Apameia in Phrygia Ancient Greek Coin Artemis Diana Cult Satyr Marsyas i49527

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Seller: highrating_lowprice (20,382) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 321721249217 Item: i49527 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Greek city of Apameia in Phrygia Bronze 16mm (3.10 grams) Struck 133-48 B.C. Reference: Sear 5122 var. (different magistrate); B.M.C. 25.85,91-3 var. (different magistrate) Turreted bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver at shoulder. Naked Marsyas advancing right, playing double flute, Maeander pattern beneath; to right, AΠΑΜΕ; to left, magistrate's name. Founded by Antiochus I, and named after the king's mother, Apama, Apameia was situated near the sources of the great river Maeander and was an important road junction for routes in all directions. It grew to become one of the great cities of Asia Minor, and participated in the silver cistophoric coinage under the later Pergamene kings and, after 133 B.C., under the Romans. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. Artemis was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. Some scholars believe that the name, and indeed the goddess herself, was originally pre-Greek. Homer refers to her as Artemis Agrotera, Potnia Theron < Artemis of the wildland, Mistress of Animals". In the classical period of Greek mythology , Artemis (Greek: (nominative) Ἄρτεμις, (genitive) Ἀρτέμιδος) was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto , and the twin sister of Apollo . She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt, wild animals, wilderness, childbirth, virginity and young girls, bringing and relieving disease in women; she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows. The deer and the cypress were sacred to her. In later Hellenistic times, she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth. Artemis later became identified with Selene , a Titaness who was a Greek moon goddess, sometimes depicted with a crescent moon above her head. She was also identified with the Roman goddess Diana , with the Etruscan goddess Artume , and with the Greek or Carian goddess Hecate . In Greek mythology , a satyr is one of a troop of ithyphallic male companions of Dionysus with horse -like (equine) features, including a horse-tail, horse-like ears, and sometimes a horse-like phallus. Early artistic representations sometimes include horse-like legs, but in 6th-century BC black-figure pottery human legs are the most common. In Roman Mythology there is a concept similar to satyrs with goat-like features, the faun being half-man, half-goat. Greek-speaking Romans often used the Greek term saturos when referring to the Latin faunus, and eventually syncretized the two. The female "Satyresses" were a late invention of poets — that roamed the woods and mountains. In myths they are often associated with pipe-playing. The satyr's chief was Silenus , a minor deity associated (like Hermes and Priapus ) with fertility. These characters can be found in the only complete remaining satyr play , Cyclops, by Euripides , and the fragments of Sophocles ' Ichneutae (Tracking Satyrs). The satyr play was a short, lighthearted tailpiece performed after each trilogy of tragedies in Athenian festivals honoring Dionysus . There is not enough evidence to determine whether the satyr play regularly drew on the same myths as those dramatized in the tragedies that preceded. The groundbreaking tragic playwright Aeschylus is said to have been especially loved for his satyr plays, but none of them have survived. Attic painted vases depict mature satyrs as being strongly built with flat noses, large pointed ears, long curly hair, and full beards , with wreaths of vine or ivy circling their balding heads. Satyrs often carry the thyrsus : the rod of Dionysus tipped with a pine cone. Satyrs acquired their goat -like aspect through later Roman conflation with Faunus , a carefree Italic nature spirit of similar characteristics and identified with the Greek god Pan . Hence satyrs are most commonly described in Latin literature as having the upper half of a man and the lower half of a goat, with a goat's tail in place of the Greek tradition of horse-tailed satyrs; therefore, satyrs became nearly identical with fauns . Mature satyrs are often depicted in Roman art with goat's horns , while juveniles are often shown with bony nubs on their foreheads. About Satyrs, Praxiteles gives a new interpretation on the subject of free and carefree life. Instead of an elf with pointed ears and repulsive goat hooves, we face a child of nature, pure, but tame and fearless and brutal instincts necessary to enable it to defend itself against threats, and survives even without the help of modern civilization. Above