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Seller: memorabilia111 ✉️ (808) 97.2%, Location: Ann Arbor, Michigan, US, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 176319963002 ANNETTE FUNICELLO signed X3 ENVELOPES UNITED NATIONS AUTOGRAPHS DISNEY ACTRESS. ANNETTE FUNICELLO THREE SIGNED FIRST DAY COVERS IN BLACK INK.  UNITED NATIONS WORLD POPULATION YEAR SERIES OF 1974 UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT FOR REFUGEES SERIES OF 1971 UNITED NATIONS COOPERATION YEAR 1965 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Annette Joanne Funicello (October 22, 1942 – April 8, 2013) was an American actress and singer. Funicello began her professional career as a child performer at the age of twelve. She was one of the most popular Mouseketeers on the original Mickey Mouse Club.[1] In her teenage years, she recorded under the name Annette, and had a successful career as a pop singer. Her most notable singles are "O Dio Mio", "First Name Initial", "Tall Paul", and "Pineapple Princess". During the mid-1960s, she established herself as a film actress, popularizing the successful "Beach Party" genre alongside co-star Frankie Avalon. In 1992, Funicello announced that she had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 1987. She died of complications from the disease on April 8, 2013. Early life Annette Joanne Funicello was born in Utica, New York, to Italian Americans Virginia Jeanne (née Albano) and Joseph Edward Funicello.[2] Her family moved to Southern California when she was four years old.[3] Career The Mickey Mouse Club Funicello as a Mouseketeer on The Mickey Mouse Club (1956) Funicello took dancing and music lessons when she was a child in order to overcome her shyness. In 1955, the 12-year-old was discovered by Walt Disney when she performed as the Swan Queen in Swan Lake at a dance recital at the Starlight Bowl in Burbank, California. Disney cast her as one of the original Mouseketeers. She was the last to be selected, and one of the few cast members to be personally selected by Walt Disney himself. In 1955, she signed a seven-year contract with Disney at $160 a week to rise to $500 a week if all options were exercised.[4][5] Funicello proved to be very popular, and by the end of the first season of The Mickey Mouse Club, she was receiving 6,000 letters a month, according to her Disney Legends biography – more than any other Mouseketeer.[6] She had a crush on fellow Mouseketeer Lonnie Burr. In 1958, at the finale of the show, she had to say goodbye to each of the members of its cast, and, in her own words, "I never cried so hard in my life".[7] In addition to appearing in many Mouseketeer sketches and dance routines, Funicello starred in several serials on The Mickey Mouse Club. These included Adventure in Dairyland, the second and third Spin and Marty serials – The Further Adventures of Spin and Marty (1956) and The New Adventures of Spin and Marty (1957) – and Walt Disney Presents: Annette (1958) (which co-starred Richard Deacon). Singing career In several scenes in the Annette serial, she performed the song that launched her singing career. The studio received so much mail about "How Will I Know My Love" (lyrics by Tom Adair, music by Frances Jeffords and William Walsh),[8] that Walt Disney issued it as a single, and gave Funicello (somewhat unwillingly) a recording contract.[9] A proposed live-action feature Rainbow Road to Oz was to have starred some of the Mouseketeers, including Darlene Gillespie as Dorothy and Funicello as Ozma. Preview segments from the film aired on September 11, 1957, on Disneyland's fourth anniversary show.[10] By then, MGM's The Wizard of Oz had been shown on CBS Television for the first time. Theories on why the film was abandoned include Disney's failure to develop a satisfactory script, and the positive reception of the MGM film's television screening. Disney ultimately replaced this film project with a new adaptation of Babes in Toyland (1961), which starred Funicello as Mary Contrary. Post-Mickey Mouse Club Funicello and Richard Tyler on The Danny Thomas Show (1959) After the Mickey Mouse Club, Funicello remained under contract with Disney for a time. She had a role on the Disney television series Zorro, playing Anita Cabrillo in a three-episode storyline about a teen-aged girl arriving in Los Angeles to visit a father who does not seem to exist. This role was reportedly a 16th birthday present from Walt Disney, and it was the first of two different characters she played opposite Guy Williams as Zorro.[11][7] She had a multiple-episode guest arc on Make Room for Daddy as an Italian exchange student.[12] Funicello made her feature film debut in the Disney-produced comedy The Shaggy Dog (1959) with Fred MacMurray and Tommy Kirk. The film was a success at the box-office.[13] Although uncomfortable being thought of as a singer, Funicello had a number of pop record hits in the late 1950s and early 1960s, mostly written by the Sherman Brothers and including: "Tall Paul", "First Name Initial", "O Dio Mio", "Train of Love" (written by Paul Anka) and "Pineapple Princess". They were released by Disney's Buena Vista label. She also recorded "It's Really Love" in 1959, a reworking of an earlier Paul Anka song called "Toot Sweet" (which was later reworked again into Johnny's Theme for The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Paul Anka was said to have a crush on her; though she was only a year younger, Walt Disney "protected" the underage actress from Anka's advances. Anka's song "Puppy Love", is said to have been inspired by his hopelessly unlikely romantic crush on Funicello.[citation needed] In an episode of the Disney anthology television series titled "Disneyland After Dark", Funicello can be seen singing live at Disneyland. Walt Disney was reportedly a fan of 1950s pop star Teresa Brewer and tried to pattern Funicello's singing on the same style. However, Funicello credits "the Annette sound" to her record producer, Tutti Camarata, who worked for Disney in that era. Camarata had her double-track her vocals, matching her first track as closely as possible on the second recording to achieve a fuller sound than her voice would otherwise produce.[citation needed] Early in her career, she appeared on the NBC interview program Here's Hollywood.[9] In December 1959, Funicello attempted to have her contract with Disney set aside, claiming that it was unequitable and that she was without an agent or legal counsel when she signed it. She was receiving $325 a week (About $3,000 in 2020 dollars). The court refused.[14] Return to Disney In 1961, Funicello returned to Zorro playing a different role. She starred in a big budget musical for Disney, Babes in Toyland (1961), alongside Tommy Sands and Kirk.[15] She also appeared in two television movies filmed in Europe for Disney alongside Kirk, both of which were released theatrically in some markets: The Horsemasters (1961), shot in England, and Escapade in Florence (1962), filmed in Italy.[16] It has been pointed out that although Disney had Funicello under contract a long time "he never seemed to have much faith her abilities to carry a film (she usually supported the boy)."[17] Beach party series Funicello and Frankie Avalon at the height of the Beach Party era Funicello moved on from Disney to become a teen idol, starring in a series of "Beach Party" movies with Frankie Avalon for American International Pictures. These started with Beach Party (1963), which was so successful American International Pictures signed Funicello to a seven-year contract and starred her in a series of beach party movies.