Seller: collectiblecollectiblecollectible (611) 100%, Location: Ann Arbor, Michigan, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 333031945929 3 open edition prints approximately 7 1/2 x 9 1/2 inches on thin paper signed by African American artist Charles Criner - an avid fisherman who trained under John Biggers Criner, Charles. (b. Athens, TX, 1945; active Houston, TX, 2005) Bibliography and Exhibitions MONOGRAPHS AND SOLO EXHIBITIONS: Fayetteville (AR). Mullins Library, University of Arkansas. Reflections of Cultural Heritage by CHARLES CRINER. January-February, 2009. Solo exhibition of paintings and prints. GENERAL BOOKS AND GROUP EXHIBITIONS: FORT WORTH (TX). Amon Carter Museum. The Harmon & Harriet Kelley Collection of African American Art: Works on Paper. 2009. Group exhibition. 69 works from the late 1800s-2002 - drawings, etchings, lithographs, watercolors, pastels, acrylics, gouaches, linoleum and color screen prints. Included 47 artists: Ron Adams, Benny Andrews, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Bob Blackburn, Elmer Brown, Grafton Tyler Brown, Hilda Wilkinson Brown, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Robert Colescott, Eldizer Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Richard Dempsey, Aaron Douglas, William McKnight Farrow, Allan R. Freelon, Reginald Gammon, Rex Goreleigh, Margo Humphrey, William H. Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Paul Keene, Wifredo Lam, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Lionel Lofton, Bert Long, Whitfield Lovell, Sam Middleton, Dean Mitchell, Ike Morgan, William Pajaud, Alison Saar, Charles Sallee, William E. Scott, Charles Sebree, Albert A. Smith, William E. Smith, Raymond Steth, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma W. Thomas, Dox Thrash, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Walter Williams, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff. [Traveling exhibition.] [Images: http://www.a-r-t.com/kelley/#images] HOUSTON (TX). City Hall. Houston Founder's at City Hall [STET]. 2014. Works by Houston's "earlier painters" installed in various conference rooms throughout city hall. Included are works by John T. Biggers, Charles Criner, Karl Hall, and Earlie Hudnall. HOUSTON (TX). Elder Street Gallery. The Third Level. July 11-18, 2009. Group exhibition of work by 40 artists. Included: Lacey Crawford, Charles Criner, Bert Long, Jr., Christian Perkins, Kaneem Smith. HOUSTON (TX). Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. Houston Collects: African American Art. August 3-October 26, 2008. Group exhibition. Included: Mequitta Ahuja, Johnny Banks, Jean-Michel Basquiat, John Biggers, Hawkins Bolden, Elizabeth Catlett, Michael Ray Charles, Henry Ray Clark, Charles Criner, Aaron Douglas, David Driskell, Robert Duncanson, William Edmondson, Kojo Griffin, Trenton Doyle Hancock, Earl J. Hooks, Lois Mailou Jones, Annette Lawrence, Jacob Lawrence, Bert Long, Jr., David McGee, Angelbert Metoyer, Floyd Newsum, Lettie North, Kemit Oliver, Demetrius Oliver, Horace Pippin, Stephanie Pogue, Herbert Singleton, Michael Kahlil Taylor, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Hank Willis Thomas, Bill Traylor, et al. [For associated publication, see: John Hope Franklin and Alvia Wardlaw, Collecting African American Art. Yale Univ. Press, 2009.) HOUSTON (TX). Texas Southern University Museum. Art Official Intelligence. February 8-March 22, 2008. Group exhibition Organized in part by Soular Renaissance artistic duo, photographer and DJ Jason "Flash Gordon Parks" Woods and poet and painter Eric "Equality" Blaylock. The exhibition featured 60 works in all media by emerging and well-known African American artists in Houston. Included: Regina Agu, Eric Blaylock, Ray Carrington III, Charles Criner, Courtney Dirden, Nathaniel Donnett, Shannon Duckworth, Robert Hodge, Earlie Hudnall, Jr., Linda Kelly, Willie Mo'e, Annie Moore, Michael Kahlil Taylor, Erika Walker, and Jason Woods. LAKE CHARLES (LA). Historic City Hall. The Harriet and Harmon Kelley Collection of African American Art: Works on Paper. February 1-March 31, 2007. Exhib. cat., illus. Traveling exhibition of 69 works on paper dating from the late1800s to 2002. Curated and text by Regenia Perry. Included in the exhibition are drawings, etchings, lithographs, watercolors, pastels, acrylics, gouaches, linoleum and color screen prints by such noted artists as Ron Adams, Benny Andrews, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Bob Blackburn, Grafton Tyler Brown, Elmer Brown, Hilda Wilkerson Brown, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Robert Colescott, Ernest Crichlow, Eldzier Cortor, Charles Criner, Mary Reed Daniel, Richard Dempsey, Aaron Douglas, William M. Farrow, Allan Freelon, Reginald Gammon, Rex Goreleigh, Margo Humphrey, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Paul Keene, Wifredo Lam, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Lionel Lofton, Bert Long, Whitfield Lovell, Sam Middleton, Dean Mitchell, Ike Morgan, William Pajaud, Alison Saar, Charles L. Sallee, William E. Scott, Albert A. Smith, William E. Smith, Raymond Steth, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Dox Thrash, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Walter Williams, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff. [Traveled to: College of Wooster Art Museum. Wooster, OH, August 28-October 28, 2007; Degenstein Art Gallery, Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove, PA, January 15-March 15, 2008; Vero Beach Museum of Art, Vero Beach, FL, July 1-October 15, 2008; Amon Carter Museum, Ft. Worth, TX, June 6-August 23, 2009; McNay Art Museum, San Antonio, TX, September 23, 2009-January 3, 2010; The Lowe Art Museum, Coral Gables, FL, November 13, 2010-January 16, 2011; Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, Lincoln, NE, May 27-September 25, 2011, and other venues.] and other venues.] LITTLE ROCK (AR). Pyramid / Hearne Fine Art. Collaborations: Two Decades of African American Art: Hearne Fine Art 1988-2008. Thru January 17, 2009. Note: Exhibition title was slightly different: "Two Decades of Excellence." 130 pp. exhib. cat., color and b&w illus. Foreword by Halima Taha; texts by Archie Hearne, III, Garbo Watson Hearne; afterword by Dianne Smith. Includes new work by 57 artists: Gabriel Ajayi. Leroy Allen, Benny Andrews, Phoebe Beasley, Alix Beaujour, John Biggers, Bisa Butler, Elizabeth Catlett, Chukes, William Clarke, Kevin Cole, Adger Cowans, Charles Criner, Earnest Davidson, Rex Deloney, Ed Dwight, Marion Epting, Lawrence Finney, Frank Frazier, Paul Goodnight, Jonathan Green, Larry Hampton, Chester Higgins, Jr., Kennith Humphrey, George Hunt, Ariston Jacks, Laura James, Leroy Johnson, Brenda Joysmith, Artis Lane, Anthony D. Lee, Samella Lewis, Sylvester McKissick, Dean Mitchell, Tonia Mitchell, Euneda Otis, Charly Palmer, Johnice Parker, Morris Richardson, II, Mario Robinson, W. Earl Robinson, Alvin Roy, AJ Smith, Albert Smith, Dianne Smith, Phyllis Stephens, TAFA, Twins (Jerry & Terry Lynn), Evita Tezeno, William Tolliver, Ed Wade, Dale Washington, Basil Watson, Kiersten Williams, Susan Williams, Marjorie Williams-Smith, Ernest C. Withers. [Traveled to: Chattanooga African American Museum.] [Review: Michael Crumb, "African American Art History: Collaborating With You," The Chattanooga Pulse, September 16, 2009.] Sq. 4to (29 x 30 cm.; 11.75 x 11.25 in.), cloth, d.j. LONGVIEW (TX). Longview Museum of Fine Arts & the City of Longview. A Spiritual Journey: An Exhibit of Prints by: Dr. John Biggers and Three of His Former Students - Charles Criner, Earlie Hudnall, and Harvey Johnson. 2001. 4-person tribute to Biggers' importance as a teacher. Included: Harvey Johnson, Earlie Hundall Jr., and Charles Criner. [Traveled to King Arts Complex, Columbus, OH, June 6-August 24, 2002.] SAN ANTONIO (TX). StoneMetal Press. Heritage: Artists of African & American Descent. January 19-March 11, 2005. Group exhibition. Included: Darin DeWayne Forehand, Charles Criner, Arleen Polite, and Lenard Brown SAN ANTONIO (TX). StoneMetal Press. Ron Adams, Lenard Brown and Charles Criner: Contemporary Black Printmakers. January 23-March 22, 2003. Three-person exhibition. Charles Criner is the kind of artist that likes to "exhaust" the medium. He "pulls" his prints in black and white, then in color, and on top of that he sometimes adds acrylic over the print to produce original paintings on paper. He, however, is also parsimonious, or rather, enjoys the limitations of using only three colors and no more to make his prints. He is furthermore the kind of artist / craftsman that prizes the concrete relationship between himself and his work. Criner always pulls prints himself, never letting other professional printers do this for him. Criner's works have strong narrative content. His images tell a story that the artist wants the viewers to comprehend easily. The story is woven out of his immediate, personal experiences - or more exactly, his recollections of those experiences in his memory - some distant and others more immediate, but in either case they are very close and familiar to the artist. To many viewers, however, it would appear to be the case that there are two very different groups of images: one group consists of images of fishing and the other of rural scenes that are rooted in the artist's childhood years. The fishing images depict the artist's favorite past time, which is also a popular and familiar hobby for many people. In contrast, the rural scenes are heroic images - in many instances imbued with a