause of death unclear August 270 to 275 Aurelian Proclaimed emperor by army; murdered by the Praetorian Guard 271 to 271 Septimius Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Dalmatia ; killed by his own soldiers November/December 275 to July 276 Tacitus Appointed emperor by the Senate; possibly assassinated July 276 to September 276 Florianus Brother of Tacitus , proclaimed emperor by the western army; murdered by his troops July 276 to lateSeptember 282 Probus Proclaimed emperor by the eastern army; murdered by his own soldiers in favour of Carus 280 Julius Saturninus Usurper; proclaimed emperor by his troops; then killed by them 280 Proculus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor at the request of the people of Lugdunum ; executed by Probus 280 Bonosus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; defeated by Probus and committed suicide September 282 to July/August 283 Carus Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian guard spring 283 to summer 285 Carinus Son of Carus; co-emperor with Numerian ; fate unclear July/August 283 to November 284 Numerian Son of Carus; co-emperor with Carinus ; probably murdered Gallic Empire 260 to 274 Reign Incumbent Notes 260 to 268 Postumus Declared himself emperor after Valerian 's death; killed by his own troops 268 to 268 Laelianus Proclaimed himself emperor in opposition to Postumus; defeated and killed by Postumus 269 to 269 Marius Proclaimed himself emperor after Postumus's death 269 to 271 Victorinus Proclaimed emperor after Marius's death 270 to 271 Domitianus Proclaimed himself emperor of the Gallic Empire 271 to 274 Tetricus I Nominated heir to Victorinus Britannic Empire 286 to 297 Reign Incumbent Notes 286 to 293 Carausius Declared himself emperor; assassinated by Allectus 293 to 297 Allectus Declared himself emperor after Carausius 's death; defeated by Constantius Chlorus Dominate Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 20 November 284 to 1 May 305 Diocletian Declared emperor by the army after Numerian's death; Abdicated 1 April 286 to 1 May 305 Maximian Made co-emperor ('Augustus') with Diocletian ; abdicated 1 May 305 to 25 July 306 Constantius I Chlorus Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Maximian ; became Augustus after his abdication 1 May 305 to May 311 Galerius Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Diocletian ; became Augustus after his abdication August 306 to 16 September 307 Severus II Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Constantius Chlorus ; became Augustus after his death; executed by Maxentius 28 October 306 to 28 October 312 Maxentius Son of Maximian ; proclaimed Augustus by Praetorian Guard ; defeated in battle by Constantine I de jure: 307, de facto 312 to 22 May 337 Constantine I Son of Constantius Chlorus ; proclaimed Augustus by army 308 -309?/311? Domitius Alexander Proclaimed emperor in Africa; defeated in battle by Maxentius 11 November 308 to 18 September 324 Licinius Appointed Augustus by Galerius ; deposed by Constantine I and executed 1 May 311 to July/August 313 Maximinus Daia Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Galerius ; became Augustus after his death; defeated in battle by Licinius and committed suicide December 316 to 1 March 317 Valerius Valens Appointed co-Augustus by Licinius ; executed by Licinius July to 18 September 324 Martinianus Appointed co-Augustus by Licinius ; deposed by Constantine I and executed 337 to 340 Constantine II Son of Constantine I ; co-emperor with his brothers; killed in battle 337 to 361 Constantius II Son of Constantine I ; co-emperor with his brothers 337 to 350 Constans I Son of Constantine I ; co-emperor with his brothers, killed by Magnentius January 350 to 11 August 353 Magnentius Usurper; proclaimed emperor by the army; defeated by Constantius II and committed suicide c. 350 Vetranio Proclaimed himself emperor against Magnentius ; recognized by Constantius II but then deposed c. 350 