[18] Funicello guest-starred on episodes of Wagon Train, Burke's Law and The Greatest Show on Earth, then starred in another two-part Disney telemovie with Kirk, The Misadventures of Merlin Jones (1964). This was released to cinemas in the US and became a surprise box office hit. Also popular were the follow ups to Beach Party, Muscle Beach Party (1964) and Bikini Beach (1964). When she was cast in her first beach movie, Walt Disney requested that she only wear modest bathing suits and keep her navel covered. However, she wore a pink two-piece in Beach Party, a white two-piece fishnet suit in the second film (Muscle Beach Party) and a blue and white bikini in the third (Bikini Beach). All three swimsuits bared her navel, particularly in Bikini Beach, where it is visible extensively during close up shots in a sequence early in the film when she meets Frankie Avalon's "Potato Bug" character outside his tent.[19] Funicello made Pajama Party (1964) for AIP with Kirk, not Avalon, though it was an unofficial Beach Party movie and Avalon made a cameo. Avalon was back as Funicello's co-star in Beach Blanket Bingo (1965), then she and Kirk did a sequel to Merlin Jones, The Monkey's Uncle (1965). The Monkey's Uncle featured Annette singing with The Beach Boys and was another huge hit.[20] Funicello made a cameo in two AIP comedies starring Avalon, Ski Party (1965) and Dr Goldfoot and the Bikini Machine (1965), then she did How to Stuff a Wild Bikini (1965) with Dwayne Hickman. Box office receipts for the series were in decline, and neither Avalon nor Funicello appeared in the final installment, The Ghost in the Invisible Bikini (1966). Stock-car racing films AIP tried a new formula with stock car racing films, starting with Fireball 500 (1966) which starred Funicello, Avalon and Fabian Forte. The movie was popular enough for them to try another stock car movie, Thunder Alley (1967) with Funicello and Fabian. It would be her last lead in a feature film for two decades. Funicello guest starred on Hondo and had a short role in Head (1968), opposite The Monkees. 1970s and 1980s During the 1970s, Funicello focused on raising her family. However she still occasionally acted, making guest appearances on shows like Love, American Style, Easy Does It... Starring Frankie Avalon, Fantasy Island and The Love Boat. In 1979, Funicello began starring in a series of television commercials for Skippy peanut butter.[21] Her role as Skippy spokeswoman forced Funicello to turn down a role in Grease 2.[22] In November 1985, she starred in the 16th episode of the Disney Channel documentary series Disney Family Album in an episode about her career.[7] She starred in a TV movie for Disney, Lots of Luck (1985), then was reunited with Avalon in Back to the Beach (1987). The two performed together live.[23] Later career Her autobiography, dictated to Patricia Romanowski and published in 1994, was A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: My Story. The title was taken from a song from the Disney movie Cinderella. A television film based on the book, A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story, was made in 1995. In the final scene, the actress portraying Funicello (Eva LaRue), using a wheelchair, turns away from the camera — turning back, it is Funicello herself, who delivered a message to a group of children. During this period, she produced a line of teddy bears for the Annette Funicello Collectible Bear Company.[3] The last collection in the series was made in 2004. She also had her own fragrance called "Cello, by Annette". "Now that I've gone public with my illness, they can't do enough", she said in 1994. "They even send me home remedies to try. Everyone says, 'God bless you and I'm praying for you.' " [6] She made her final public appearance on September 13, 1998, at California's Multiple Sclerosis Society, along with Frankie Avalon.[24] Personal life Funicello and Frankie Avalon reunited for the television special Good Ol' Days, 1977 Funicello's best friend was actress and singer Shelley Fabares, whom she had met in a catechism class when they were teens. Fabares was a bridesmaid at Funicello's first wedding. Funicello was also very close to fellow Mouseketeers Lonnie Burr (her first boyfriend), Sharon Baird, Doreen Tracey, Cheryl Holdridge, Disney co-star Tommy Kirk and beach-movie co-star Frankie Avalon. She dated Canadian singer/songwriter Paul Anka and he wrote his hit song "Puppy Love" about her.[25] Marriages and children Funicello was married to Jack L. Gilardi (1930–2019) from 1965 until 1981. They had three children: Gina Portman (born 1965), Jack Jr. (born 1970) and Jason (born 1974). In 1986, she married California harness racing horse breeder/trainer Glen D. Holt (1930–2018).[3][26] The couple was frequently seen attending harness horse races at the Los Alamitos Race Course and Fairplex in Pomona in the 1980s and 1990s. In March 2011, her longtime Encino, California, home caught fire. She suffered smoke inhalation, but was otherwise unharmed.[27] After the fire, Funicello and Holt lived in a modest ranch that they had purchased decades earlier, located just south of Shafter, California (north of Bakersfield), where she lived her remaining years.[28] Illness and death In early 1987, at around 45 years old, Funicello reunited with Frankie Avalon for a series of promotional concerts to promote their film Back to the Beach. She began to experience dizziness, headaches, and balance issues and was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. For the next five years, she hid her condition from her family and friends. In 1992, she publicly disclosed her diagnosis[29] to combat rumors that her impaired ability to walk was the result of alcoholism. In 1993, she opened the Annette Funicello Fund for Neurological Disorders at the California Community Foundation.[30] On October 6, 2012, the Canadian program W5 profiled Funicello following her 15 years away from the public eye, revealing that her disease had severely damaged her nervous system. She had lost the ability to walk in 2004, had lost the ability to speak in 2009 and required a feeding tube, needing round-the-clock care in order to survive. Funicello's close friend Shelley Fabares also appeared in the profile piece.[31][32] On April 8, 2013, Funicello died at age 70 at Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California, from complications attributed to multiple sclerosis. Her family and Fabares were with her when she died.[33] A private funeral was held at the Cherished Memories Memorial Chapel in Bakersfield.[34] Commenting on her death, Walt Disney Company chairman and CEO Bob Iger said: Annette was and always will be a cherished member of the Disney family, synonymous with the word Mouseketeer, and a true Disney Legend. She will forever hold a place in our hearts as one of Walt Disney's brightest stars, delighting an entire generation of baby boomers with her jubilant personality and endless talent. Annette was well known for being as beautiful inside as she was on the outside, and she faced her physical challenges with dignity, bravery and grace. All of us at Disney join with family, friends and fans around the world in celebrating her extraordinary life.[35] Legacy The power pop band Redd Kross's 1980 song "Annette's Got The Hits" was inspired by Funicello.[36] In 1992, Funicello was inducted as a Disney Legend.[37] She received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for motion pictures on September 14, 1993; it is located at 6834 Hollywood Blvd. In 1995, she appeared on a Disney TV documentary commemorating the 40th anniversary of The Mickey Mouse Club. In the Disney Village shopping and dining area of Disneyland Paris, a 1950s themed restaurant called Annette's Diner is named after her. Discography Albums Numbers in parentheses after title indicate peak position in Billboard charts.