sense of religiosity - of Black People working in the fields. In recent years, a third group of images has been added to the artist's corpus. Those are the African images based upon his travel to South Africa. All three groups are represented in this exhibition. Charles Criner and Lionel Lofton are Texas artists who trained under John Biggers at Texas Southern University. Criner was introduced to lithography by Biggers and has continued to master the technique. He pulls his own prints using a150 year old antique press. Criner's works have strong narrative content. His stories are woven out of his immediate, personal experiences and his recollections of those experiences in his memory-some distant some recent. His range of images are numerous from boyhood recollections, recent fishing trips (fishing is his favorite pastime and we have 3 large watercolors), to rural and heroic scenes that in many instances are imbued with a sense of religiosity and Black people working in the fields. These stories and images are ever changing and evolving. The images depicting the Black experience in the fields are the most poignant and powerful. In the artist's words these images are "important and that they should be cherished windows into our past". I never had any formal art class. My folks always told me I was good in art, and I got a few jobs in my little hometown in art. The only art I had is doing stuff for the church, and everybody told me that I was really, really good and that I should be an artist. So it was natural for me—after a while it just got to the point where that was what I wanted to do. It was just my mother, my grandmother, my sisters and brothers, the pastors, and people telling me that I should be an artist. I’m originally from Athens, Texas, and we like to say Tyler, Texas, but Athens is thirty-something miles from Tyler. Tyler is just the biggest town close to Athens. At the time they had a good recruitment department at Texas Southern so one of the ladies came to my little town. We didn’t have any art classes there at all. There was no art program. But she came there one summer and she introduced me to Texas Southern. Before I came to TSU, I had never been no further than 50 miles from Tyler. I came to Texas Southern University in 1964, and really what brought me here was I wanted to be an artist. That was what I wanted to do. So I came to TSU. I had never drawn a black person in my life. The first day I came and went to the student union, I saw the drawings of Dr. John Biggers—a collection of drawings that he produced as a result of a trip to Ghana, Africa, that he had taken in 1957. And when I saw those drawings, it just completely changed me. And it’s been that way ever since. That was enough information for me to draw until now…and I’m 60. These drawings, they were just so overpowering because I was wondering why the kids would be sitting up watching TV and just having fun and those drawings were there. I met him (Dr. Biggers) three or four days later, so we developed a very, very good relationship. I mean, he was kind of like a father really to me and (Earlie) Hudnall, Harvey Johnson, Kermit Oliver and Alvia Wardlaw. Emptying Minnows By Charles Criner. 1969. Acrylic on canvas. Photo by Earlie Hudnall. Courtesy of Earlie Hudnall. Art Student Days Day-to-day classes—our classes—they wasn’t like [regular] classes, the art classes. They were kind of like overtures, kind of like an opera that we would all participate in in the evenings. We did our academic classes during the day, then at 9:00 p.m. we’d go straight to the art department. For some reason, most of the artists were janitors, so we’d take our classes during the day, then we’d have our dinner, then we’d go and work—clean the buildings out. Then at 9:00 p.m., like I said, Harvey Johnson, Kermit Oliver, all of us—along with Mr. (Carroll) Simms, we would work there until five-six o’clock in the morning. It was that way all the time. Dr. Biggers, as I remember, had his freshman class on one side of the room, and he had his sophomore, junior and senior class on the other side of the room in painting. His office was up in the front, and he had his paintings mounted on the wall in his office. I remember he was working on Jubilee at the time, you know—that the Museum of Fine Arts has—and so what he would do, he would work up a while, and then he would come in, look at our work, talk to us, maybe model for us. Sometimes he would pull a student to sit on the pedestal, and we’d be drawing; he’d come in, get his charcoal and paper, and he would draw. Then after the class was over, he would put all our pictures along the wall and give us critiques and let us critique. Then he’d bring the painters in, the upperclassmen, and they would work with us and so forth. I think that’s how the family unity came about, because even now I’ll be working on something and I’ll call Hudnall and say, “Hey, come on and take a look—what do you think I need here?” And he’ll do the same thing for me. I think this is what [Biggers] did: working with us, he chose us as a kind of family. And he worked with us until really the day that he died. I did a lot of prints with him, his lithograph prints and woodcuts and so forth. Harvey Johnson worked with him on his murals. Earlie Hudnall did his photographs and photographed for him and with him. Alvia did his writing. And that’s the way it was. We would meet over at his house every Sunday morning, and we’d discuss what was going on and so forth—and Mrs. Biggers, she would be there, and she’s still there, kind of like our mother. Where I Came From Detail of mural. 1968>. Photo by Earlie Hudnall. Courtesy of Earlie Hudnall. Unrest in the Sixties The city—our world—was Third Ward. That’s the first thing. And it was a vibrant place on Dowling Street; you could get whatever you wanted on Dowling Street. There was a lot of black businesses. Everything was just really flourishing. None of us had cars so we would walk to Dowling and we would go to the movies, pawn shops, restaurants. It was really, really nice—and I think it was nice until about the time that Hampton was killed. Carl Hampton was a very radical person during that era. I think it was like ’67, he took over one of the buildings on Dowling Street. And I’ll never forget I went up there one time and I saw he had guards on the outside of the door that had machine guns. I mean right out in the daylight. And I said, “The police are not going to allow that.” And sure enough, a couple of days later they raided the place, killed him—killed a lot of other people. It seemed like since that happened, things changed on that street. We were just getting to the heart of the civil rights struggle. And Texas Southern was right in the middle of it. We had Stokely Carmichael, Lee Otis Johnson, Angela Davis, all those people. You could almost choose the group that you wanted to be a part of and get into it. We had the congressman—Mickey Leeland—when I came he was president of the student body…I mean he gave our administration hell. So that’s the way it was. I don’t know if you’re familiar with it, but the Texas Southern Riots came about then. For a long time [students] wanted to close down Wheeler Avenue. All the dormitories was on one side of Wheeler and all administrative buildings was on the other side, and the classes. So the students every morning had to go across Wheeler to go to your classes. Well, Wheeler was a very, very busy street and so the students wanted it closed, and I think that was the beginning. That was the beginning of it, and it kind of snowballed into other things. I will never forget we were doing murals at that time, and Dr. Biggers chose the civil rights movement as a subject for the people to do their murals. You see, at TSU before you graduate you had to do a mural. So he would tell us to do something pertaining to our home life or pertaining to the civil rights struggle. And then he would approve it, and that was part of what we did. So it was kind of entrenched in our minds to be aware of what was going on around us. The sketch was done during the junior year, and that was ’67 for me. And then the actual painting was done in your senior year. [My mural] is up at Hannah Hall. In fact, if you go up to the second and third floor, that’s a book all its own. It’s like the Sistine Chapel up there. We used every wall; every corridor inside. Well this is what happened: The students started protesting, and they started blocking Wheeler off and so forth. This was ’66 or ’67. I was in my dormitory—we were on the third floor and I was looking out the window. It was about maybe seven o’clock and I saw this little white lady driving her car because everybody else—Wheeler was vacant—I mean there was nobody on Wheeler because it was blockaded from both sides. But this little lady had come from somewhere and she was driving through. All of a sudden a brick hit her car; it just hit down on the door, and just dented it. Then another brick hit it but she kept driving and she made it through. If it had hit the window, someone would have killed her. So we knew it was something strange happening, but we didn’t know what. So about an hour later, we looked out the window, and we saw about a hundred police officers coming toward the dormitory, and they started shooting at the dormitory. I mean just shooting—just like an assault. So anyway, me and my roommate, we decided we would just get in our pajamas and lay down. I mean we had nothing to do with it. And they would come, and they would see that we were in bed and so forth. Well