Seller: aleksandr1962aleksandr (1,449) 99.6%, Location: Kharkov, default, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 162264631013 RARE Greek Olbia-Ольвия Ancient Greek Pottery Jugful Lecythi/ЛЕКИФ 3-5 th century. B.C. VERY RARE Area settlements Olbia Pontic Olbia (Ancient Greek: Ὀλβία Ποντική, Ukrainian: Ольвія) or simply Olbia was an ancient Greek city on the shore of the Southern Bug estuary (Hypanis or Ὕπανις,) in Ukraine, opposite Berezan Island. It was founded in the 7th century B.C. by colonists from Miletus. Its harbour was one of the main emporia on the Black Sea for the export of cereals, fish, and slaves to Greece, and for the import of Attic goods to Scythia.Olbia and other Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea in the 5th century B.C.The site of the Greek colony covers the area of fifty hectares and its fortifications form an isosceles triangle about a mile long and half a mile wide. The region was also the site of several villages (modern Victorovka and Dneprovskoe) which may have been settled by Greeks. As for the town itself, the lower town (now largerly submerged by the Bug river) was occupied chiefly by the dockyards and the houses of artisans. The upper town was a main residential quarter, composed of square blocks and centered on the agora. The town was ringed by a defensive stone wall with towers. The upper town was also the site of the first settlement on the site in the archaic period. There is evidence that the town itself was laid out over a grid plan from the 6th century - one of the first after the town of Smyrna. By the later period of settlement, the city also included an acropolis and, from the 6th century B.C., a religious sanctuary. In the early 5th century, a temple to Apollo Delphinios was also built on the site HistoryArchaic and Classical periodsThe Greek colony, highly important commercially and endured for a millennium. The first evidence of Greek settlement at the site comes from Berezan Island where pottery has been found dating from the late 7th century. It is possible that it had been the site of an earlier native settlement and may even have been a peninsular rather than an island in antiquity. It is not thought that the Berezan town survived until the 5th century B.C. when it was either absorbed into the growing Olbian settlement on the mainland. During the 5th century BCE, the colony was visited by Herodotus, who provides our best description of the city and its inhabitants from antiquity. It produced distinctive cast bronze money during the 5th century B.C. in both the form of circular tokens with Gorgon heads and unique coins in the shape of leaping dolphins. These are unusual considering the struck, round coins common in the Greek world. This form of money is said to have originated from sacrificial tokens used in the Temple of Apollo Delphinios. Martin Litchfield West speculates that early Greek religion, especially the Orphic Mysteries, was heavily influenced by Central Asian shamanistic practices. A significant amount of Orphic graffiti unearthed in Olbia seems to testify that the colony was one major point of contact. Hellenistic and Roman periodsAfter the town adopted a democratic constitution[when its relations with Miletus were regulated by a treaty, which allowed both states to coordinate their operations against Alexander the Great's general Zopyrion in the 4th century B.C. By the end of the 3rd century, the town declined economically[note and accepted the overlordship of King Skilurus of Scythia. It flourished under Mithridates Eupator but was sacked by the Getae under Burebista, a catastrophe which brought Olbia's economic prominence to an abrupt end. Having lost two-thirds of its settled area, Olbia was restored by the Romans, albeit on a small scale and probably with a largely barbarian population. Dio of Prusa visited the town and described it in his Borysthenic Discourse (the town was often called Borysthenes, after the river). The settlement, incorporated into the Roman province of Lower Moesia, was eventually abandoned in the 4th century C.E., when it was burnt at least twice in the course of the so-called Gothic (or Scythian) wars. Welcome!!! The item you see is the item you get! Payment PayPal is the preferred method of payment, for other means of paying please ask before bidding. Payment must be received within 7 days. Shipping Shipping for Europe & 20 $ for the USA and the rest of the world. Items will be shipped within 1 business day of receiving clear payment.. Returns I accept returns if for any reason you are not satisfied with the items. To get a full refund (minus the shipping costs), buyers must send the items back within 14 days of receiving them, in the same condition they were initially sent. Feel free to ask me any questions, and I will try to answer as soon as possible. You can also write to me if you need higher resolution pictures. Please see my other items!