[38] Annette – Vista BV-3301 (Mono) (1959) Annette Sings Anka (#21) – Vista BV-3302 (Mono) (1960) Hawaiiannette (#38) – Vista BV-3303 (Mono) (1960) Italiannette – Vista BV-3304 (Mono) (1960) Dance Annette – Vista BV-3305 (Mono) (1961) The Story of My Teens – Vista BV-3312 (Mono) (1962) Annette's Beach Party (#39) – Vista BV-3316 (Mono), STER-3316 (Stereo) (July 1963) Muscle Beach Party – Vista BV-3314 (Mono), STER-3314 (Stereo) (April 1964) Annette on Campus – Vista BV-3320 (Mono), STER-3320 (Stereo) (1964) Annette at Bikini Beach – Vista BV-3324 (Mono), STER-3324 (Stereo) (September 1964) Pajama Party – Vista BV-3325 (Mono), STER-3325 (Stereo) (November 1964) Something Borrowed Something Blue – Vista BV-3328 (Mono), STER-3328 (Stereo) (1964) Annette Sings Golden Surfin' Hits – Vista BV-3327 (Mono), STER-3327 (Stereo) (July 1965) Annette Funicello – Vista BV-4037 (1972) Annette Funicello Country Album – Starview 4001 (1984) Best of Annette – Rhino RNDF-206 (1984) (also released as a picture disk on Rhino RNLP-702) Annette: A Musical Reunion with America's Girl-Next-Door – Vista 60010 (1993) A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes – Time/Warner 520564 (April 16, 1995) The Best of Annette – Vista (August 14, 1991) A Tribute to Walt Disney – Promised Land – Glanco Music (2013) Singles Year Titles (A-side, B-side) Both sides from same album except where indicated Record Label Peak chart positions Album US Billboard US Cashbox 1958 "How Will I Know My Love" b/w "Don't Jump to Conclusions" Disneyland 102 — 55 Annette "That Crazy Place from Outer Space" b/w "Gold Doubloons and Pieces of Eight" (Non-album track) Disneyland 114 — — 1959 "Tall Paul" b/w "Ma, He's Making Eyes at Me" Disneyland 118 7 18 "Jo Jo the Dog Faced Boy" Original B-side: "Lonely Guitar" Later B-side: "Love Me Forever" Vista 336 73 59 "Lonely Guitar" / "Wild Willie" Multiple releases with each title as A-side Vista 339 50 51 "Especially for You" b/w "My Heart Became of Age" Vista 344 — — "First Name Initial" / "My Heart Became of Age" (from Annette) Vista 349 20 74 16 — The Story of My Teens 1960 "O Dio Mio" b/w "It Took Dreams" (from Annette) Vista 354 10 13 "Train of Love" b/w "Tell Me Who's the Girl" (from The Story of My Teens) Vista 359 36 47 Annette Sings Anka "Pineapple Princess" b/w "Luau Cha Cha Cha" Vista 362 11 15 Hawaiiannette "Talk to Me Baby" b/w "I Love You Baby" Vista 369 92 98 Annette Sings Anka 1961 "Dream Boy" b/w "Please Please Signore" Vista 374 87 — Italiannette "Indian Giver" b/w "Mama Mama Rosa (Where's the Spumoni)" (from Italiannette) Vista 375 — — Non-album track "Blue Muu Muu" b/w "Hawaiian Love Talk" (Non-album track) Vista 384 107 — Hawaiiannette "Dreamin' About You" b/w "Strummin' Song" (from The Story of My Teens) Vista 388 106 — Non-album track 1962 "That Crazy Place from Outer Space" b/w "Seven Moons (Of Batalyre)" (by Danny Saval and Tom Tyron, non-album track) Vista 392 — — Annette "The Truth About Youth" b/w "I Can't Do the Sum" Vista 394 — — The Story of My Teens "My Little Grass Shack" b/w "Hukilau" Vista 400 — — Hawaiiannette "He's My Ideal" b/w "Mister Piano Man" (from The Story of My Teens) Vista 405 — — Non-album tracks "Bella Bella Florence" b/w "Canzone d'Amoure" Vista 407 — — "Teenage Wedding" b/w "Walkin' and Talkin'" Vista 414 — — 1963 "Promise Me Anything" b/w "Treat Him Nicely" Vista 427 123 — Annette's Beach Party 1964 "Merlin Jones" (with The Wellingtons) b/w "The Scrambled Egghead" (with Tommy Kirk) Vista 431 — — Muscle Beach Party "Custom City" b/w "Rebel Rider" Vista 432 — — "Muscle Beach Party" b/w "I Dream About Frankie" Vista 433 — — "Bikini Beach Party" b/w "The Clyde" Vista 436 — — Annette at Bikini Beach "The Wah-Watusi" b/w "The Clyde" Vista 437 — — 1965 "Something Borrowed, Something Blue" b/w "How Will I Know My Love" (New version of Annette's 1958 recording) Vista 438 — — Something Borrowed, Something Blue "The Monkey's Uncle" (With The Beach Boys) b/w "How Will I Know My Love" (from Something Borrowed, Something Blue) Vista 440 — — Annette at Bikini Beach "Boy to Love" b/w "No One Else Could Be Prouder" Vista 442 — — Golden Surfin' Hits 1966 "No Way to Go but Up" b/w "Crystal Ball" (from Something Borrowed, Something Blue) Vista 450 — — Non-album track 1967 "What's a Girl to Do" b/w "When You Get What You Want" (Annette's name is misspelled on both sides as "Annettte") Tower 326 — — Thunder Alley (Soundtrack) 1981 "(Together We Can Make A) Merry Christmas" b/w "The Night Before Christmas" (Duets with Frankie Avalon) Pacific Star 569 — — Non-album tracks 1983 "The Promised Land" b/w "In Between and Out of Love" Starview 3001 — — Country Album Filmography Funicello as a participant in Seattle Seafair's Torchlight Parade, 1963 There's No Business Like Show Business (1954, Cameo) – Laughing Girl (uncredited) The Shaggy Dog (1959) – Allison D'Allessio Babes in Toyland (1961) – Mary Quite Contrary Beach Party (1963) – Dolores The Misadventures of Merlin Jones (1964) – Jennifer Muscle Beach Party (1964) – Dee Dee Bikini Beach (1964) – Dee Dee Pajama Party (1964) – Connie Beach Blanket Bingo (1965) – Dee Dee The Monkey's Uncle (1965) – Jennifer Ski Party (1965, Cameo) – Prof. Sonya Roberts (uncredited) How to Stuff a Wild Bikini (1965) – Dee Dee Dr. Goldfoot and the Bikini Machine (1965, cameo) – Girl in Dungeon Fireball 500 (1966) – Jane Harris Thunder Alley (1967) – Francie Madsen Head (1968) – Minnie Back to the Beach (1987) – Annette Troop Beverly Hills (1989, cameo) Television work Mickey Mouse Club (1955–1959; 1977; 1980; 1990; 1993) Elfego Baca: Six Gun Law (1959) (compilation of episodes from Wonderful World of Color serial) – Chiquita Bernal The Danny Thomas Show (cast member in 1959) – Gina Minelli Zorro (1959–1961) – Anita Cabrillo / Constancia de la Torre The Horsemasters (1962) – Dinah Wilcox Escapade in Florence (1962) – Annette Aliotto Burke's Law (1963–1965) – Anna Najensky / Dorrie Marsh Wagon Train (1963, Episode: "The Sam Pulaski Story") – Rose Pulaski The Greatest Show on Earth (1964, Episode: "Rosetta") – Melanie Keller Hondo (1967, episode "Hondo and the Apache Trail") Love, American Style segment "Love and the Tuba" (with Frankie Avalon, 1971) – Millie Easy Does It... Starring Frankie Avalon (1976, four-week summer variety series) Frankie and Annette: The Second Time Around (1978, TV movie) (unsold pilot) – Annette Fantasy Island episode "Ghostbreaker" (1978) The Mouseketeer Reunion (November 23, 1980) The Love Boat (1982) Lots of Luck (1985; TV movie) Growing Pains episode "The Seavers and the Cleavers" (guest star, 1985) Pee-wee's Playhouse Christmas Special (guest star, 1988) Full House episode "Joey Goes Hollywood" (guest star with Frankie Avalon, March 29, 1991) A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story (1995; TV movie) – Annette Funicello (final film role) The Mickey Mouse Club Story (1995; documentary) Books Funicello, Annette and Patricia Romanowski. A Dream is a Wish Your Heart Makes: My Story 1994, ISBN 0-7868-8092-9 The Annette Mysteries: Includes The Desert Inn Mystery, The Mystery at Moonstone Bay, The Mystery at Smugglers' Cove, Mystery of Medicine Wheel and Sierra Summer The Mickey Mouse Club is an American variety television show that aired intermittently from 1955 to 1996 and returned to social media in 2017. Created by Walt Disney and produced by Walt Disney Productions, the program was first televised for four seasons, from 1955 to 1959, by ABC. This original run featured a regular, but ever-changing cast of mostly