they finally got into the dormitory. We could hear the doors busting as they were coming in. So they finally busted the doors, pulled us out, took us and put us down on the grass, head down, face down—and took [us] to jail. Fingerprinted us all. And we stayed in jail that whole night. Strange thing about this is that next morning I thought the black community would be outraged. I thought that when we walked through that little corridor and saw the sunlight it would be…but there wasn’t. There was only just a few people. And I think that Dr. Biggers was one of them. Charles Criner, 1978. Photo by Earlie Hudnall. Courtesy of Earlie Hudnall. Working Artist After I graduated I got a job at Posters Inc., and I did their little billboard sketches, and they would take them and sell them and reproduce them. And then I went to work for NASA. I helped do the flight plan for Apollo 11, you know. Then after we finally landed on the moon there was nothing for us to do. They didn’t fire us, but I mean up until that time we weren’t even allowed to go home. We would sleep in the hallways because as the engineers change the flight plan, they had these great big books that looked like phone books, and they had a visual line drawing of every three seconds of how that lunar lander would be turned. Well if they changed the plans, all the drawings had to be done again. I always liked to do cartoons, so I took some cartoons to the Houston Post, and they told me, “All we have are syndicated cartoons. We get them syndicated. But we do have an opening for an artist.” So that’s when I switched from NASA to the Houston Post. I was there for two months, then Uncle Sam told me to show up. I quit the Post, and I went to the Army for two years, then I came back to the Post. I was promoted to art director and I worked there during the 80s. And then I quit for a while, came back, quit and went into business for myself. Then I came back and worked there until they closed in 1995. When the Post closed in ’95 I went to the Houston Chronicle, and I worked there until ’98. And then there again, Dr. Biggers called me and says there’s a museum opening at the Printing Museum. They had these two presses, and nobody knew anything about them at the time. So a fellow by the name of Don Piercy was the director at this museum at the time, and he loved Dr. Biggers’ work. So Dr. Biggers called me and says, “There’s two presses, and they’re going to give them to this museum. And I want you to come over and we’re going to get them working. And they promised me that we could come here, and we could print in the evening after you get off work.” We got those presses going, and Don called me one day and said, “Criner, how would you like to come here and work permanently?” And I said, “Well, what am I going to do at a museum?” So he said, “We’ll pay you what you’re making at the Houston Chronicle, and we just want you to come here and do your work. It’s called an artist-in-residence.” So I came here and started off as an artist-in-residence. An Artist’s Subject Matter When we were at TSU we were always pushed into creating things that we were familiar with. So I used printmaking as a means to just do the domestic stuff: you know, picking cotton and just where we came from as a black race. And I love fishing. Not just catching the big marlins and taking the picture with those big beautiful fish, but actually taking your kids down and fishing from the banks and creeks and things like that. And then with the domestic things, I think that picking cotton and peas and working that of our history is colorful, so I’d like to do that. I love people that create prints by using different media…just art for art itself, but I use it just as a medium to express a story that I want to tell. There’s a story. And I usually put a little paragraph with it because this is what I choose. Most people say that art should be interwoven in the viewer, but I try to go a little past that. I just want you to see and know what it is, and then you read that and you know why it is. I’m just a storyteller. With black art I think that—this is just me saying it—I think that the black race is a race that wants to get art wise—wants to get away from where we came from. That’s just me. More white people buy my art than black people, you know. You know everybody else that sells work, they paint jazz. They paint happy people all the time. Nobody wants to have a person picking cotton in their living room. So I think that you do kind of risk your life. I’m kind of blessed in that I can afford to paint and draw what I feel. A lot of people can’t do that. If painting and drawing was my only income I would have to paint some of the things that people want me to paint rather than painting the things and drawing the things I want to paint. I would just say looking back that the art is just me. And you know Houston, as far as art is concerned, is just vibrant. African-American topicsAfrican AmericaHistory (timeline)[show]Culture[show]Religion[show]Political movements[show]Civic / economic groups[show]Sports[show]Ethnic subdivisions[show]Languages[show]Diaspora[show]Lists[show]Category: African-American societyAmericaAfrica.svg African American portalvteAfrican-American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community (African Americans). Influenced by various cultural traditions, including those of Africa, Europe and the Americas, traditional African-American art forms include the range of plastic arts, from basket weaving, pottery, and quilting to woodcarving and painting. Contents1History1.1Pre-colonial, Antebellum and Civil War eras1.2Post-Civil War1.3The Harlem Renaissance to contemporary art1.3.1Mid-20th century2See also3References4Sources5External linksHistoryPre-colonial, Antebellum and Civil War eras This is the carved powder horn by carver John Bush from around 1754. Harriet Powers, Bible quilt, Mixed Media. 1898.Prior to the 20th century, African-American art existed during the French and Indian War. John Bush was a powder horn carver and soldier with the Massachusetts militia fighting with the British. His work has toured throughout Canada and the US. His powder horn of 1756 has been part of a travelling exhibition throughout Canada and US. Art continued in subsequent slave communities, through the end of the 20th century, African-American art has made a vital contribution to the art of the United States. During the period between the 17th century and the early 19th century art took the form of small drums, quilts, wrought-iron figures and ceramic vessels in the southern United States; these artifacts have similarities with comparable crafts in West and Central Africa. In contrast, black artisans like the New England–based engraver Scipio Moorhead and the Baltimore portrait painter Joshua Johnson created art that was conceived in a western European fashion for their local markets. Many of Africa’s most skilled artisans were enslaved in the Americas, while others learned their trades or crafts as apprentices to African or white skilled workers. It was often the practice for slave owners to hire out skilled artisans. With the consent of their masters, some slave artisans also were able to keep a small percentage of the wages earned in their free time and thereby save enough money to purchase their, and their families', freedom. G. W. Hobbs, Patrick H. Reason, Joshua Johnson, and Scipio Moorhead were among the earliest known portrait artists, from the period of 1773–1887. Patronage by some white families allowed for private tutorship in special cases. Many of these sponsoring whites were abolitionists. The artists received more encouragement and were better able to support themselves in cities, of which there were more in the North and border states. Harriet Powers (1837–1910) was an African-American folk artist and quilt maker from rural Georgia, United States, born into slavery. Now nationally recognized for her quilts, she used traditional appliqué techniques to record local legends, Bible stories, and astronomical events on her quilts. Only two of her late quilts have survived: Bible Quilt 1886 and Bible Quilt 1898. Her quilts are considered among the finest examples of 19th-century Southern quilting,. Like Powers, the women of Gee's Bend developed a distinctive, bold, and sophisticated quilting style based on traditional American (and African-American) quilts, but with a geometric simplicity. Although widely separated by geography, they have qualities reminiscent of Amish quilts and modern art. The women of Gee's Bend passed their skills and aesthetic down through at least six generations to the present. At one time scholars believed slaves sometimes utilized quilt blocks to alert other slaves about escape plans during the time of the Underground Railroad, but most historians do not agree. Quilting remains alive as form of artistic expression in the African-American community. Post-Civil WarAfter the Civil War, it became increasingly acceptable for African American-created works to be exhibited in museums, and artists increasingly produced works for this purpose. These were works mostly in the European romantic and classical traditions of landscapes and portraits. Edward Mitchell Bannister, Henry Ossawa Tanner and Edmonia Lewis are the most notable of this time. Others include Grafton Tyler Brown, Nelson A. Primus and Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller. The goal of widespread recognition across racial boundaries was first eased within America's big cities, including Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, New