Ancient Indo-European Proto-Celtic Galatia Arrowpoint Brooch Pin Pendant 5500BC

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Seller: ancientgifts (4,777) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 382353733398 Handsome Ancient Indo-European Proto-Celtic Stone Arrowpoint (Brooch/Lapel Pin). CLASSIFICATION: Proto-Celtic Stone Artifact, Projectile Point. Mounted onto brooch or stick/lapel pin or as a pendant (with chain) upon request (no charge). Mounted onto plaque or shadow box upon request (additional shipping charges apply). ATTRIBUTION: Celtic Galatia (Turkey), 6th/5th Millennia B.C. SIZE/MEASUREMENTS: Length: 33 millimeters. Width: 14 millimeters. Weight: 2.43 grams. NOTES: Can also be mounted onto a plaque or into a shadow box (see below). CONDITION: Very good. Sound integrity, no cracks, breakage, entirely intact. Professionally conserved. DETAIL: This is very handsome Indo-European, proto-Celtic stone projectile point circa fifth or sixth millennia B.C. It was recovered in excellent condition, entirely intact, and remains quite sharp – lethally sharp. This artifact is the perfect size for a brooch or lapel ornament, or mounted onto a chain, a pendant. With the addition of a contemporary pin or bail, it can be worn and enjoyed – an authentic “souvenir” of the ancient Celtic world. We could safely attach a contemporary pin, either brooch or lapel style as shown below, left, or a jewelry bail (so as to mount a chain) without endangering the artifact. Though securely fastened, the pin (or bail) could be removed at a later date without injuring the artifact. It would be an absolutely smashing brooch, lapel ornament, or pendant, sure to arouse interest and envy! Upon request we would be happy to mount a pin or bail (including a chain) without charge – but you must request it. No request and you’ll receive the stone projectile point with no pin or bail attached. If you request (follow the links below), we could mount the artifact onto a framed display plaque (see it here), and it would make a great gift. The plaque narrates a brief outline of the history of the ancient Celts along with a couple of images of very beautiful artifacts. It would make a very handsome gift, for yourself or a friend, and would surely delight a son or daughter. It would not only make a very handsome display, but would be very educational as well. If you prefer, the artifact could be installed within a glass-front shadow box with or without printed history (see it here). HISTORY: The term “Neolithic” literally translates from the Greek to “New Stone Age”, and applies to that period of human development between the last period of the Stone Age (the Holocene, which started with the retreat of the Pleistocene glaciers) and the advent of metal technologies (the Chalcolithic Copper Age). It refers not to a specific or uniform period of time, but rather to a stage of cultural and technical development. In the Levant, Anatolia and Europe if begins with the advent of agricultural communities which used both domesticated and wild crops, as well as the domestication of animals. It also refers to permanent or semi-permanent communities, and the use of pottery. Neolithic cultures appeared first in Southwest Asia and the Levant around 10,000 B.C., and spread into Anatolia (present day Turkey), Syria, and Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) by about 8,000 B.C. The earliest known Neolithic community in the Levant is Jericho. Neolithic culture seems to have spread to Southeast Europe by about 7,000 B.C., and by 6,500 B.C. Neolithic cultures have been identified in Greece, Knossos (Crete), and in Thessaly. Soon thereafter Neolithic groups began to appear in the Balkans and South-Central Europe. By 5,500 B.C. a significant civilization had arisen known in the West as the Cucteni Culture – and in Russia as the Trypillian Culture. The competing names refer to the same culture as discovered in Romania at Cucuteni and in the Ukraine at Trypillia. Actually this proto Indo-European culture flourished in a geographical area which encompassed modern-day Romania, Moldova, Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine in the Dniestr-Dnjepr River Valley Region (the fourth “Great River Valley” culture alongside the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, and Ganges). To date over 2,000 sites identified with this culture have been discovered by archaeologists. The culture was urbanized, perhaps the first in Europe, and there was established agriculture and livestock husbandry (cattle, goats, sheep and pigs). The largest collection of artifacts of this Indo-European culture may be found at the Romanian Museum of History & Archaeology (at Piatra Neamt). From Southeast Europe the Neolithic spread to Central Europe by about 5,500 B.C., and to Northwestern Europe by about 4,500 B.C. The Neolithic cultures of Southeastern Europe (the Balkans, Italy, and the Aegean) show some continuity with groups in southwest Asia and Anatolia (Turkey), and these cultures are often referred to as “Old Europe”, and are considered to be Proto Indo-European cultures. It is believed that the first Indo-Europeans arrived across the plains north of the Black Sea, and eventually became the Pelasgians, Minoans, Leleges, Iberians, Sicans, Elymians, Etruscans, Hurrians, Urartians, Dravidians, Basques, and Uralic peoples. The coming of farming began a great shift in people's lives that eventually, during the Bronze Age, gave rise to large urban centers with populations numbered in the thousands. Instead of wandering from place to place seeking food, people increasingly dwelt in one place. Excavations in Central Europe have shown that early Neolithic cultures were building burial mounds, stone henges, and large arrangements of circular ditches and causewayed enclosures creating fortified settlements within which were sited their homes. These structures required considerable time and labor to construct, which suggests that some influential individuals were able to organize and direct human labor. These Neolithic peoples were skilled farmers, manufacturing a range of tools necessary for the tending, harvesting and processing of crops (such as sickle blades and grinding stones) and food production (pottery and bone implements). They were also skilled manufactures of a range of other types of stone tool and ornaments, including