all, the Satyr with flute has a small companion for him, shows the deep connection with nature, the soft whistle of the wind, the sound of gurgling water of the crystal spring, the birds singing, or perhaps the singing a melody of a human soul that feeds higher feelings. As Dionysiac creatures they are lovers of wine and women, and they are ready for every physical pleasure. They roam to the music of pipes (auloi), cymbals , castanets , and bagpipes , and they love to chase maenads or bacchants (with whom they are obsessed, and whom they often pursue), or in later art, dance with the nymphs , and have a special form of dance called sikinnis . Because of their love of wine, they are often represented holding wine cups, and they appear often in the decorations on wine cups. In Greek mythology , the satyr Marsyas is a central figure in two stories involving music: in one, he picked up the double flute (aulos) that had been abandoned by Athena and played it; in the other, he challenged Apollo to a contest of music and lost his hide and life. In Antiquity , literary sources often emphasise the hubris of Marsyas and the justice of his punishment. In one strand of modern comparative mythography , the domination of Marsyas by Apollo is regarded as an example of myth that recapitulates a supposed supplanting by the Olympian pantheon of an earlier "Pelasgian" religion of chthonic heroic ancestors and nature spirits . Marsyas was a devoté of the ancient Mother Goddess Rhea /Cybele, and his episodes are situated by the mythographers in Celaenae (or Kelainai) in Phrygia (today, the town of Dinar in Turkey ), at the main source of the Meander (the river Menderes ). When a genealogy was applied to him, Marsyas was the son of Olympus (son of Heracles and Euboea , daughter of Thespius ), or of Oeagrus , or of Hyagnis. Olympus was, alternatively, said to be Marsyas' son or pupil. Among the Romans, Marsyas was cast as the inventor of augury and a proponent of free speech (the philosophical concept παρρησία, "parrhesia") and "speaking truth to power." The earliest known representation of Marsyas at Rome stood for at least 300 years in the Roman Forum near or in the comitium , the space for political activity. He was depicted as a silen , carrying a wineskin on his left shoulder and raising his right arm. The statue was regarded as an indicium libertatis, a symbol of liberty, and was associated with demonstrations of the plebs , or common people. It often served as a sort of kiosk upon which invective verse was posted. Marsyas served as a minister for Dionysus or Bacchus, who was identified by the Romans with their Father Liber , one of three deities in the Aventine Triad , along with Ceres and Libera (identified with Persephone ). These gods were regarded as concerning themselves specially with the welfare of the plebs. The freedom that the ecstasies of Dionysian worship represented took on a political meaning in Rome as the libertas that distinguished the free from the enslaved. The Liberalia , celebrated March 17 in honor of Liber, was a time of speaking freely, as the poet and playwright Gnaeus Naevius declared: "At the Liberalia games we enjoy free speech." Naevius, however, was arrested for his invectives against the powerful. Marsyas was sometimes considered a king and contemporary of Faunus , portrayed by Vergil as a native Italian ruler at the time of Aeneas . Servius , in his commentary on the Aeneid , says that Marsyas sent Faunus envoys who showed techniques of augury to the Italians. The plebeian gens of the Marcii claimed that they were descended from Marsyas. Gaius Marcius Rutilus , who rose to power from the plebs , is credited with having dedicated the statue that stood in the Roman forum, most likely in 294 BC, when he became the first plebeian censor and added the cognomen Censorinus to the family name . Marcius Rutilus was also among the first plebeian augurs, co-opted into their college in 300, and so the mythical teacher of augury was an apt figure to represent him. In 213 BC, two years after suffering one of the worst military defeats in its history at the Battle of Cannae , Rome was in the grip of a reactionary fear that led to excessive religiosity . The senate , alarmed that its authority was being undermined by "prophets and sacrificers" in the forum, began a program of suppression. Among the literature confiscated was an "authentic" prophecy calling for the institution of games in the Greek manner for Apollo , which the senate and elected officials would control. The prophecy was attributed to Gnaeus Marcius, reputed to be a descendant of Marsyas. The games were duly carried out, but the Romans failed to bring the continuing wars with the Carthaginians to a victorious conclusion until they heeded a second prophecy