teen performers. ABC broadcast reruns weekday afternoons during the 1958–1959 season, airing right after American Bandstand. The show was revived three times after its initial 1955–1959 run on ABC, first from 1977 to 1979 for first-run syndication as The New Mickey Mouse Club, then from 1989 to 1996 as The All-New Mickey Mouse Club (also known to fans as MMC from 1993 to 1996) airing exclusively on cable television's The Disney Channel, and again in 2017 with the moniker Club Mickey Mouse airing exclusively on internet social media. It ended in 2018. The character of Mickey Mouse appeared in every show, not only in vintage cartoons originally made for theatrical release, but also in the opening, interstitial, and closing segments made especially for the show. In both the vintage cartoons and new animated segments, Mickey was voiced by his creator Walt Disney (Disney had previously voiced the character theatrically from 1928 to 1947 before being replaced by sound effects artist Jimmy MacDonald). Before the TV series The first official theater-based Mickey Mouse Club began on January 11, 1930, at the Fox Dome Theater in Ocean Park, California, with 60 theaters hosting clubs by March 31. The Club released its first issue of the Official Bulletin of the Mickey Mouse Club on April 15, 1930.[1] By 1932, the club had one million members, and in 1933 its first UK club opened at Darlington’s Arcade Cinema.[2][3] In 1935, Disney began to phase out the club.[4] 1955–1959 show Members Mickey Mouse Club was formed The Mickey Mouse Club was hosted by Jimmie Dodd, a songwriter and the Head Mouseketeer, who provided leadership both on and off the screen. In addition to his other contributions, he often provided short segments which encouraged younger viewers to make the right moral choices. These little homilies became known as "Doddisms".[5] Roy Williams, a staff artist at Disney, also appeared in the show as the Big Mouseketeer. Williams suggested that the Mickey and Minnie Mouse ears should be worn by the show's cast members. He helped create these ears, along with Chuck Keehne, Hal Adelquist, and Bill Walsh. The main cast members were called Mouseketeers, and they performed in a variety of musical and dance numbers, as well as some informational segments. The most popular of the Mouseketeers constituted the so-called Red Team, which was kept under contract for the entire run of the show (1955–1959), and its members included: Sharon Baird Bobby Burgess Lonnie Burr[6] Tommy Cole Annette Funicello Darlene Gillespie Cubby O'Brien Karen Pendleton Doreen Tracey Other Mouseketeers who were Red Team members but did not star on the show for all three seasons included: Cheryl Holdridge (second and third year) Nancy Abbate (only first year) Johnny Crawford (only first year) Dennis Day (first and second year; was in the blue team for most of the first year, but he moved to the red team at the end of the first year) Mike Smith (only first year) Jay-Jay Solari (only second year) Don Underhill (only first year; joined the blue team by the end of the first year) The remaining Mouseketeers, who were members of the White or Blue Teams, were Don Agrati (who was later known as Don Grady when he starred as "Robbie" on My Three Sons), Sherry Alberoni, Billie Jean Beanblossom, Eileen Diamond, Dickie Dodd (not related to Jimmie Dodd), Mary Espinosa, Bonnie Lynn Fields,[7] Judy Harriet, Linda Hughes, Dallas Johann, John Lee Johann, Bonni Lou Kern, Charlie Laney, Larry Larsen, Paul Petersen, Lynn Ready, Mickey Rooney Jr., Tim Rooney, Mary Sartori, Bronson Scott, Margene Storey, Ronnie Steiner, and Mark Sutherland.[8] Larry Larsen, on only for the 1956–57 season, was the oldest Mouseketeer, being born in 1939, and Bronson Scott, on only the 1955–56 season, was the youngest Mouseketeer, being born in July 1947. Among the thousands who auditioned but did not make the cut were future Oscar-winning vocalist/songwriter Paul Williams and future Primetime Emmy Award-winning actress Candice Bergen. The 39 Mouseketeers and the seasons in which they were featured (with the team color which they belonged to are listed for each season): Mouseketeers Mouseketeers Years Seasons 1 2 3 4 Bobby Burgess 1955–1959 Annette Funicello † 1955–1959 Darlene Gillespie 1955–1959 Cubby O'Brien 1955–1959 Karen Pendleton † 1955–1959 Doreen Tracey † 1955–1959 Sharon Baird 1955–1959 * Tommy Cole 1955–1959 * * Lonnie Burr 1955–1959 - Dennis Day † 1955–1957 * - - Nancy Abbate 1955–1956 - - - Johnny Crawford † 1955–1956 - - - Mike Smith † 1955–1956 - - - Don Underhill 1955–1956 - - - Bonni Lou Kern † 1955–1956 - - - Tim Rooney † 1955–1956 * - - - Mary Sartori 1955–1956 - - - Bronson Scott 1955–1956 - - - Mark Sutherland † 1955–1956 - - - John Lee Johan 1955–1956 * - - - Billie Jean Beanblossom 1955–1956 - - - Mary Espinosa 1955–1956 - - - Judy Harriet 1955–1956 - - - Dallas Johann 1955–1956 * - - - Paul Petersen 1955–1956 * - - - Mickey Rooney Jr. † 1955–1956 * - - - Dickie Dodd † 1955–1956 * - - - Ron Steiner 1955–1956 * - - - Cheryl Holdridge † 1956–1958 - - Jay-Jay Solari 1956–1957 - - - Sherry Alberoni 1956–1957 - - - Eileen Diamond 1956–1957 - - - Charley Laney † 1956–1957 - - - Larry Larsen † 1956–1957 - - - Margene Storey 1956–1957 - - - Don Grady † 1957–1958 - - - Bonnie Lynn Fields † 1957–1958 - - - Linda Hughes 1957–1958 - - - Lynn Ready † 1957–1958 - - - Notes: Cole and Day were originally Blue Team members, but were drafted to the Red Team later in the first season. Johann, Petersen, and the Rooney brothers were all let go early in the first season. Dallas's brother John Lee replaced him, while Dodd and Steiner were hired as replacements for the Rooney brothers. For the show's fourth season, only a small amount of new footage was filmed and was interspliced with material from previous seasons. It is believed[according to whom?] that only six of the Mouseketeers—Funicello, Gillespie, Tracey, Burgess, Pendleton, and O'Brien—were called back for the filming of new material, while Cole and Baird were merely used for some publicity material. Adult co-hosts Jimmie Dodd Roy Williams Bob Amsberry Other notable non-Mouseketeer performers appeared in several dramatic segments:[5] Tim Considine Tommy Kirk Roberta Shore (Jymme Shore) David Stollery Judy Nugent Kevin Corcoran, a.k.a. Moochie J. Pat O'Malley Sammy Ogg Alvy Moore Julius Sumner Miller as "Professor Wonderful"[5] These non-Mouseketeers primarily appeared in several original serials filmed for the series, only some of which have appeared in reruns. Other Mouseketeers were also featured in some of the serials, particularly Annette Funicello and Darlene Gillespie. Major serials Major serials included:[5] Spin and Marty starring Tim Considine and David Stollery The Hardy Boys starring Tim Considine and Tommy Kirk Corky and White Shadow, starring Darlene Gillespie Walt Disney Presents: Annette, starring Annette Funicello Adventure in Dairyland, featuring Annette Funicello and Sammy Ogg, and introducing Kevin Corcoran as Moochie Jiminy Cricket educational serials (four animated shorts educating kids on different topics) The Adventures of Clint and Mac (starring Neil Wolfe as Clint Rogers and Jonathan Bailey as Alastair "Mac" MacIntosh) Boys of the Western Sea (English-dubbed Danish film divided into nine 10-minute segments) Music The opening theme, "The Mickey Mouse March", was written by the show's primary adult host, Jimmie Dodd.