York, and New Orleans. Even in these places, however, there were discriminatory limitations. Abroad, however, African Americans were much better received. In Europe — especially Paris, France — these artists could express much more freedom in experimentation and education concerning techniques outside traditional western art. Freedom of expression was much more prevalent in Paris as well as Munich and Rome to a lesser extent. The Harlem Renaissance to contemporary art Sand Dunes at Sunset, Atlantic City by Henry Ossawa Tanner is in the collection of the White House, and hangs in the Green Room. Acquired during the Clinton administration with funds from the White House Acquisition Trust, it is the first artwork in the White House by an African American.The Harlem Renaissance was one of the most notable movements in African-American art. Certain freedoms and ideas that were already widespread in many parts of the world at the time had begun to spread into the artistic communities United States during the 1920s. During this period notable artists included Richmond Barthé, Aaron Douglas, Lawrence Harris, Palmer Hayden, William H. Johnson, Sargent Johnson, John T. Biggers, Earle Wilton Richardson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Archibald Motley, Augusta Savage, Hale Woodruff, and photographer James Van Der Zee. The establishment of the Harmon Foundation by art patron William E. Harmon in 1922 sponsored many artists through its Harmon Award and annual exhibitions. As it did with many such endeavors, the 1929 Great Depression largely ended funding for the arts for a time. While the Harmon Foundation still existed in this period, its financial support toward artists ended. The Harmon Foundation, however, continued supporting artists until 1967 by mounting exhibitions and offering funding for developing artists such as Jacob Lawrence. Midnight Golfer by Eugene J. Martin, mixed media collage on rag paper. Kara Walker, Cut, Cut paper and adhesive on wall, Brent Sikkema NYC.The US Treasury Department's Public Works of Art Project ineffectively attempted to provide support for artists in 1933. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Works Progress Administration (WPA). The WPA provided for all American artists and proved especially helpful to African-American artists. Artists and writers both gained work that helped them survive the Depression. Among them were Jacob Lawrence and Richard Wright. Politics, human and social conditions all became the subjects of accepted art forms. Important cities with significant black populations and important African-American art circles included Philadelphia, Boston, San Francisco and Washington, D.C. The WPA led to a new wave of important black art professors. Mixed media, abstract art, cubism, and social realism became not only acceptable, but desirable. Artists of the WPA united to form the 1935 Harlem Artists Guild, which developed community art facilities in major cities. Leading forms of art included drawing, sculpture, printmaking, painting, pottery, quilting, weaving and photography. By 1939, the costly WPA and its projects all were terminated. In 1943, James A. Porter, a professor in the Department of Art at Howard University, wrote the first major text on African-American art and artists, Modern Negro Art. Mid-20th centuryIn the 1950s and 1960s, few African-American artists were widely known or accepted. Despite this, The Highwaymen, a loose association of 26 African-American artists from Fort Pierce, Florida, created idyllic, quickly realized images of the Florida landscape and peddled some 200,000 of them from the trunks of their cars. In the 1950s and 1960s, it was impossible to find galleries interested in selling artworks by a group of unknown, self-taught African Americans, so they sold their art directly to the public rather than through galleries and art agents. Rediscovered in the mid-1990s, today they are recognized as an important part of American folk history. The current market price for an original Highwaymen painting can easily bring in thousands of dollars. In 2004 the original group of 26 Highwaymen were inducted into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame. Currently 8 of the 26 are deceased, including A. Hair, H. Newton, Ellis and George Buckner, A. Moran, L. Roberts, Hezekiah Baker and most recently Johnny Daniels. The full list of 26 can be found in the Florida Artists Hall of Fame, as well as various highwaymen and Florida art websites. Jerry Harris, Dogon mother and child, constructed and carved wood with found objects, laminated clay (Bondo), and wooden dowels.After the Second World War, some artists took a global approach, working and exhibiting abroad, in Paris, and as the decade wore on, relocated gradually in other welcoming cities such as Copenhagen, Amsterdam, and Stockholm: Barbara Chase-Riboud, Edward Clark, Harvey Cropper, Beauford Delaney, Herbert Gentry, Bill Hutson, Clifford Jackson, Sam Middleton, Larry Potter, Haywood Bill Rivers, Merton Simpson, and Walter Williams. Some African-American artists did make it into important New York galleries by the 1950s and 1960s: Horace Pippin, Romare Bearden, Jacob Lawrence, William T. Williams, Norman Lewis, Thomas Sills, and Sam Gilliam were among the few who had successfully been received in a gallery setting. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s led artists to capture and express the times and changes. Galleries and community art centers developed for the purpose of displaying African-American art, and collegiate teaching positions were created by and for African-American artists. Some African-American women were also active in the feminist art movement in the 1970s. Faith Ringgold made work that featured black female subjects and that addressed the conjunction of racism and sexism in the U.S., while the collective Where We At (WWA) held exhibitions exclusively featuring the artwork of African-American women. By the 1980s and 1990s, hip-hop graffiti became predominate in urban communities. Most major cities had developed museums devoted to African-American artists. The National Endowment for the Arts provided increasing support for these artists. Important collections of African-American art include the Walter O. Evans Collection of African American Art, the Paul R. Jones collections at the University of Delaware and University of Alabama, the David C. Driskell Art collection, the Harmon and Harriet Kelley Collection of African American Art, the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, and the Mott-Warsh collection. Kara Walker, a contemporary American artist, is known for her exploration of race, gender, sexuality, violence and identity in her artworks. Walker's silhouette images work to bridge unfinished folklore in the Antebellum South and are reminiscent of the earlier work of Harriet Powers. Her nightmarish yet fantastical images incorporate a cinematic feel. In 2007, Walker was listed among Time Magazine's "100 Most Influential People in The World, Artists and Entertainers". Textile artists are part of African-American art history. According to the 2010 Quilting in America industry survey, there are 1.6 million quilters in the United States. Influential contemporary artists include Larry D. Alexander, Laylah Ali, Amalia Amaki, Emma Amos, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Dawoud Bey, Camille Billops, Mark Bradford, Edward Clark, Willie Cole, Robert Colescott, Louis Delsarte, David C. Driskell, Leonardo Drew, Mel Edwards, Ricardo Francis, Charles Gaines, Ellen Gallagher, Herbert Gentry, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, Jerry Harris, Joseph Holston, Richard Hunt, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, Katie S. Mallory, M. Scott Johnson, Rashid Johnson, Joe Lewis, Glenn Ligon, James Little, Edward L. Loper, Sr., Alvin D. Loving, Kerry James Marshall, Eugene J. Martin, Richard Mayhew, Sam Middleton, Howard McCalebb, Charles McGill, Thaddeus Mosley, Sana Musasama, Senga Nengudi, Joe Overstreet, Martin Puryear, Adrian Piper, Howardena Pindell, Faith Ringgold, Gale Fulton Ross, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, John Solomon Sandridge, Raymond Saunders, John T. Scott, Joyce Scott, Gary Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Renee Stout, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Stanley Whitney, William T. Williams, Jack Whitten, Fred Wilson, Richard Wyatt, Jr., Richard Yarde, and Purvis Young, Kehinde Wiley, Mickalene Thomas, Barkley Hendricks, Jeff Sonhouse, William Walker, Ellsworth Ausby, Che Baraka, Emmett Wigglesworth, Otto Neals, Dindga McCannon, Terry Dixon (artist), Frederick J. Brown, and many others. Artists Scipio Moorhead, Portrait of poet Phillis Wheatley, 1773, in the frontispiece to her book Poems on Various Subjects Edward Mitchell Bannister, Driving Home the Cows 1881 Harriet Powers, Bible quilt, mixed media, 1886 Henry Ossawa Tanner, Gateway, Tangier, 1912, oil on canvas, 18 7/16" × 15 5/16", St. Louis Art Museum Charles Alston, Again The Springboard Of Civilization, 1943 (WWII African American soldier) Larry D. Alexander,Greenville Courthouse, 1998A–BTerry Adkins (1953–2014), artistMequitta Ahuja (born 1976), painter, installation artistLarry D. Alexander (born 1953), painterLaylah Ali (born 1968), painterJules T. Allen (born 1947), photographerTina Allen (1949–2008), sculptorCharles Alston (1907–1977), painterAmalia Amaki (born 1959), artistEmma Amos (born 1938), painterBenny Andrews (1930–2006), painterEdgar Arceneaux (born 