Nepotianus Proclaimed himself emperor against Magnentius , defeated and executed by Magnentius November 361 to June 363 Julian Cousin of Constantius II ; made Caesar by Constantius, then proclaimed Augustus by the army; killed in battle 363 to 17 February 364 Jovian Proclaimed emperor by the army after Julian 's death Valentinian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 26 February 364 to 17 November 375 Valentinian I Valentinian I Coins.htm Proclaimed emperor by the army after Jovian 's death 28 March 365 to 9 August 378 Valens Made co-emperor in the east by his brother Valentinian I ; killed in battle September 365 to 27 May 366 Procopius Usurper; Proclaimed himself emperor; defeated and executed by Valens 24 August 367 to 383 Gratian Gratian Coins.htm Son of Valentinian I ; assassinated 375 to 392 Valentinian II Valentinian II Coins.htm Son of Valentinian I ; deposed by Arbogast and died in suspicious circumstances 383 to 388 Magnus Maximus Magnus Maximus Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor by troops; at one time recognized by Theodosius I , but then deposed and executed c.386 to 388 Flavius Victor Flavius Victor Coins.htm Son of Magnus Maximus, executed on orders of Theodosius I 392 to 394 Eugenius Eugenius Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor by army under Arbogast ; defeated in battle by Theodosius I Theodosian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 379 to 17 January 395 Theodosius I Theodosius I Coins.htm Made co-emperor for the east by Gratian 383 to 408 EAST Arcadius Arcadius Coins.htm Appointed co-emperor with his father Theodosius I ; sole emperor for the east from January 395 23 January 393 to 15 August 423 WEST Honorius Honorius Coins.htm Appointed Augustus for the west by his father Theodosius I 407 to 411 WEST Constantine III Constantine III Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Britain; defeated by Constantius III 409 to 411 WEST Constans II Constans II Coins.htm Usurper; made emperor by his father Constantine III ; killed in battle 409 and 414 to 415 WEST Priscus Attalus Priscus Attalus Coins.htm Usurper; twice proclaimed emperor by Visigoths under Alaric and twice deposed by Honorius 409 to 411 WEST Maximus Maximus Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Spain; abdicated 411 to 413 WEST Jovinus Jovinus Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor after Constantine III 's death, executed by Honorius 412 to 413 WEST Sebastianus Sebastianus Coins.htm Usurper; appointed co-emperor by Jovinus , executed by Honorius 408 to 450 EAST Theodosius II Theodosius II Coins.htm Son of Arcadius 421 to 421 WEST Constantius III Constantius III Coins.htm Son-in-law of Theodosius I ; appointed co-emperor by Honorius 423 to 425 WEST Joannes Johannes Coins.htm Proclaimed western emperor, initially undisputed; defeated and executed by Theodosius II in favour of Valentinian III 425 to 16 March 455 WEST Valentinian III Valentinian III Coins.htm Son of Constantius III ; appointed emperor by Theodosius II ; assassinated Western Roman Empire Reign Incumbent Notes 17 March 455 to 31 May 455 Petronius Maximus Petronius Maximus Coins.htm Proclaimed himself emperor after Valentinian III 's death; murdered June 455 to 17 October 456 Avitus Avitus Coins.htm Proclaimed emperor by the Visigoth king Theoderic II ; deposed by Ricimer 457 to 2 August 461 Majorian Majorian Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer ; deposed and executed by Ricimer 461 to 465 Libius Severus Libius Severus Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer ; deposed and executed by Ricimer 12 April 467 to 11 July 472 Anthemius Anthemius Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer ; deposed and executed by Ricimer July 472 to 2 November 472 Olybrius Olybrius Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer 5 March 473 to June 474 Glycerius Glycerius Coins.htm Appointed by Gundobad ; deposed by Julius Nepos June 474 to 25 April 