and imported the worship of the Phrygian Great Mother , whose song Marsyas was said to have composed; the song had further relevance in that it was also credited by the Phrygians with protecting them from invaders. The power relations between Marsyas and Apollo reflected the continuing Struggle of the Orders between the elite and the common people, expressed in political terms by optimates and populares . The arrest of Naevius for exercising free speech also took place during this period. Another descendant of Marcius Rutilus, L. Marcius Censorinus , issued coins depicting the statue of Marsyas, at a time when the augural college was the subject of political controversy during the Sullan civil wars of the 80s BC [32] On the coin, Marsyas wears a Phrygian cap or pilleus, an emblem of liberty. This Marcius Censorinus was killed by Sulla and his head displayed outside Praeneste . Sulla's legislative program attempted to curtail power invested in the people, particularly restricting the powers of the plebeian tribunes , and to restore the dominance of the senate and the privileges of patricians . Marsyas was also claimed as the eponym of the Marsi , one of the ancient peoples of Italy. The Social War of 91–88 BC , in which the Italian peoples fought to advance their status as citizens under Roman rule, is sometimes called the Marsic War from the leadership of the Marsi. The Roman coloniae Paestum and Alba Fucens , along with other Italian cities, set up their own statues of Marsyas as assertions of their political status. During the Principate , Marsyas became a subversive symbol in opposition to Augustus , whose propaganda systematically associated him with the silens’ torturer Apollo. Augustus's daughter Julia held nocturnal assemblies at the statue, and crowned it to defy her father. The poet Ovid, who was ultimately exiled by Augustus, twice tells the story of Marsyas's flaying by Apollo, in his epic Metamorphoses and in the Fasti , the calendrical poem left unfinished at his death. Although the immediate cause of Ovid's exile remains one of literary history's great mysteries, Ovid himself says that a "poem and transgression" were contributing factors; his poetry tests the boundaries of permissible free speech during Rome's transition from republic to imperial monarchy . Pliny indicates that in the 1st century AD, the painting Marsyas religatus ("Marsyas Bound"), by Zeuxis of Heraclea , could be viewed at the Temple of Concordia in Rome. The goddess Concordia , like the Greek Harmonia , was a personification of both musical harmony as it was understood in antiquity , and of social order , as expressed by Cicero 's phrase concordia ordinum. The apparent incongruity of exhibiting the tortured silen in a temple devoted to harmony has been interpreted in modern scholarship as a warning against criticizing authority. Apamea or Apameia – previously, Kibotos , hê Kibôtos or Cibotus – was an ancient city in Phrygia , Anatolia , founded by Antiochus I Soter (from whose mother, Apama, it received its name), near, but on lower ground than, Celaenae (Kelainai). // Geography It overlooks the Ghab valley and the site is now partly occupied by the city of Dinar (sometimes locally known also as Geyikler, "the gazelles," perhaps from a tradition of the Persian hunting-park, seen by Xenophon at Celaenae), which by 1911 was connected with İzmir by railway; there are considerable remains, including a theater and a great number of important Graeco-Roman inscriptions. Strabo (p. 577) says, that the town lies at the source (ekbolais) of the Marsyas , and the river flows through the middle of the city, having its origin in the city, and being carried down to the suburbs with a violent and precipitous current it joins the Maeander after the latter is joined by the Orgas (called the Catarrhactes by Herodotus , vii. 26). History The original inhabitants were residents of Celaenae who were compelled by Antiochus I Soter to move farther down the river, where they founded the city of Apamea (Strabo, xii. 577). Antiochus the Great transplanted many Jews there. (Josephus, Ant. xii. 3, § 4). It became a seat of Seleucid power, and a center of Graeco-Roman and Graeco-Hebrew civilization and commerce. There Antiochus the Great collected the army with which he met the Romans at Magnesia , and two years later the Treaty of Apamea between Rome and the Seleucid realm was signed there. After Antiochus' departure for the East, Apamea lapsed to the Pergamene kingdom and thence to Rome in 133 BCE, but it was resold to Mithridates V of Pontus , who held it till 120 BCE. After the Mithridatic Wars it became and remained a great center for trade, largely carried on by resident Italians and by Jews. By order of Flaccus, a large amount of Jewish money – nearly 45 kilograms of