projectile points such as this specimen, beads, and statuettes. CELTIC HISTORY: The Celts were known in the ancient world (as they are today) for their stylized and fantastic plant and animal forms, as well as strong, geometrical, intertwining patterns. Celtic artwork decorated the surfaces of household and ritual vessels, weapons, and body ornaments (jewelry). The principal materials used in the surviving pieces of metalwork, most numerous of the remains, are gold and bronze. Though largely absorbed by the Roman Empire, Celtic art work, especially jewelry, was highly prized both in the Hellenic as well as the Roman world. The Celts were a group of peoples that occupied lands stretching from the British Isles to biblical Galatia in Asia Minor. Though the Celts left no written history of their own, though it is believed they originated in Southern Russia and by around 2,000 B.C. had reached the British Isles. The Celts were a loosely confederated group of tribes speaking Indo-European dialects. Armed with iron weapons and mounted on horses, they spread rapidly over Europe, fought the Macedonians, and penetrated into Asia Minor, where they raided Hellenistic centers. The Celts lived in semi-fortified villages, with a tribal organization that became increasingly hierarchical as wealth was acquired. Priests, nobles, artisans, and peasants were clearly distinguished, and the powers of the chief became kinglike. The Celts believed in a demonic universe and relied on the ministry of the priests known as druids. Much Western European folklore is derived from the Celts. History’s first written account of the Celts comes from northern Italy around 400 B.C. The nascent Roman Empire records an encounter between their neighbors, the Etruscans, and a previously unknown group of “barbarians”. These peoples had come down from the Alps and displaced the Etruscans from the fertile Po valley. The Romans sent envoys both to the besieged Etruscans as well as to (study and negotiate with) the Celts. The people who made up these various tribes were called “Galli” (Gaullic) by the Romans and “Keltoi” (Celtic) by the Greeks. The Romans eventually betrayed their diplomatic overtures, and the enraged Celts sacked Rome in 390 B.C. and ransomed the city for 1,000 pounds of gold – a humiliating defeat for the early Roman Empire. Traditional Western (Graeco-Roman) History emphasizes the evolution of Europe from classical Roman and Greek culture. In reality, Europe throughout most of recorded history was dominated by the powerful and culturally diverse Celts. Through the period of classical Greece to first few centuries A.D, most of Europe was under the shadow of the Celts whom still represented a fairly unified culture. From this great culture arose the Germans and many of the cultural forms, ideas, and values of medieval Europe. Not only did medieval Europe look back to the Celtic world as a golden age of Europe, they also lived with social structures and world views that ultimately owe their origin to the Celts as well as to the Romans and Greeks. The period of Celtic dominance in Europe began to unravel in the first centuries A.D., with the expansion of Rome, the migrations of the Germans, and later the influx of an Asian immigrant population, the Huns. The Celts were crushed between these forces. By the time Rome fell to Gothic invaders, the Celts had been pushed west and north, to England, Wales and Ireland and later to Scotland and the northern coast of France. The earliest Celts who were major players in the classical world were the Gauls, who controlled an area extending from France to Switzerland. It was the Gauls who sacked Rome and later invaded Greece; it was also the Gauls who migrated to Asia Minor to found their own, independent culture there, that of the Galatians. Through invasion and migration, they spread into Spain and later crossed the Alps into Italy and permanently settled the area south of the Alps which the Romans then named, Cisalpine Gaul. Two Celtic tribes, the Cimbri and the Teutones emigrated east and settled in territory in Germany. The center of Celtic expansion, however, was Gaul, which lay north of the Alps in the region now within the borders of France and Belgium and part of Spain. Aside from their art work, the Celts were also known for their method of warfare, as depicted in the epic opening scenes of the movie “Gladiator”. The Celtic method of warfare was to stand in front of the opposing army and scream and beat their spears and swords against their shields. They would then run headlong into the opposing army and screamed the entire way. This often had the effect of scaring the opposing soldiers who then broke into a run; and fighting a fleeing army has always been relatively easy work. Throughout history Celtic treasures have been inadvertently discovered by farmers in their fields, uncovered by erosion, and the target of unsystematic searches by treasure seekers. With the introduction of metal detectors and other modern technologies to Eastern Europe in the past three or four decades, an amazing number of new finds are seeing the light of day 2,000 years or more after they were originally hidden by their past owners. And with the liberalization of post-Soviet Eastern Europe, new markets have opened eager to share in these treasures of the ancient world. Domestic shipping (insured first class mail) is included in the price shown. Domestic shipping also includes USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site). Canadian shipments are an extra $14.99 for Insured Air Mail; International shipments are an extra $18.99 for Air Mail (and generally are NOT tracked; trackable shipments are EXTRA). ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per item so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. If you intend to pay via PayPal, please be aware that PayPal Protection Policies REQUIRE insured, trackable shipments, which is INCLUDED in our price. International tracking is at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world – but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the “business” of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly – even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE." Material: Ancient Stone, Item: Ancient Artifact, Artifact: Ancient Arrowpoint

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