480 Julius Nepos Julius Nepos Coins.htm Appointed by eastern emperor Leo I ; deposed in Italy by Orestes in 475; continued to be recognised as lawful emperor in Gaul and Dalmatia until his murder in 480 31 October 475 to 4 September 476 Romulus Augustus (Romulus Augustulus) Romulus Augustus Coins.htm Son of Orestes ; deposed by Odoacer ; fate unknown Further information: Barbarian kings of Italy Eastern Roman Empire For the rulers of the Eastern Roman Empire (also known as the Byzantine Empire ) after Theodosius II , see: List of Byzantine Emperors Theodosian dynasty (395–457) See also: Theodosian dynasty Name Reign Comments Theodosius I "the Great" (Θεοδόσιος Α' ο Μέγας, Flavius Theodosius)Theodosius I Coins.htm 19 January 379 – 17 January 395 Born on 11 January 347. Aristocrat and military leader, brother-in-law of Gratian, who appointed him as emperor of the East. From 392 until his death sole Roman emperor Arcadius (Αρκάδιος, Flavius Arcadius)Arcadius Coins.htm 17 January 395 – 1 May 408 Born in 377/378, the eldest son of Theodosius I. Succeeded upon the death of his father Theodosius II (Θεοδόσιος Β', Flavius Theodosius) Theodosius II Coins.htm 1 May 408 – 28 July 450 Born on 10 April 401, the only son of Arcadius. Succeeded upon the death of his father. As a minor, the praetorian prefect Anthemius was regent in 408–414. He died in a riding accident Marcian (Μαρκιανός, Flavius Valerius Marcianus) Marcian Coins.htm 450 – January 457 Born in 396. A soldier and politician, he became emperor after being wed by the Augusta Pulcheria , Theodosius II's sister, following the latter's death. Died of gangrene Leonid dynasty (457–518) See also: House of Leo Name Reign Comments Leo I "the Thracian" (Λέων Α' ο Θράξ, Flavius Valerius Leo) Leo I Coins.htm 7 February 457 – 18 January 474 Born in Dacia in 401. A common soldier, he was chosen by Aspar , commander-in-chief of the army. Died of dysentery Leo II (Λέων Β', Flavius Leo) Leo II Coins.htm 18 January – 17 November 474 Born in 467, the grandson of Leo I. Succeeded upon the death of Leo I. Died of an unknown disease, possibly poisoned Zeno (Ζήνων, Flavius Zeno) Zeno Coins.htm 17 November 474 – 9 April 491 Born c.425 at Zenonopolis , Isauria , originally named Tarasicodissa. Son-in-law of Leo I, he was bypassed in the succession because of his barbarian origin. Named co-emperor by his son on 9 February 474, he succeeded upon the death of Leo II. Deposed by Basiliscus, brother-in-law of Leo, he fled to his native country and regained the throne in August 476. Basiliscus (Βασιλίσκος, Flavius Basiliscus) Basiliscus Coins.htm 9 January 475 – August 476 General and brother-in-law of Leo I, he seized power from Zeno but was again deposed by him. Died in 476/477 Anastasius I (Αναστάσιος Α', Flavius Anastasius) BYZANTINE - Anastasius Coins.htm 11 April 491 – 9 July 518 Born c. 430 at Dyrrhachium , Epirus nova . A palace official (silentiarius) and son-in-law of Leo I, he was chosen as emperor by empress-dowager Ariadne Justinian Dynasty Main article: Justinian Dynasty Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died Justin I FLAVIVS IVSTINVS AVGVSTVS c. 450 AD, Naissus July 9, 518 AD – August 1, 527 AD Commander of the palace guard under Anastasius I) ; elected as emperor with support of army August 1, 527 AD Natural causes Justinian I FLAVIVS PETRVS SABBATIVS IVSTINIANVS AVGVSTVS c. 482 AD, Tauresium , Dardania August 1, 527 AD – 13/14 November 565 AD Nephew and nominated heir of Justin I 13/14 November 565 AD Natural causes Justin II FLAVIVS IVSTINIVS IVNIOR AVGVSTVS c. 520 AD, ? 13/14 November 565 AD – 578 AD Nephew of Justinian I 578 AD Became insane; Tiberius II Constantine ruled as regent from December 574 and became emperor on Justin's death in 578 Roman Late Monogram Coins.htm Roman AE4 Coins.htm Frequently Asked Questionss How long until my order is shipped?: Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. 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