gold – intended for the Temple in Jerusalem was confiscated in Apamea in the year 62 BCE (Cicero, Pro Flacco, ch. xxviii.). In 84 BCE Sulla made it the seat of a conventus , and it long claimed primacy among Phrygian cities. When Strabo wrote, Apamea was a place of great trade in the Roman province of Asia , next in importance to Ephesus . Its commerce was owing to its position on the great road to Cappadocia , and it was also the center of other roads. When Cicero was proconsul of Cilicia , 51 BCE, Apamea was within his jurisdiction (ad Fam. xiii. 67), but the dioecesis, or conventus, of Apamea was afterwards attached to Asia. Pliny the Elder enumerates six towns which belonged to the conventus of Apamea, and he observes that there were nine others of little note. The city minted its own coins in antiquity. The name Cibotus appears on some coins of Apamea, and it has been conjectured that it was so called from the wealth that was collected in this great emporium; for kibôtos in Greek is a chest or coffer. Pliny (v. 29) says that it was first Celaenae, then Cibotus, and then Apamea; which cannot be quite correct, because Celaenae was a different place from Apamea, though near it. But there may have been a place on the site of Apamea, which was called Cibotus. The country about Apamea has been shaken by earthquakes, one of which is recorded as having happened in the time of Claudius (Tacit. Ann. xii. 58); and on this occasion the payment of taxes to the Romans was remitted for five years. Nicolaus of Damascus (Athen. p. 332) records a violent earthquake at Apamea at a previous date, during the Mithridatic Wars : lakes appeared where none were before, and rivers and springs; and many which existed before disappeared. Strabo (p. 579) speaks of this great catastrophe, and of other convulsions at an earlier period. Apamea continued to be a prosperous town under the Roman Empire . Its decline dates from the local disorganization of the empire in the 3rd century ; and though a bishopric , it was not an important military or commercial center in Byzantine times. The Turks took it first in 1070, and from the 13th century onwards it was always in Muslim hands. For a long period it was one of the greatest cities of Asia Minor , commanding the Maeander road; but when the trade routes were diverted to Constantinople it rapidly declined, and its ruin was completed by an earthquake. Apamea in Jewish tradition Apamea is mentioned in the Talmud . The passages relating to witchcraft in Apamea (Ber. 62a) and to a dream in Apamea (Niddah, 30b) probably refer to the Apamea in Phrygia which was looked upon as a fabulously distant habitation. Similarly the much-discussed passage, Yeb. 115b, which treats of the journey of the exilarch Isaac, should also be interpreted to mean a journey from Corduene to Apamea in Phrygia; for if Apamea in Mesene were meant (Brüll's Jahrb. x. 145) it is quite impossible that the Babylonians should have had any difficulty in identifying the body of such a distinguished personage. Christian Apamea Apamea is enumerated by Hierocles among the episcopal cities of Pisidia , to which division it had been transferred. The bishops of Apamea sat in the Council of Nicaea (325). Arundell contends that Apamea, at an early period in the history of Christianity , had a church, and he confirms this opinion by the fact of there being the ruins of a Christian church there. It is probable enough that Christianity was early established here, and even that Saint Paul visited the place, for he went throughout Phrygia. But the mere circumstance of the remains of a church at Apamea proves nothing as to the time when Christianity was established there. In antiquity, Phrygia ( Greek : Φρυγία, Ancient Greek: [pʰryɡía]) Turkish : Frigya) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia , in what is now modern-day Turkey , centered around the Sakarya River . The Phrygians are most famous for their legendary kings of the heroic age of Greek mythology : Gordias whose Gordian Knot would later be untied by Alexander the Great , Midas who turned whatever he touched to gold, and Mygdon who warred with the Amazons . According to Homer 's Iliad , the Phrygians were close allies of the Trojans and participants in the Trojan War against the Achaeans . Phrygian power reached its peak in the late 8th century BC under another, historical King Midas , who dominated most of western and central Anatolia and rivaled Assyria and Urartu for power in eastern Anatolia. This later Midas was however also the last independent king of Phrygia before its capital Gordium was sacked by Cimmerians around 695 BC. Phrygia then became subject to Lydia , and then successively to Persia , Alexander and his Hellenistic successors, Pergamon , Rome and Byzantium . Phrygians were