[5] It was also reprised at the end of each episode, with the slower "it's time to say goodbye" verse. A shorter version of the opening title was used later in the series, in syndication, and on Disney Channel reruns. Dodd also wrote many other songs used in individual segments throughout the series. Show themes Each day of the week had a special show theme, which was reflected in the several segments. The themes were: Monday – Fun with Music Day Tuesday – Guest Star Day Wednesday – Anything Can Happen Day Thursday – Circus Day Friday – Talent Round-up Day Scheduling and air times The series ran on ABC Television for an hour each weekday in the 1955 and the 1956 seasons (from 5:00 - 6:00 pm ET), and only a half-hour weekdays in 1957, the final season to feature new programming.[9] Although the show returned for a 1958 season and these programs were repeats from the first two seasons, recut into a half-hour format. The Mickey Mouse Club was featured on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, and Walt Disney's Adventure Time, featuring reruns of The Mickey Mouse Club serials and several re-edited segments from Disneyland and Walt Disney Presents, appeared on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Cancellation Although the show remained popular, ABC decided to cancel it after its fourth season ended, because Disney and the ABC network could not come to terms for its renewal.[5] The cancellation of the show in September 1959 was attributed to several factors: the Disney studios did not explain high profit margins from merchandise sales, sponsors were uninterested in educational programming for children, and many commercials were needed to pay for the show. After canceling The Mickey Mouse Club, ABC also refused to let Disney air the show on another network.[10] Walt Disney filed a lawsuit against ABC, and won the damages in a settlement, the following year; however, he had to agree that both the Mickey Mouse Club and Zorro could not be aired on any major network. This left Walt Disney Presents (initially titled Disneyland, later retitled Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color when it moved to NBC) as the only Disney series which was left on prime time until 1972 when The Mouse Factory went on the air. The prohibition which prevented major U.S. broadcast networks from airing the original Mickey Mouse Club (or any later version of it) was disputed when Disney acquired ABC in 1996. Although it would not air on ABC again, Disney ran it on the Disney Channel's "Vault Disney" block from 1998 to 2002. Australian tour Although the series had been ended in America, many members of the cast assembled for highly successful tours of Australia in 1959 and 1960. The television series was very successful in Australia and was still running on Australian television. The cast surprised Australian audiences, as by then they had physically matured and in some cases, bore little resemblance to the cast of youths with whom Australians were so familiar. Mainstream television did not reach Australia until 1956, so the series screened well into the 1960s when the back catalog expired. Syndication In response to continuing audience demand, the original Mickey Mouse Club went into edited syndicated half-hour reruns that enjoyed wide distribution starting in the fall of 1962, achieving strong ratings especially during its first three seasons in syndicated release. Because of its popularity in some markets, a few stations continued to carry it into 1968 before the series was finally withdrawn from syndication. Some new features were added such as Fun with Science or "Professor Wonderful" (with scientist Julius Sumner Miller) and Marvelous Marvin in the 1964–1965 season; Jimmie Dodd appeared in several of these new segments before his death in November 1964. Several markets expanded the program back to an hour's daily run time during the 1960s repeat cycle by adding locally produced and hosted portions involving educational subjects and live audience participation of local children, in a manner not unlike Romper Room. In response to an upsurge in demand from baby boomers entering adulthood, the show again went into syndicated reruns from January 20, 1975, until January 14, 1977.[11] It has since been rerun on cable specialty channels Disney in the United States and Family in Canada. The original Mickey Mouse Club films aired five days a week on The Disney Channel from its launch in 1983 until the third version of the series began in 1989. The last airing of the edited 1950s material was on Disney Channel's Vault Disney from 1997 to September 2002. During the baseball seasons in 1975 and 1976, WGN-TV in Chicago, Illinois, aired the show on a delayed basis due to Cubs baseball coverages. Reunions Annette Funicello and Tim Considine were reunited on The New Mickey Mouse Club in 1977. Darlene Gillespie and Cubby O'Brien were also reunited on another episode of the same series.[citation needed] 31 out of the 39 original Mouseketeers were reunited for a TV special, which aired on Disney's Wonderful World in November 1980. Paul Williams – who hosted the special – and Tim Considine were named Honorary Mousketeers during the special. Cast members Annette Funicello, Bobby Burgess, Tommy Cole, Sharon Baird, Don Grady, and Sherry Alberoni were reunited on the 100th episode of The All-New Mickey Mouse Club, during the show's third season in 1990. Mouseketeers Doreen Tracey, Cubby O'Brien, Sherry Alberoni, Sharon Baird, Don Grady, Cheryl Holdridge, Bobby Burgess, Karen Pendleton, Tommy Cole, and Mary Espinosa performed together at Disneyland in Fall 2005, in observance of Disneyland's 50th birthday, and the 50th anniversary of the television premiere of The Mickey Mouse Club. Streaming In early 2020, the first week of the Mickey Mouse Club and the first Spin and Marty serial have been added to Disney's new streaming platform Disney+. For some reason, it is currently missing. [12] Talent Roundup stars Larry Ashurst Janice Crowe Peter Lee Palmer Mark Sutherland Bo Wagner Pamela Beaird Barbara Boylan Mary Sartori John F. Smith Maxine Grossman Linda Hughes Cheryl Weinberg Ronnie Wilson Riley Wilson Jimmie Fields Donna Loren Ray Little 1977 revival: The New Mickey Mouse Club In 1977, Walt Disney Productions revived the concept, but modernized the show cosmetically, with a disco re-recording of the theme song and a more ethnically diverse group of young cast members. The sets were brightly colored and simpler than the detailed black and white artwork of the original. Like the original, nearly every day's episode included a vintage cartoon, though usually in color from the late 1930s onward. The 1977 Mouseketeers were part of the halftime show of Super Bowl XI on January 9, 1977. Serials Serials were usually old Disney movies, cut into segments for twice-weekly inclusion. Movies included Third Man on the Mountain, The Misadventures of Merlin Jones and its sequel The Monkey's Uncle (both starring Tommy Kirk), Emil and the Detectives (retitled The Three Skrinks), Tonka (retitled A Horse Called Comanche), The Horse Without a Head (about a toy horse), and Toby Tyler (starring Kevin Corcoran). In addition, one original serial was produced, The Mystery of Rustler's Cave, starring Kim Richards and Robbie Rist. Often shown were scenes from animated Disney films, from Snow White to The Jungle Book billed as "Mouseka Movie Specials". Theme days Theme days were: Monday: Who, What, Why, Where, When and How Tuesday: Let's Go Wednesday: Surprise Thursday: Discovery Friday: Showtime (at Disneyland, with performers usually at Plaza Gardens) Syndication The series debuted on January 17, 1977, on 38 local television stations in the United States, and by June of that same year, when the series was discontinued, about 70 stations in total had picked up the series. Additional stations picked up the canceled program, which continued to run until January 12, 1979; 130 new episodes, with much of the original material repackaged and a bit of new footage added, and a shortened version of the theme song, was produced to start airing September 5, 1977. Since the 1970s, the series has aired only briefly in reruns. Like its 1950s predecessor, the 1989/1990s series had DVD releases of select episodes in July 2005. On November 20, 1977, "The Mouseketeers at Walt Disney World" was shown on The Wonderful World of Disney. WGN-TV in Chicago, Illinois, also aired this version on a delayed basis in 1977 and 1978 during the Cubs baseball season due to game coverages. Action for Children's Television successfully got the show canceled because of their objections to the types of commercials that aired during the program. It also aired on BBC One in the United Kingdom from 1978 to 1980.