1972), drawing artistRadcliffe Bailey (born 1968) collage, sculptureKyle Baker (born 1965), cartoonistMatt Baker (1921–1959), comic book artistJames Presley Ball (1825–1904), photographerAlvin Baltrop (1948-2004), photographerHenry Bannarn (1910–1965), painterEdward Mitchell Bannister (1828–1901), painterErnie Barnes (1938–2009), neo-Mannerist artistRichmond Barthé (1901–1989), sculptorJean-Michel Basquiat (1960–1988), painterC. M. Battey (1873–1927), photographerRomare Bearden (1911–1988), painterArthello Beck (1941–2004), painterArthur P. Bedou (1882–1966), photographerDarrin Bell (born 1975), cartoonistMary A. Bell (1873–1941)Dawoud Bey (born 1953), photographerJohn T. Biggers (1924–2001), muralistSanford Biggers (born 1970), interdisciplinaryGene Bilbrew (1923–1974), cartoonist and fetish artistMcArthur Binion (born 1946), painterRobert Blackburn (1920–2003), printmakerThomas BlackshearBetty Blayton (born 1937), painter, printmakerChakaia Booker (born 1953), sculptorEdythe Boone (born 1938), muralistCharles Boyce (born 1949), cartoonistTina Williams Brewer, fiber artistMichael Bramwell (born 1953), conceptual artistMark Bradford (born 1961)Elenora "Rukiya" Brown, doll creatorFrank J. Brown (born 1956), sculptorFrederick J. Brown (1945–2012), painterLarry Poncho BrownManuelita Brown, sculptorRobert Brown (c. 1936–2007), cartoonistBeverly Buchanan (born 1940), painter, sculptorSelma Burke (1900–1995), sculptorCalvin Burnett (1921–2007), book illustratorPauline Powell Burns (1872–1912), painterJohn Bush (? - 1754), powder horn carverRobert Butler (1943–2014), painterC–DFrank Calloway (born 1915)E. Simms Campbell (1906–1971), cartoonistFred Carter (born 1938), cartoonistBernie Casey (born 1939), painterElizabeth Catlett (1915–2012), sculptor and printmakerNick Cave (born 1959), performance artistMichael Ray Charles (born 1967), painterBarbara Chase-Riboud (born 1936), sculptorJamour Chames (born 1989), painterDon Hogan Charles (1938–2017), photographerClaude Clark (1915–2001), painter and printmakerEdward Clark (born 1926), painterSonya Clark (born 1967), textile and multimedia artistWillie Cole (born 1955), painterRobert Colescott (1925–2009), painterKennard Copeland (born 1966), ceramic sculptures Eldzier Cortor (1916–2015), artist and printmakerErnest Crichlow (1914–2005), social realist artistAllan Crite (1910–2007), painter Emilio Cruz (1938–2004), painterFrank E. Cummings III (born 1938), woodworkerMichael Cummings (born 1945), textile artistUlysses Davis (1913–1990), sculptorBing Davis (born 1937), potter and graphic artistRoy DeCarava (1919–2009), photographerBeauford Delaney (1901–1979), painterJoseph Delaney (1904–1991)Louis Delsarte (born 1944), artistJ Rodney Dennis painterJoseph Clinton Devillis (1878-1912), painterThornton Dial (1928–2016)Terry Dixon (born 1969), painter and multimedia artistJeff Donaldson (born 1932), painter and criticAaron Douglas (1899–1979), painterEmory Douglas (born 1943), Black Panther artistJohn E. Dowell Jr. (born 1941), printmaker, etcher, lithographer, and painterDavid C. Driskell (born 1931), artist and scholarRobert Scott Duncanson (1821–1872), Hudson River SchoolE–HWilliam Edmondson (1874–1951), folk art sculptorMel Edwards (born 1937), sculptorWalter Ellison (1899–1977), painterMinnie Evans (1892–1987), folk artist Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller (1877–1968), artistEllen Gallagher (born 1965)Theaster Gates (born 1973), sculptor, ceramicist, and performance artist [Reginald K (Kevin) Gee (born 1964), painterHerbert Gentry (1919–2003), painterWilda Gerideau-Squires (born 1946), photographerRobert A. Gilbert (c. 1870-1942), nature photographerLeah Gilliam (born 1967), media artist and filmmakerSam Gilliam (born 1933), painter Russell T. Gordon (born 1936), printmakerBilly Graham (1935–1999), comic book artistLonnie Graham, photographer and installation artistDeborah Grant (born 1968), painterTodd Gray (born 1954), photographer, installation and performance artistLeamon Green (born 1959)Renee Green (born 1959), installation artistMario Gully, comic book artistTyree Guyton (born 1955)Ed Hamilton (born 1947), sculptorPatrick Earl Hammie (born 1981), painterDavid Hammons (born 1943), artistTrenton Doyle Hancock (born 1974)Edwin Harleston (1882–1931), painterElise Forrest Harleston (1891–1970), photographerKira Lynn Harris (born 1963), multidisciplinaryJohn Wesley Hardrick (1891–1948), painter Jerry Harris (born 1945), sculptorLawrence Harris, painterMarren Hassenger (born 1947), sculptor, installation, performancePalmer Hayden (1893–1973), painterBarkley Hendricks (1945–2017), painterGeorge Herriman (1880–1944), cartoonistAlvin Hollingsworth (1928–2000), illustrator, painterWilliam Howard (active 19th century), American woodworker and craftsmanBryce Hudson (born 1979), painter, sculptorJulien Hudson (1811–1844), painter, sculptorDavid Huffman (born 1963), painterRichard Hunt (born 1935), sculptorClementine Hunter (1886/7–1988), folk artistJ–OSteffani Jemison (born 1981), performance artist, video artistWadsworth Jarrell (born 1929), painter, sculptorAnnette P. Jimerson (born 1966), painterJoshua Johnson (c.1763–c.1824), portrait painter and folk artistMalvin Gray Johnson (1896–1934), painterRashid Johnson (born 1977), conceptual artistSargent Johnson (1888–1967), sculptor William H. Johnson (1902–1970)Calvin B. Jones (1934–2010), painter, muralistJennie C. Jones (born 1968), multidisciplinaryLois Mailou Jones (1905–1998), painterTitus Kaphar (born 1976), painterGwendolyn Knight (1914–2005), artistJacob Lawrence (1917–2000), painterDeana Lawson (born 1979), photographerHughie Lee-Smith (1915–1999), artistEdmonia Lewis (c. 1843–1879), artistNorman Lewis (1909–1979), painterGlenn Ligon (born 1960), painterLlanakila, artist, painter, digital illustrator, and digital artistEdward L. Loper, Sr. (1916–2011), painterWhitfield Lovell (born 1960), artistAlvin D. Loving (1935-2005) artistGwendolyn Ann Magee (1943–2011), artist, quilterClarence Major (born 1936), painterKerry James Marshall (born 1955), painterEugene J. Martin (1938–2005), painterRichard Mayhew (born 1934), Afro-Native American, landscape painterValerie Maynard (born 1937), sculptor, printmaker, painterEaly Mays (born 1959), painterHoward McCalebb (born 1947), artistCorky McCoy, illustratorCharles McGee, (born 1924) painterCharles McGill (born 1964), artist, educatorJulie Mehretu (born 1970), painter, printmakerNicole Miller (born 1982), video artistDean Mitchell (born 1957), painterScipio Moorhead (active 1770s), painterArchibald Motley (1891–1981), painterGus Nall (1919-1995), painterHarold Newton (1934–1994), artistLorraine O'Grady (born 1934), conceptual artistTurtel Onli (born 1952), cartoonistJackie Ormes (1911–1985), cartoonistJohn Outterbridge (born 1933), assemblage artistJoe Overstreet (born 1933), artistP–SGordon Parks (1912–2006), photographer, directorCecelia Pedescleaux (born 1945), quilterDelilah Pierce (1904–1992), artistEarle M. Pilgrim (1923–1976), artistHowardena Pindell (born 1943), painterJerry Pinkney (born 1939), illustratorAdrian Piper (born 1948), conceptual artistRose Piper (1917–2005), painter and textile designerHorace Pippin (1888–1946), painterRae Pleasant (born 1985), illustratorP. H. Polk (1898–1984), photographerCarl Robert Pope (born 1961), photographerWilliam Pope.L (born 1955) conceptual artistHarriet Powers (1837–1910), folk artistMartin Puryear (born 1941), sculptorPatrick H. Reason (1816–1898)Earle Wilton Richardson (1912–1935), artistFaith Ringgold (born 1930), painterHaywood Rivers (1922–2001), painterArthur Rose Sr. (1921–1995), multidisciplinaryBayeté Ross Smith (born 1976), photographerAlison Saar (born 1956), artistBetye Saar (born 1926), artistCharles Sallee (1923–2006), painterReginald Sanders (1921–2001), visual artistRaymond Saunders, painterAugusta Savage (1892–1962), sculptorJohn T. Scott (1940–2007), artistJoyce J. Scott (born 1948), sculptorLorenzo Scott (born 1934), painterWilliam Edouard Scott (1884–1964), painterCharles Sebree (1914–1985), painterEd Sherman (born 1945), photographerThomas Sills (1914–2000), painterGary Simmons (born 1964), artistLorna Simpson (born 1960), artistMerton Simpson (1928–2013), painterWilliam Simpson (1818–1872), portrait painterCauleen Smith (born 1967), filmmakerLeslie Smith III (born 1985), painterVincent D. Smith (1929–2003), painter and printmakerGilda Snowden (1954–2014)Mitchell Squire (born 1958), American installation artist, sculptor and performance artistRaymond Steth (1916–1997)Renee Stout (born 1958), artistMartine Syms (born 1988), artistT–ZHenry Ossawa Tanner (1859–1937), artistMargaret Taylor-Burroughs (1915–2010)Alma Thomas (1891–1978), painter Hank Willis Thomas (born 1976), photographerMickalene Thomas (born 1971), painter and installation artistBob Thompson (1937–1966), painterMildred Thompson (1935–2003), abstract painter, printmaker and sculptorDox Thrash (1892–1962), printmaker, sculptor Bill Traylor (1856–1949)Henry Taylor (born 1958) painterMorrie Turner (1923–2014), cartoonistJames Van Der Zee (1886–1983), photographer Kara Walker (born 1969), artist William Walker (1927–2011), Chicago muralistLaura Wheeler Waring (1887–1948), painterE. M. Washington (born 1962), printmaker and counterfeiterJames W. Washington, Jr. (1908–2000), painter and sculptorCarrie Mae Weems (born 1953), photographerPheoris WestCharles Wilbert White (1918–1979), muralistJack Whitten (1939-2018), painterKehinde Wiley (born 1977), painterGerald Williams (artist) (Born 1941) painterWilliam T. Williams (born 1942), painterDeborah Willis (born 1948), photographerEllis