gradually assimilated into other cultures by the early medieval era, and the name Phrygia passed out of usage as a territorial designation after the Turkish conquest of Anatolia. Origins Inscriptions found at Gordium make clear that Phrygians spoke an Indo-European language with at least some vocabulary similar to Greek , and clearly not belonging to the family of Anatolian languages spoken by most of Phrygia's neighbors. According to one of the so-called Homeric Hymns , the Phrygian language was not mutually intelligible with Trojan. According to ancient tradition among Greek historians, the Phrygians anciently migrated to Anatolia from the Balkans . Herodotus says the Phrygians were called Bryges when they lived in Europe. He and other Greek writers also recorded legends about King Midas that associated him with or put his origin in Macedonia ; Herodotus for example says a wild rose garden in Macedonia was named after Midas . The Phrygians were also connected by some classical writers to the Mygdones , the name of two groups of people, one of which lived in northern Macedonia and another in Mysia . Likewise the Phrygians have been identified with the Bebryces , a people said to have warred with Mysia before the Trojan War and who had a king named Mygdon at roughly the same time as the Phrygians were said to have had a king named Mygdon. The classical historian Strabo groups Phrygians, Mygdones , Mysians , Bebryces and Bithynians together as peoples that migrated to Anatolia from the Balkans . This image of Phrygians as part of a related group of northwest Anatolian cultures seems the most likely explanation for the confusion over whether Phrygians , Bebryces and Anatolian Mygdones were or were not the same people. The apparent similarity of the Phrygian language to Greek and its dissimilarity with the Anatolian languages spoken by most of their neighbors is also taken as support for a European origin of the Phrygians. However, most scholars reject such a recent Phrygian migration and accept as factual the Iliad 's account that the Phrygians were established on the Sakarya River before the Trojan War , and thus must have been there during the later stages of the Hittite Empire , and likely earlier. These scholars seek instead to trace the Phrygians' origins among the many nations of western Anatolia who were subject to the Hittites . This interpretation also gets support from Greek legends about the founding of Phrygia's main city Gordium by Gordias and of Ancyra by Midas , which suggest that Gordium and Ancyra were believed to be date from the distant past before the Trojan War . Some scholars dismiss the claim of a Phrygian migration as a mere legend, likely arising from the coincidental similarity of their name to the Bryges . No one has conclusively identified which of the many subjects of the Hittites might have represented early Phrygians. According to a classical tradition, popularized by the Jewish-Roman historian Flavius Josephus , the Phrygians can be equated with the country called Togarmah by the ancient Hebrews, which has in turn been identified as the Tegarama of Hittite texts and Til-Garimmu of Assyrian records. Josephus called Togarmah "the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians". However, the Greek source cited by Josephus is unknown, and it is unclear if there was any basis for the identification other than name similarity. Scholars of the Hittites believe Tegarama was in eastern Anatolia - some locate it at Gurun - far to the east of Phrygia. Some scholars have identified Phrygia with the Assuwa league, and noted that the Iliad mentions a Phrygian (Queen Hecuba 's brother) named Asios . Another possible early name of Phrygia could be Hapalla, the name of the easternmost province that emerged from the splintering of the Bronze Age western Anatolian empire Arzawa . However, scholars are unsure if Hapalla corresponds to Phrygia or to Pisidia , further south. A further claim made by Herodotus is that Phrygian colonists founded the Armenian nation. This is likely a reference to a third group of people called Mygdones living in northern Mesopotamia who were apparently allied to the Armenians; Xenophon describes them in his Anabasis in a joint army with the Armenians . However, little is known about these eastern Mygdones and no evidence of Phrygian language in that region has been found. History Around the time of the Trojan war The Iliad describes the homeland of the Phrygians on the Sangarius River , which would remain the center of Phrygia throughout its history. According to the Iliad , Phrygia was famous for its wine and had "brave and expert" horsemen. According to the Iliad , before the Trojan War , a young king Priam of Troy had taken an army to Phrygia to support it in a war against the Amazons . Homer calls the Phrygians "the people of Otreus and godlike Mygdon .