[13] Cast The cast of 12 (five boys and seven girls) had a more diverse multiethnic background than the 1950s version. Several 1977–1978 cast members went on to become TV stars and other notable icons. The show's most notable alumnus was Lisa Whelchel (born in 1963, in Littlefield, Texas), who later starred in the NBC television sitcom The Facts of Life, which ran from 1979 to 1988, before becoming a well-known Christian author, and overall runner-up, and winner of the $100,000 viewers' choice award, on the fall 2012 season of the CBS television reality series Survivor. Mouseketeer Julie Piekarski (born in 1963 in St. Louis, Missouri) also appeared with Lisa Whelchel on the first season of The Facts of Life. Kelly Parsons (born in 1964, in Coral Gables, Florida) went on to become a beauty queen and runner-up to Miss USA. Other Mouseketeers (from seasons 1–2) from the 1977 show:[8] William "Billy"/"Pop" Attmore: born at US military base in Landstuhl, West Germany, 1965; appeared in a few movies before and after the series, a final season episode of The Brady Bunch ("Kelly's Kids"), and as a streetwise hood in the short-lived Eischied crime drama. Scott Craig: born in Van Nuys, California, in 1964; lived in Las Vegas, Nevada, died December 30, 2003, from a respiratory illness. Benita "Nita Dee" DiGiampaolo: born in Long Beach, California, in 1966; appeared at the last end of an episode in 1981 of Fantasy Island as Elena. Nita appeared in ABC Family Weekends in 1978 as Nita and 1978 as Maria. Nita also starred in Upbeat Aesop (ABC) produced by Ron Miziker (A Disney executive). Mindy Feldman: born in Burbank, California, in 1968; sister of actor Corey Feldman. Angel Florez: born in Stockton, California, in 1963; died April 25, 1995, from an AIDS-related illness. Allison Fonte: born in Buena Park, California, in 1964. Shawnte Northcutte born in Los Angeles, California, in 1965; appeared on an episode of The Facts of Life, as Madge. Todd Turquand: born in Hollywood, California, in 1964. Curtis Wong: born in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1962; appeared on an episode of Diff'rent Strokes, as an assistant karate instructor under Soon-Tek Oh. Disney voice actor and sound effects editor Wayne Allwine voiced Mickey Mouse in the animated lead-ins for the show, replacing Jimmy MacDonald, who in 1947 had replaced Walt Disney as the voice of Mickey for theatrical short cartoons. Walt Disney had been the original voice of Mickey and for the original 1954–1959 run provided the voice for animated introductions to the original TV show but had died in 1966. Allwine kept providing the voice for the character up to his death in 2009. Future rock musician Courtney Love (wife of Nirvana lead singer Kurt Cobain) claims to have auditioned for a part on the show, reading a poem by Sylvia Plath; she was not selected.[14] Former Mouseketeers Annette Funicello and serial star Tim Considine guest-starred in one episode; Former Mouseketeers Darlene Gillespie and Cubby O'Brien were also reunited on another episode. Theme song and soundtrack The lyrics of the "Mickey Mouse Club March" theme song were slightly different from the original, with two additional lines: "He's our favorite Mouseketeer; we know you will agree" and "Take some fun and mix in love, our happy recipe". A soundtrack album[15] was released with the show. A new rendition of the "Mickey Mouse Club March" was made later on in 1999 by Mannheim Steamroller, a contemporary band, in hopes of connecting new-age children and their parents who watched the Mickey Mouse Club. Distribution This incarnation was not distributed by Disney only; while Disney did produce the series, it was co-produced and distributed by SFM Entertainment, which also handled 1970s-era syndication of the original 1950s series (Disney since re-acquired only distribution rights). 1989–1994 revival: The All-New Mickey Mouse Club Reruns of the original The Mickey Mouse Club began airing on The Disney Channel with the channel's 1983 launch. While the show was popular with younger audiences, the Disney Channel executives felt it had become dated over the years, particularly as it was aired in black-and-white. Their answer was to create a brand-new version of the club, one targeted at contemporary audiences. Notably, the all-new "club-members" would wear Mouseketeer varsity jackets instead of iconic Mickey Mouse ears. This show was called The All-New Mickey Mouse Club (also known as "MMC" to fans). This version of the series is notable for featuring a number of cast members who went on to achieve global success in music and acting, Ryan Gosling, Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, future NSYNC band members Justin Timberlake and JC Chasez, Keri Russell, Deedee Magno, future En Vogue member Rhona Bennett, Nikki DeLoach, and Chase Hampton. Nick Carter was selected to join the program at the age of 12, however, he decided to join the developing boy band, Backstreet Boys.[16] Throughout the run, Fred Newman was the main adult co-host from the beginning of the series until season 6. In the first season, Newman was joined by other co-host Mowava Pryor. She was then replaced by Terri Eoff from the fourth season until the sixth season. By the show's final season, two original members Chase Hampton and Tiffini Hale became the co-hosts. This was the first version of the club to have any studio audience, though a moderately small group. Former Mouseketeer Don Grady guest-starred in the season 1 finale. Grady, along with fellow Mouseketeers Annette Funicello, Bobby Burgess, Tommy Cole, Sharon Baird, and Sherry Alberoni were reunited on the 100th episode, during the show's third season. Funicello later appeared on the show again, in an interview with the Mouseketeer Lindsey Alley. Scheduling and air times For the first five seasons, the series aired Monday through Friday at 5:30 pm. The show's sixth season aired Monday to Thursday. In its final season, it aired Thursdays only at 7:00 pm (later moved a half hour later, to 7:30 pm). The series premiered Monday, April 24, 1989, ended production in October 1994, and aired its last original episode in 1996. Seasons 3 and 5 had the most episodes at 55 each, with seasons 1, 2, and 7 running about 45 episodes. Seasons 4 and 6 had about 36 episodes each. Skits The show was known for its sketch comedy. Some of the sketches played off famous movies, musicals, and even cartoons, as well as holiday-related skits. During the final season, some of the skits showed everyday occurrences in the lives of adolescents. Music videos The series featured music videos of the Mouseketeers singing their versions of popular songs in front of a live studio audience or the Walt Disney World Resort. This became one of the most popular segments. Live concerts and performances A unique feature of the show was the Mouseketeers