Wilson (1899–1977), painterFred Wilson (born 1954), conceptual artistJohn Woodrow Wilson (1922–2015), sculptorBeulah Woodard (1895–1955), sculptorHale Woodruff (1900–1980), painterRichard Wyatt, Jr., (born 1955), painter, muralistRichard Yarde (1939–2011), watercoloristJoseph Yoakum (1890–1972), self-taught landscape artistPurvis Young (1943–2010), artistArtist groupsThe HighwaymenAfriCOBRAWhere We AtNational Conference of ArtistsSpiral (arts alliance) African-American topicsAfrican AmericaHistory (timeline)[show]Culture[show]Religion[show]Political movements[show]Civic / economic groups[show]Sports[show]Ethnic subdivisions[show]Languages[show]Diaspora[show]Lists[show]Category: African-American societyAmericaAfrica.svg African American portalvte This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The Black Arts Movement, Black Aesthetics Movement or BAM is the artistic outgrowth of the Black Power movement that was prominent in the 1960s and early 1970s. Time magazine describes the Black Arts Movement as the "single most controversial movement in the history of African-American literature – possibly in American literature as a whole." The Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS), founded in Harlem in 1965 by LeRoi Jones (later known as Amiri Baraka) is a key institution of the Black Arts Movement. Contents1Overview1.1Influence2History2.1Authors2.2Locations3The Black Aesthetic4Major works4.1Black Art4.2"The Revolutionary Theatre"5Effects on society6Associated writers and thinkers7Related exhibitions and conferences8See also9References10External linksOverviewThe movement has been seen as one of the most important times in African-American literature. It inspired black people to establish their own publishing houses, magazines, journals and art institutions. It led to the creation of African-American Studies programs within universities. The movement was triggered by the assassination of Malcolm X. Among the well-known writers who were involved with the movement are Nikki Giovanni, Sonia Sanchez, Maya Angelou, Hoyt W. Fuller, and Rosa Guy. Although not strictly part of the Movement, other notable African-American writers such as novelists Toni Morrison and Ishmael Reed share some of its artistic and thematic concerns. Although Reed is neither a movement apologist nor advocate, he said: I think what Black Arts did was inspire a whole lot of Black people to write. Moreover, there would be no multiculturalism movement without Black Arts. Latinos, Asian Americans, and others all say they began writing as a result of the example of the 1960s. Blacks gave the example that you don't have to assimilate. You could do your own thing, get into your own background, your own history, your own tradition and your own culture. I think the challenge is for cultural sovereignty and Black Arts struck a blow for that. BAM influenced the world of literature with the portrayal of different ethnic voices. Before the movement, the literary canon lacked diversity, and the ability to express ideas from the point of view of racial and ethnic minorities, which was not valued by the mainstream at the time. InfluenceTheatre groups, poetry performances, music and dance were centered on this movement, and therefore African Americans gained social and historical recognition in the area of literature and arts. Due to the agency and credibility given, African Americans were also able to educate others through different types of expressions and media outlets about cultural differences. The most common form of teaching was through poetry reading. African-American performances were used for their own political advertisement, organization, and community issues. The Black Arts Movement was spread by the use of newspaper advertisements. The first major arts movement publication was in 1964. "No one was more competent in [the] combination of the experimental and the vernacular than Amiri Baraka, whose volume Black Magic Poetry 1961–1967 (1969) is one of the finest products of the African-American creative energies of the 1960s." HistoryThe beginnings of the Black Arts Movement may be traced to 1965, when Amiri Baraka, at that time still known as Leroi Jones, moved uptown to establish the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS) following the assassination of Malcolm X. Rooted in the Nation of Islam, the Black Power Movement and the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Arts Movement grew out of a changing political and cultural climate in which Black artists attempted to create politically engaged work that explored the African American cultural and historical experience. Black artists and intellectuals such as Baraka made it their project to reject older political, cultural, and artistic traditions. Although the success of sit-ins and public demonstrations of the Black student movement in the 1960s may have "inspired black intellectuals, artists, and political activists to form politicized cultural groups," many Black Arts activists rejected the non-militant integrational ideologies of the Civil Rights Movement and instead favored those of the Black Liberation Struggle, which emphasized "self-determination through self-reliance and Black control of significant businesses, organization, agencies, and institutions." According to the Academy of American Poets, "African American artists within the movement sought to create politically engaged work that explored the African American cultural and historical experience." The importance that the movement placed on Black autonomy is apparent through the creation of institutions such as the Black Arts Repertoire Theatre School (BARTS), created in the spring of 1964 by Baraka and other Black artists. The opening of BARTS in New York City often overshadow the growth of other radical Black Arts groups and institutions all over the United States. In fact, transgressional and international networks, those of various Left and nationalist (and Left nationalist) groups and their supports, existed far before the movement gained popularity. Although the creation of BARTS did indeed catalyze the spread of other Black Arts institutions and the Black Arts movement across the nation, it was not solely responsible for the growth of the movement. Although the Black Arts Movement was a time filled with black success and artistic progress, the movement also faced social and racial ridicule. The leaders and artists involved called for Black Art to define itself and speak for itself from the security of its own institutions. For many of the contemporaries the idea that somehow black people could express themselves through institutions of their own creation and with ideas whose validity was confirmed by their own interests and measures was absurd. While it is easy to assume that the movement began solely in the Northeast, it actually started out as "separate and distinct local initiatives across a wide geographic area," eventually coming together to form the broader national movement. New York City is often referred to as the "birthplace" of the Black Arts Movement, because it was home to many revolutionary Black artists and activists. However, the geographical diversity of the movement opposes the misconception that New York (and Harlem, especially) was the primary site of the movement. In its beginning states, the movement came together largely through printed media. Journals such as Liberator, The Crusader, and Freedomways created "a national community in which ideology and aesthetics were debated and a wide range of approaches to African-American artistic style and subject displayed." These publications tied communities outside of large Black Arts centers to the movement and gave the general black public access to these sometimes exclusive circles. As a literary movement, Black Arts had its roots in groups such as the Umbra Workshop. Umbra (1962) was a collective of young Black writers based in Manhattan's Lower East Side; major members were writers Steve Cannon, Tom Dent, Al Haynes, David Henderson, Calvin C. Hernton, Joe Johnson, Norman Pritchard, Lennox Raphael, Ishmael Reed, Lorenzo Thomas, James Thompson, Askia M. Touré (Roland Snellings; also a visual artist), Brenda Walcott, and musician-writer Archie Shepp. Touré, a major shaper of "cultural nationalism," directly influenced Jones. Along with Umbra writer Charles Patterson and Charles's brother, William Patterson, Touré joined Jones, Steve Young, and others at BARTS. Umbra, which produced Umbra Magazine, was the first post-civil rights Black literary group to make an impact as radical in the sense of establishing their own voice distinct from, and sometimes at odds with, the prevailing white literary establishment. The attempt to merge a black-oriented activist thrust with a primarily artistic orientation produced a classic split in Umbra between those who wanted to be activists and those who thought of themselves as primarily writers, though to some extent all members shared both views. Black writers have always had to face the issue of whether their work was primarily political or aesthetic. Moreover, Umbra itself had evolved out of similar circumstances: in 1960 a Black nationalist literary organization, On Guard for Freedom, had been founded on the Lower East Side by Calvin Hicks. Its members included Nannie and Walter Bowe, Harold Cruse (who was then working on The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual, 1967), Tom Dent, Rosa Guy, Joe Johnson, LeRoi Jones, and Sarah E. Wright, among others. On Guard was active in a famous protest at