[12] According to Euripides , Quintus Smyrnaeus and others, this Mygdon's son, Coroebus , fought and died in the Trojan War ; he had sued for the hand of the Trojan princess Cassandra in marriage. According to the Bibliotheca , the Greek hero Heracles slew a king Mygdon of the Bebryces in a battle in northwest Anatolia that if historical would have taken place about a generation before the Trojan War . According to the story, while traveling from Minoa to the Amazons , Heracles stopped in Mysia and supported the Mysians in a battle with the Bebryces . According to most interpretations, Bebryces is an alternate name for Phrygians and this Mygdon is the same person mentioned in the Iliad . King Priam married a Phrygian princess, Hecuba , and maintained a close alliance with the Phrygians, who repaid him by fighting "ardently" in the Trojan War against the Greeks. There are indications in the Iliad that the heart of the Phrygian country was further north and downriver than it would be in later history. The Phrygian contingent arrives to aid Troy coming from Lake Ascania in northwest Anatolia, and is led by Phorcys and Ascanius , an apparent eponym. The Iliad calls the Phrygians "the people of Otreus and godlike Mygdon": the name Otreus could be an eponym for Otrea , a place on the Ascanian Lake in the vicinity of the later Nicaea , and the name Mygdon is clearly an eponym for the Mygdones , a people said by Strabo to live in northwest Asia Minor, and who appear to have sometimes been considered distinct from the Phrygians .[15] However, Pausanias believed that Mygdon's tomb was located at Stectorium in the southern Phrygian highlands, near modern Sandikli . In one of the so-called Homeric Hymns , Phrygia is said to be "rich in fortresses" and ruled by "famous Otreus ". Peak and destruction of the Phrygian kingdom Detail from a reconstruction of a Phrygian building at Pararli, Turkey, 7th–6th Centuries BC; Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara . A griffin, sphinx and two centaurs are shown. During the 8th century BC the Phrygian kingdom with its capital at Gordium in the upper Sakarya River valley expanded into an empire dominating most of central and western Anatolia and encroaching upon the larger Assyrian Empire to its southeast and the kingdom of Urartu to the northeast. According to the classical historians Strabo ,[18] Eusebius and Julius Africanus , the king of Phrygia during this time was another Midas . This historical Midas is believed to be the same person named as Mita in Assyrian texts from the period and identified as king of the Mushki . Scholars figure that Assyrians called Phrygians "Mushki" because the Phrygians and Mushki , an eastern Anatolian people, were at that time campaigning in a joint army.[19] This Midas is thought to have reigned Phrygia at the peak of its power from about 720 BC to about 695 BC (according to Eusebius ) or 676 BC (according to Julius Africanus ). An Assyrian inscription mentioning "Mita", dated to 709 BC, during the reign of Sargon of Assyria , suggests Phrygia and Assyria had struck a truce by that time. This Midas appears to have had good relations and close trade ties with the Greeks, and reputedly married an Aeolian Greek princess. A system of writing in the Phrygian language developed and flourished in Gordium during this period, using a Phoenician-derived alphabet similar to the Greek one. A distinctive Phrygian pottery called Polished Ware appears during this period. However, the Phrygian Kingdom was then overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders, and Gordium was sacked and destroyed. According to Strabo and others, Midas committed suicide by drinking bulls' blood. Tomb at Midas City (6th century BC), near Eskişehir A series of digs have opened Gordium as one of Turkey's most revealing archeological sites. Excavations confirm a violent destruction of Gordium around 675 BC. A tomb from the period, popularly identified as the "Tomb of Midas," revealed a wooden structure deeply buried under a vast tumulus, containing grave goods, a coffin, furniture, and food offerings (Archaeological Museum, Ankara). As a Lydian province After their destruction of Gordium , the Cimmerians remained in western Anatolia and warred with Lydia , which eventually expelled them by around 620 BC, and then expanded to incorporate Phrygia, which became the Lydian empire's eastern frontier. The Gordium site reveals a considerable building program during the 6th century BC, under the domination of Lydian kings including the proverbially rich King Croesus . Meanwhile, Phrygia's former eastern subjects fell to Assyria and later to the Medes . There may be an echo of strife with Lydia and perhaps a veiled