performing concerts on different days (which were usually taped the day before or in the summer, when the kids had more time). During the final season, the concerts were replaced primarily by live performances that featured singing and dancing in front of the audience. Theme days This version maintained the "theme day" format from the previous two versions. When Disney decided to revamp the show for its final season, the show was reduced to a single weekly airing, shown only on Thursdays. Although still produced as a daily series during the final season taping in 1994, The Disney Channel, after canceling the series once season 7 production had ended, decided to air the final season in a weekly format, therefore stretching the first-run episodes into early 1996. The final season premiered in May 1995, almost a year after production had started and more than 6 months after the series finale was taped. Theme days were: Music Day – Mondays (seasons 1–5), Tuesdays (season 6) Guest Day – Tuesdays (seasons 1–5), Mondays (season 6) Anything Can Happen Day – Wednesdays (seasons 1–5) Party Day – Thursdays (seasons 1–4, 6), Fridays (season 5) Hall of Fame Day – Fridays (seasons 1–4), Thursdays (season 5), Wednesdays (season 6) Mouseketeer roster The adult co-hosts for the show were Fred Newman (1989–1993), Mowava Pryor (1989–1990), Terri Misner Eoff (1991–1993), Tiffini Hale (1994), and Chase Hampton (1994). The 35 Mouseketeers and the seasons in which they were featured are:[5] Mouseketeers Mouseketeers Year(s) Seasons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Joshua Ackerman 1989–1994 Lindsey Alley 1989–1994 Jennifer McGill 1989–1994 Tiffini Hale † 1989–1991, 1994 * - - Chase Hampton 1989–1991, 1994 * - - Albert Fields 1989–1991 * - - - Deedee Magno 1989–1991 * - - - Damon Pampolina 1989–1991 * - - - Brandy Brown 1989–1990 - - - - Roque Herring 1989 - - - - - Braden Danner 1989 - - - - - - David Kater 1989 - - - - - - Kevin Osgood 1989–1992 - - - Ricky Luna 1990–1994 - - Ilana Miller 1990–1994 - - Marc Worden 1990–1994 - - Mylin Brooks 1990–1992 - - - - Jason Minor 1990–1992 - - - - Rhona Bennett 1991–1994 - - - Nita Booth 1991–1994 - - - JC Chasez 1991–1994 - - - Dale Godboldo 1991–1994 - - - Tony Lucca 1991–1994 - - - Matt Morris 1991–1994 - - - Keri Russell 1991–1993 - - - - Blain Carson 1991–1992 - - - - - Tasha Danner 1991–1992 - - - - - Terra McNair Deva 1991–1992 - - - - - Christina Aguilera 1993–1994 - - - - - Nikki DeLoach 1993–1994 - - - - - T.J. Fantini 1993–1994 - - - - - Ryan Gosling 1993–1994 - - - - - Tate (Marque) Lynche † 1993–1994 - - - - - Britney Spears 1993–1994 - - - - - Justin Timberlake 1993–1994 - - - - - Note: For the show's fourth season, Albert Fields, Tiffini Hale, Chase Hampton, Deedee Magno, and Damon Pampolina were featured in segments as "The Party", primarily in footage separate from the rest of the cast. Emerald Cove During the last three seasons of MMC they had a pre-recorded drama series called Emerald Cove with the older cast members: Rhona Bennett J.C. Chasez Dale Godboldo Ricky Luna Tony Lucca Ilana Miller Keri Russell Marc Worden Matt Morris Jennifer McGill Joshua Ackerman Nikki Deloach 2017–2018 American revival: Club Mickey Mouse "Club Mickey Mouse" redirects here. For international, see § International revivals. The Mickey Mouse Club was rebooted under the name Club Mickey Mouse with a new set of Mouseketeers in September 2017,[17] and for the first time, the series was made available on Facebook and Instagram, rather than its original half hour to full hour format on television, and is more like a reality show than a variety show, with about 90% of its content being behind the scenes. This incarnation of The Mickey Mouse Club featured eight Mouseketeers who ranged in age from 15 to 18: Regan Aliyah, Jenna Alvarez, Ky Baldwin, Gabe De Guzman, Leanne Tessa Langston, Brianna Mazzola, Sean Oliu, and Will Simmons.[18] The Mouseketeers were also joined by the guest star Todrick Hall, who also served as a mentor to the cast during the casting, and Jennifer Chia as the host.[19] The series was produced by Disney Digital Network.[18][20] No new episodes or music videos have been produced since 2018. International revivals 2015 Korean revival: The Mickey Mouse Club A new version of the series debuted on July 23, 2015, on Disney Channel Korea. The format of revival included musical performances, games, and skits, as same as the original one in the US. The series had two pilot episodes and ten regular episodes. The Mouseketeers consisted of nine members of S.M. Entertainment's pre-debut group SM Rookies, including five boys – Mark, Jeno, Haechan, Jaemin, and Jisung – and four girls – Koeun, Hina, Herin, and Lami. The series was hosted by Leeteuk of boy band Super Junior.[21] The show ended on December 17 the same year. 2017–present Malaysian revival: Club Mickey Mouse Disney's Club Mickey Mouse Also known as Club Mickey Mouse Malaysia Based on The Mickey Mouse Club Country of origin Malaysia Original languages English Malay No. of seasons 4 (as of 2021) No. of episodes 48 (as of 2021) Production Running time 22–28 minutes Production company Red Communications Sdn. Bhd. Release Original network Disney Channel Asia (2017–2020) Disney+ Hotstar (2021 onwards) Original release September 15, 2017 – present Club Mickey Mouse was created in Malaysia.[22] The format included musical performances, games and comedy sketches. The series was hosted by YouTube personality, Charis Ow, and premiered on Disney Channel Asia on September 15, 2017.[23] The series was renewed for a second season, which premiered on July 6, 2018, and a third season which premiered on June 14, 2019. They also cast as a guest (except Dheena Menon which she had an exam) on Episode 14 ("Friends in Need, Indeed!") on Disney Channel Asia Original Series, Wizards of Warna Walk. Charis and Dheena did not return in the season because Charis was getting married. Disney Channel Asia decided to pick two new Mouseketeers for an audition, revealed to be Eric and Melynna. But due to the shutdown of the channels, the season 4 of Club Mickey Mouse was aired in 2021 exclusively on Disney+ Hotstar instead. In November 2021, it was reported that the fourth season of this show will be aired on Disney+ in selected territories.[24] Mouseketeers Year(s) Notes[25] Charis Ow 2017–2020 Head Mouseketeer Dheena Menon 2017–2020 Erissa Puteri Hashim 2017–present Nur Alianatsha Hanafi 2017–2018 Mohd Wafiy Ilhan Johan 2017–present Ahmad Faiz Najib 2017–present Gabriel Noel Poutney 2017–present Ellya Keesha 2018–present Eric Lau Löfstedt 2021–present Head Mouseketeer Melynna Rose 2021–present Home media Walt Disney Treasures: The Mickey Mouse Club at Mickey Mouse Club: Best of Britney, Justin & Christina at See also Disney Club, the name of many television shows associated to Disney productions aired mostly in Europe Mickey Mouse Clubhouse, a show for preschool-age children with a very different format Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease,[8] in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.[3] This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to transmit signals, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems.[1][9][10] Specific symptoms can include double vision, visual loss, muscle weakness, and trouble with sensation or coordination.[3][11][12] MS takes several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolated attacks (relapsing forms) or building up over time (progressive forms).[13][14] In the relapsing forms of MS, between attacks, symptoms may disappear completely, although some permanent neurological problems often remain, especially as the disease advances.