the United Nations of the American-sponsored Bay of Pigs Cuban invasion and was active in support of the Congolese liberation leader Patrice Lumumba. From On Guard, Dent, Johnson, and Walcott along with Hernton, Henderson, and Touré established Umbra. AuthorsAnother formation of black writers at that time was the Harlem Writers Guild, led by John O. Killens, which included Maya Angelou, Jean Carey Bond, Rosa Guy, and Sarah Wright among others. But the Harlem Writers Guild focused on prose, primarily fiction, which did not have the mass appeal of poetry performed in the dynamic vernacular of the time. Poems could be built around anthems, chants, and political slogans, and thereby used in organizing work, which was not generally the case with novels and short stories. Moreover, the poets could and did publish themselves, whereas greater resources were needed to publish fiction. That Umbra was primarily poetry- and performance-oriented established a significant and classic characteristic of the movement's aesthetics. When Umbra split up, some members, led by Askia Touré and Al Haynes, moved to Harlem in late 1964 and formed the nationalist-oriented Uptown Writers Movement, which included poets Yusef Rahman, Keorapetse "Willie" Kgositsile from South Africa, and Larry Neal. Accompanied by young "New Music" musicians, they performed poetry all over Harlem. Members of this group joined LeRoi Jones in founding BARTS. Jones's move to Harlem was short-lived. In December 1965 he returned to his home, Newark (N.J.), and left BARTS in serious disarray. BARTS failed but the Black Arts center concept was irrepressible, mainly because the Black Arts movement was so closely aligned with the then-burgeoning Black Power movement. The mid-to-late 1960s was a period of intense revolutionary ferment. Beginning in 1964, rebellions in Harlem and Rochester, New York, initiated four years of long hot summers. Watts, Detroit, Newark, Cleveland, and many other cities went up in flames, culminating in nationwide explosions of resentment and anger following Martin Luther King, Jr.'s April 1968 assassination. Nathan Hare, author of The Black Anglo-Saxons (1965), was the founder of 1960s Black Studies. Expelled from Howard University, Hare moved to San Francisco State University, where the battle to establish a Black Studies department was waged during a five-month strike during the 1968–69 school year. As with the establishment of Black Arts, which included a range of forces, there was broad activity in the Bay Area around Black Studies, including efforts led by poet and professor Sarah Webster Fabio at Merrit College. The initial thrust of Black Arts ideological development came from the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM), a national organization with a strong presence in New York City. Both Touré and Neal were members of RAM. After RAM, the major ideological force shaping the Black Arts movement was the US (as opposed to "them") organization led by Maulana Karenga. Also ideologically important was Elijah Muhammad's Chicago-based Nation of Islam. These three formations provided both style and conceptual direction for Black Arts artists, including those who were not members of these or any other political organization. Although the Black Arts Movement is often considered a New York-based movement, two of its three major forces were located outside New York City. LocationsAs the movement matured, the two major locations of Black Arts' ideological leadership, particularly for literary work, were California's Bay Area because of the Journal of Black Poetry and The Black Scholar, and the Chicago–Detroit axis because of Negro Digest/Black World and Third World Press in Chicago, and Broadside Press and Naomi Long Madgett's Lotus Press in Detroit. The only major Black Arts literary publications to come out of New York were the short-lived (six issues between 1969 and 1972) Black Theatre magazine, published by the New Lafayette Theatre, and Black Dialogue, which had actually started in San Francisco (1964–68) and relocated to New York (1969–72). Although the journals and writing of the movement greatly characterized its success, the movement placed a great deal of importance on collective oral and performance art. Public collective performances drew a lot of attention to the movement, and it was often easier to get an immediate response from a collective poetry reading, short play, or street performance than it was from individual performances. The people involved in the Black Arts Movement used the arts as a way to liberate themselves. The movement served as a catalyst for many different ideas and cultures to come alive. This was a chance for African Americans to express themselves in a way that most would not have expected. In 1967 LeRoi Jones visited Karenga in Los Angeles and became an advocate of Karenga's philosophy of Kawaida. Kawaida, which produced the "Nguzo Saba" (seven principles), Kwanzaa, and an emphasis on African names, was a multifaceted, categorized activist philosophy. Jones also met Bobby Seale and Eldridge Cleaver and worked with a number of the founding members of the Black Panthers. Additionally, Askia Touré was a visiting professor at San Francisco State and was to become a leading (and long-lasting) poet as well as, arguably, the most influential poet-professor in the Black Arts movement. Playwright Ed Bullins and poet Marvin X had established Black Arts West, and Dingane Joe Goncalves had founded the Journal of Black Poetry (1966). This grouping of Ed Bullins, Dingane Joe Goncalves, LeRoi Jones, Sonia Sanchez, Askia M. Touré, and Marvin X became a major nucleus of Black Arts leadership. As the movement grew, ideological conflicts arose and eventually became too great for the movement to continue to exist as a large, coherent collective. The Black AestheticMany discussions of the Black Arts movement posit it as the "aesthetic and spiritual sister of the Black Power concept." The Black Aesthetic refers to ideologies and perspectives of art that center on Black culture and life. This Black Aesthetic encouraged the idea of Black separatism, and in trying to facilitate this, hoped to further strengthen black ideals, solidarity, and creativity. In his well-known essay on the Black Arts Movement, Larry Neal attests: "When we speak of a 'Black aesthetic' several things are meant. First, we assume that there is already in existence the basis for such an aesthetic. Essentially, it consists of an African-American cultural tradition. But this aesthetic is finally, by implication, broader than that tradition. It encompasses most of the usable elements of the Third World culture. The motive behind the Black aesthetic is the destruction of the white thing, the destruction of white ideas, and white ways of looking at the world." Major worksBlack ArtAmiri Baraka's poem "Black Art" serves as one of his most controversial, yet poetically profound supplements to the Black Arts Movement. In this piece, Baraka merges politics with art, criticizing poems that are not useful to or adequately representative of the Black struggle. First published in 1966, a period particularly known for the Civil Rights Movement, the political aspect of this piece underscores the need for a concrete and artistic approach to the realistic nature involving racism and injustice. Serving as the recognized artistic component to and having roots in the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Arts Movement aims to grant a political voice to black artists (including poets, dramatists, writers, musicians, etc.). Playing a vital role in this movement, Baraka calls out what he considers to be unproductive and assimilatory actions shown by political leaders during the Civil Rights Movement. He describes prominent Black leaders as being "on the steps of the white house...kneeling between the sheriff's thighs negotiating coolly for his people." Baraka also presents issues of euro-centric mentality, by referring to Elizabeth Taylor as a prototypical model in a society that influences perceptions of beauty, emphasizing its influence on individuals of white and black ancestry. Baraka aims his message toward the Black community, with the purpose of coalescing African Americans into a unified movement, devoid of white influences. "Black Art" serves as a medium for expression meant to strengthen that solidarity and creativity, in terms of the Black Aesthetic. Baraka believes poems should "shoot…come at you, love what you are" and not succumb to mainstream desires. He ties this approach into the emergence of hip-hop, which he paints as a movement that presents "live words…and live flesh and coursing blood." Baraka's cathartic structure and aggressive tone are comparable to the beginnings of hip-hop music, which created controversy in the realm of mainstream acceptance, because of its "authentic, un-distilled, unmediated forms of contemporary black urban music." Baraka believes that integration inherently takes away from the legitimacy of having a Black identity and Aesthetic in an anti-Black world. Through pure and unapologetic blackness, and with the absence of white influences, Baraka believes a black world can be achieved. Though hip-hop has been serving as a recognized salient musical form of the Black Aesthetic, a history of unproductive integration is seen across the spectrum of music, beginning with the emergence of a newly formed narrative in mainstream appeal in the 1950s. Much of Baraka's cynical disillusionment with unproductive integration can be drawn from the 50s, a period of rock