reference to royal hostages, in the legend of the twice-unlucky Phrygian prince Adrastus , who accidentally killed his brother and exiled himself to Lydia , where King Croesus welcomed him. Once again, Adrastus accidentally killed Croesus ' son and then committed suicide. As a Persian province Some time in the 540s BC, Phrygia passed to the Persian Empire when Cyrus conquered Lydia . After Darius became Persian Emperor in 521 BC, he remade the ancient trade route into the Persian "Royal Road" and instituted administrative reforms that included setting up satrapies. The Phrygian satrapy lay west of the Halys River (now Kızıl River ) and east of Mysia and Lydia . Its capital was established at Dascylium , modern Ergili . Under Alexander and his successors Alexander the Great passed through Gordium in 333 BC, famously severing the Gordian Knot in the temple of Sabazios ("Zeus"). According to a legend, possibly promulgated by Alexander's publicists, whoever untied the knot would be master of Asia. With Gordium sited on the Persian Royal Road that led through the heart of Anatolia, the prophecy had some geographical plausibility. With Alexander, Phrygia became part of the wider Hellenistic world. In the chaotic period after Alexander's death, northern Phrygia was overrun by Celts , eventually to become the province of Galatia . The former capital of Gordium was captured and destroyed by the Gauls soon afterwards and disappeared from history. In 188 BC, the southern remnant of Phrygia came under the control of the Attalids of Pergamon . However, Phrygian language survived, now written in the Greek alphabet . Under Rome and Byzantium The two Phrygian provinces within the Diocese of Asia, c. 400 AD In 133 BC, the remnants of Phrygia passed to Rome . For purposes of provincial administration the Romans maintained a divided Phrygia, attaching the northeastern part to the province of Galatia and the western portion to the province of Asia . During the reforms of Diocletian , Phrygia was divided anew into two provinces: "Phrygia I" or Phrygia Salutaris, and Phrygia II or Pacatiana, both under the Diocese of Asia . Salutaris with Synnada as its capital comprised the eastern portion of the region and Pacatiana with Laodicea on the Lycus as capital the western portion. The provinces survived up to the end of the 7th century, when they were replaced by the Theme system . In the Byzantine period, most of Phrygia belonged to the Anatolic theme . It was overrun by the Turks in the aftermath of the Battle of Manzikert (1071). The Byzantines were finally evicted from there in the 13th century, but the name of Phrygia remained in use until the collapse of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. The last mentions of the Phrygian language date to the 5th century and it was likely extinct by the 7th century. Culture The Phrygian goddess Cybele with her attributes It was the "Great Mother", Cybele , as the Greeks and Romans knew her, who was originally worshiped in the mountains of Phrygia, where she was known as "Mountain Mother". In her typical Phrygian form, she wears a long belted dress, a polos (a high cylindrical headdress), and a veil covering the whole body. The later version of Cybele was established by a pupil of Phidias , the sculptor Agoracritus , and became the image most widely adopted by Cybele's expanding following, both in the Aegean world and at Rome . It shows her humanized though still enthroned, her hand resting on an attendant lion and the other holding the tympanon , a circular frame drum, similar to a tambourine . The Phrygians also venerated Sabazios , the sky and father-god depicted on horseback. Although the Greeks associated Sabazios with Zeus , representations of him, even at Roman times, show him as a horseman god. His conflicts with the indigenous Mother Goddess, whose creature was the Lunar Bull , may be surmised in the way that Sabazios' horse places a hoof on the head of a bull, in a Roman relief at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston . Phrygian costumes Phrygia developed an advanced Bronze Age culture. The earliest traditions of Greek music derived from Phrygia, transmitted through the Greek colonies in Anatolia, and included the Phrygian mode , which was considered to be the warlike mode in ancient Greek music. Phrygian Midas , the king of the "golden touch", was tutored in music by Orpheus himself, according to the myth. Another musical invention that came from Phrygia was the aulos , a reed instrument with two pipes. Marsyas , the satyr who first formed the instrument using the hollowed antler of a stag , was a Phrygian follower of Cybele. He unwisely competed in music with the Olympian Apollo and inevitably lost, whereupon Apollo flayed Marsyas alive and provocatively hung his skin on Cybele's own sacred tree, a pine . Phrygia retained a separate cultural identity. Classical Greek iconography identifies the Trojan Paris as non-Greek by his Phrygian cap, which was worn by Mithras and survived into modern imagery as the "Liberty cap" of the American and French revolutionaries . The Phrygians spoke an Indo-European language . (See Phrygian language .) Although the Phrygians adopted the alphabet originated by the Phoenicians , only a few dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language have been found, primarily funereal, and so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia is second-hand information from Greek sources. Mythic past The name of the earliest known mythical king was Nannacus (aka Annacus). This king resided at Iconium, the most eastern city of the kingdom of Phrygia at that time; and after his death, at the age of 300 years, a great flood overwhelmed the country, as had been foretold by an ancient oracle. The next king mentioned in extant classical sources was called Manis or Masdes. According to Plutarch, because of his splendid exploits, great things were called "manic" in Phrygia. Thereafter the kingdom of Phrygia seems to have become fragmented among various kings. One of the kings was Tantalus who ruled over the north western region of Phrygia around Mount Sipylus . Tantalus was endlessly punished in Tartarus , because he allegedly killed his son Pelops and sacrificially offered him to the Olympians, a reference to the suppression of human sacrifice . Tantalus was also falsely accused of stealing from the lotteries he had invented. In the mythic age before the Trojan war , during a time of an interregnum , Gordius (or Gordias), a Phrygian farmer, became king, fulfilling an oracular prophecy . The kingless Phrygians had turned for guidance to the oracle of Sabazios ("Zeus" to the Greeks) at Telmissus , in the part of Phrygia that later became part of Galatia . They had been instructed by the oracle to acclaim as their king the first man who rode up to the god's temple in a cart. That man was Gordias (Gordios, Gordius), a farmer, who dedicated the ox-cart in question, tied to its shaft with the "Gordian Knot". Gordias refounded a capital at Gordium in west central Anatolia, situated on the old trackway through the heart of Anatolia that became Darius 's Persian "Royal Road" from Pessinus to Ancyra , and not far from the River Sangarius . The Phrygians are associated in Greek mythology with the Dactyls , minor gods credited with the invention of iron smelting, who in most versions of the legend lived at Mount Ida in Phrygia. Gordias 's son (adopted in some versions) was Midas . A large body of myths and legends surround this first king Midas. connecting him with a mythological tale concerning Attis .[24] This shadowy figure resided at Pessinus and attempted to marry his daughter to the young Attis in spite of the opposition of his lover Agdestis and his mother, the goddess Cybele . When Agdestis and/or Cybele appear and cast madness upon the members of the wedding feast. Midas is said to have died in the ensuing chaos. The famous king Midas is said to have associated himself with Silenus and other satyrs and with Dionysus , who granted him the famous "golden touch". Man in Phrygian costume, Hellenistic period (3rd–1st century BC), Cyprus In one version of his story, Midas travels from Thrace accompanied by a band of his people to Asia Minor to wash away the taint of his unwelcome "golden touch" in the river Pactolus . Leaving the gold in the river's sands, Midas found himself in Phrygia, where he was adopted by the childless king Gordias and taken under the protection of Cybele. Acting as the visible representative of Cybele, and under her authority, it would seem, a Phrygian king could designate his successor. The Phrygian Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Phrygia. According to Herodotus , Herodotus), the Egyptian pharaoh Psammetichus II had two children raised in isolation in order to find the original language. The children were reported to have uttered bekos which is Phrygian for "bread", so Psammetichus admitted that the Phrygians were a nation older than the Egyptians. Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped? Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped? After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. After you shipped the order, how long will the mail take? USPS First Class mail takes about 3-5 business days to arrive in the U.S., international shipping times cannot be estimated as they vary from country to country. I am not responsible for any USPS delivery delays, especially for an international package. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? 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