and roll, in which "record labels actively sought to have white artists "cover" songs that were popular on the rhythm-and-blues charts" originally performed by African-American artists. The problematic nature of unproductive integration is also exemplified by Run-DMC, an American hip-hop group founded in 1981, who became widely accepted after a calculated collaboration with the rock group Aerosmith on a remake of the latter's "Walk This Way" took place in 1986, evidently appealing to young white audiences. Hip-hop emerged as an evolving genre of music that continuously challenged mainstream acceptance, most notably with the development of rap in the 1990s. A significant and modern example of this is Ice Cube, a well-known American rapper, songwriter, and actor, who introduced subgenre of hip-hop known as "gangsta rap," merged social consciousness and political expression with music. With the 1960s serving as a more blatantly racist period of time, Baraka notes the revolutionary nature of hip-hop, grounded in the unmodified expression through art. This method of expression in music parallels significantly with Baraka's ideals presented in "Black Art," focusing on poetry that is also productively and politically driven. "The Revolutionary Theatre""The Revolutionary Theatre" is a 1965 essay by Baraka that was an important contribution to the Black Arts Movement, discussing the need for change through literature and theater arts. He says: "We will scream and cry, murder, run through the streets in agony, if it means some soul will be moved, moved to actual life understanding of what the world is, and what it ought to be." Baraka wrote his poetry, drama, fiction and essays in a way that would shock and awaken audiences to the political concerns of black Americans, which says much about what he was doing with this essay. It also did not seem coincidental to him that Malcolm X and John F. Kennedy had been assassinated within a few years, since Baraka believed that every voice of change in America had been murdered, which led to the writing that would come out of the Black Arts Movement. In his essay, Baraka says: "The Revolutionary Theatre is shaped by the world, and moves to reshape the world, using as its force the natural force and perpetual vibrations of the mind in the world. We are history and desire, what we are, and what any experience can make us." With his thought-provoking ideals and references to a euro-centric society, he imposes the notion that black Americans should stray from a white aesthetic in order to find a black identity. In his essay, he says: "The popular white man's theatre like the popular white man's novel shows tired white lives, and the problems of eating white sugar, or else it herds bigcaboosed blondes onto huge stages in rhinestones and makes believe they are dancing or singing." This, having much to do with a white aesthetic, further proves what was popular in society and even what society had as an example of what everyone should aspire to be, like the "bigcaboosed blondes" that went "onto huge stages in rhinestones". Furthermore, these blondes made believe they were "dancing and singing" which Baraka seems to be implying that white people dancing is not what dancing is supposed to be at all. These allusions bring forth the question of where black Americans fit in the public eye. Baraka says: "We are preaching virtue and feeling, and a natural sense of the self in the world. All men live in the world, and the world ought to be a place for them to live." Baraka's essay challenges the idea that there is no space in politics or in society for black Americans to make a difference through different art forms that consist of, but are not limited to, poetry, song, dance, and art. Effects on societyAccording to the Academy of American Poets, "many writers--Native Americans, Latinos/as, gays and lesbians, and younger generations of African Americans have acknowledged their debt to the Black Arts Movement." The movement lasted for about a decade, through the mid-1960s and into the 1970s. This was a period of controversy and change in the world of literature. One major change came through in the portrayal of new ethnic voices in the United States. English-language literature, prior to the Black Arts Movement, was dominated by white authors. African Americans became a greater presence not only in the field of literature but in all areas of the arts. Theater groups, poetry performances, music and dance were central to the movement. Through different forms of media, African Americans were able to educate others about the expression of cultural differences and viewpoints. In particular, black poetry readings allowed African Americans to use vernacular dialogues. This was shown in the Harlem Writers Guild, which included black writers such as Maya Angelou and Rosa Guy. These performances were used to express political slogans and as a tool for organization. Theater performances also were used to convey community issues and organizations. The theaters, as well as cultural centers, were based throughout America and were used for community meetings, study groups and film screenings. Newspapers were a major tool in spreading the Black Arts Movement. In 1964, Black Dialogue was published, making it the first major Arts movement publication. The Black Arts Movement, although short, is essential to the history of the United States. It spurred political activism and use of speech throughout every African-American community. It allowed African Americans the chance to express their voices in the mass media as well as become involved in communities. It can be argued that "the Black Arts movement produced some of the most exciting poetry, drama, dance, music, visual art, and fiction of the post-World War II United States" and that many important "post-Black artists" such as Toni Morrison, Ntozake Shange, Alice Walker, and August Wilson were shaped by the movement. The Black Arts Movement also provided incentives for public funding of the arts and increased public support of various arts initiatives. Associated writers and thinkersDon EvansMari EvansSarah Webster FabioHoyt W. FullerNikki GiovanniRosa GuyHarlem Writers GuildDavid HendersonAudre LordeDudley RandallSonia SanchezRelated exhibitions and conferencesThe Arts Council of England's (ACE) Decibel initiative produced a summary in 2003 in association with The Guardian newspaper. An international exhibition, Back to Black — Art, Cinema and the Racial Imaginary, was held at the Whitechapel Gallery in 2005. A 2006 major conference Should Black Art Still Be Beautiful?, organized by OOM Gallery and Midwest, examined the development of contemporary Black cultural practice and its future in Britain. On April 1, 2006, New Art Gallery, Walsall, UK, held a conference in honour of the late Donald Rodney. Gallery 32 and Its Circle, a 2009 art exhibition hosted at Loyola Mount University's Laband Art Gallery, featured artwork displayed the eponymous gallery, which featured black artists in the Los Angeles area and played an integral role in the Black Arts movement in the area. A recently redeveloped African and Asian Visual Arts Archive is located at the University of East London (UEL).While African American art of the 18th and 19th centuries continued to reflect African artistic traditions, the earliest fine art made by professional African American artists was in an academic Western style. Among the leading black sculptors of the 19th century were Eugene Warbourg and Mary Edmonia Lewis, the first professional African American sculptor. The most distinguished African American artist who worked in the 19th century was Henry Ossawa Tanner, who painted African American genre subjects and reflects the realist tradition. In the early 20th century, the most important aesthetic movement in African American art was the Harlem Renaissance or the ‘New Negro’ movement of the 1920s. The Harlem district of New York became the ‘cultural capital of black America’. Practicing in New York, Stuart Davis was heavily influenced by African American culture and jazz music, though he was not an African American. Aaron Douglas consciously incorporated African imagery into his work. The most important African American photographer of that period was James Van Der Zee, who photographed people and scenes in Harlem for more than 50 years. During and immediately after World War II there arose to prominence a new school of African American artists, many of whom were the so-called ‘children of the Harlem Renaissance’. During the 1950s African American art was dominated by Abstract Expressionism and realism; their significant practitioners included Charles Alston, Romare Bearden and James Wells. In the 1960s and 1970s new classifications appeared in African American art based on continuing developments in abstract art and the rise of the figurative style known as Black Expressionism. The most prominent African American abstract painter was Sam Gilliam, based in Washington, DC. Martin Puryear emerged during the 1980s as a leading African American abstract sculptor. In the 1980s African American art was the subject of a number of pioneering exhibitions, such as Black Art—Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in African American Art (Dallas Museum of Art, 1989), that brought together the works of African, Caribbean and African American academic and folk artists. Today’s artists, such as Kara Walker and Fred Wilson, continue to grapple with the complex issues of African American history and identity in contemporary visual art.