[14] While the cause is unclear, the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin-producing cells.[4] Proposed causes for this include genetics and environmental factors, such as viral infections.[15][9][16] MS is usually diagnosed based on the presenting signs and symptoms and the results of supporting medical tests.[5] No cure for multiple sclerosis is known.[3] Treatments attempt to improve function after an attack and prevent new attacks.[9] Physical therapy[7] and occupational therapy[17] can help with people's ability to function. Many people pursue alternative treatments, despite a lack of evidence of benefit.[18] The long-term outcome is difficult to predict; better outcomes are more often seen in women, those who develop the disease early in life, those with a relapsing course, and those who initially experienced few attacks.[19] Multiple sclerosis is the most common immune-mediated disorder affecting the central nervous system.[20] Nearly one million people have MS in the United States in 2022,[21] and in 2020, about 2.8 million people were affected globally, with rates varying widely in different regions and among different populations.[22] The disease usually begins between the ages of 20 and 50 and is twice as common in women as in men.[2] MS was first described in 1868 by French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot.[23] The name "multiple sclerosis" is short for multiple cerebro-spinal sclerosis, which refers to the numerous glial scars (or sclerae – essentially plaques or lesions) that develop on the white matter of the brain and spinal cord.[23] Signs and symptoms Main article: Multiple sclerosis signs and symptoms Main symptoms of multiple sclerosis A person with MS can have almost any neurological symptom or sign, with autonomic, visual, motor, and sensory problems being the most common.[1] The specific symptoms are determined by the locations of the lesions within the nervous system, and may include loss of sensitivity or changes in sensation, such as tingling, pins and needles, or numbness; muscle weakness, blurred vision,[24] pronounced reflexes, muscle spasms, difficulty in moving, difficulties with coordination, and balance (ataxia); problems with speech or swallowing, visual problems (nystagmus, optic neuritis,[25] or double vision), feeling tired, acute or chronic pain; and bladder and bowel difficulties (such as neurogenic bladder), among others.[1] When multiple sclerosis is more advanced, walking difficulties can occur and the risk of falling increases.[26] Difficulties thinking and emotional problems such as depression or unstable mood are also common.[1] The primary deficit in cognitive function that people with MS experience is slowed information-processing speed, with memory also commonly affected, and executive function less commonly. Intelligence, language, and semantic memory are usually preserved, and the level of cognitive impairment varies considerably between people with MS.[27][28][29] Uhthoff's phenomenon, a worsening of symptoms due to exposure to higher-than-usual temperatures, and Lhermitte's sign, an electrical sensation that runs down the back when bending the neck, are particularly characteristic of MS.[1] The main measure of disability and severity is the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), with other measures such as the multiple sclerosis functional composite being increasingly used in research.[30][31][32] EDSS is also correlated with falls in people with MS.[11] While it is a popular measure, EDSS has been criticized for some of its limitations, such as relying too much on walking.[33][11] The condition begins in 85% of cases as a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) over a number of days with 45% having motor or sensory problems, 20% having optic neuritis,[25] and 10% having symptoms related to brainstem dysfunction, while the remaining 25% have more than one of the previous difficulties.[5] The course of symptoms occurs in two main patterns initially: either as episodes of sudden worsening that last a few days to months (called relapses, exacerbations, bouts, attacks, or flare-ups) followed by improvement (85% of cases) or as a gradual worsening over time without periods of recovery (10–15% of cases).[2] A combination of these two patterns may also occur[14] or people may start in a relapsing and remitting course that then becomes progressive later on.[2] Relapses are usually not predictable, occurring without warning.[1] Exacerbations rarely occur more frequently than twice per year.[1] Some relapses, however, are preceded by common triggers and they occur more frequently during spring and summer.[34] Similarly, viral infections such as the common cold, influenza, or gastroenteritis increase their risk.[1] Stress may also trigger an attack.[35] Women with MS who become pregnant experience fewer relapses; however, during the first months after delivery the risk increases.[1] Overall, pregnancy does not seem to influence long-term disability.[1] Many events have been found not to affect relapse rates including vaccination,[36][medical citation needed] breast feeding,[1] physical trauma,[37] and Uhthoff's phenomenon.[34] Prodromal phase MS may have a prodromal phase in the years leading up to MS manifestation, characterized by psychiatric issues, cognitive impairment, and increased use of healthcare.[38][39] Causes The cause of MS is unknown, but it is believed to occur as a result of some combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as infectious agents.[1] Infectious agents Many microbes have been proposed as triggers of MS.[9] One hypothesis is that infection by a widespread microbe contributes to disease development, and the geographic distribution of this organism influences the epidemiology of MS.[16] Two opposing versions of this hypothesis include the hygiene hypothesis and the prevalence hypothesis, the former being more favored.[16] The hygiene hypothesis proposes that exposure to certain infectious agents early in life is protective; the disease is a response to a late encounter with such agents.[1] The prevalence hypothesis proposes that an early, persistent, and silent infection increases risk of disease, thus the disease is more common where the infectious agent is more common. Only in a few cases and after many years does it cause demyelination.[16][40] Evidence for a virus as a cause include the presence of oligoclonal bands in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of most people with MS, the association of several viruses with human demyelinating encephalomyelitis, and the occurrence of demyelination in animals caused by some viral infections.[41] Epstein-Barr herpes virus (EBV) can cause infectious mononucleosis and infects about 95% of adults. In combination with other genetic and environmental factors, there is "compelling epidemiological and mechanistic evidence for a causal role of EBV in multiple sclerosis", though only a small proportion of those infected with EBV later develop MS.[42][15][43] A study of individuals in the United States military between 1993 and 2013 (total population greater than 10 million) compared 801 people who developed MS on or after military service to 1,566 matched controls who did not develop MS during this observation period. The study found a 32-fold increased risk of developing MS after infection with EBV. It did not find an increased risk after infection with other viruses, including the similarly transmitted cytomegalovirus. The finding strongly suggests that EBV plays a role in the onset of MS, although EBV alone may be insufficient to cause it.[15][43] Genetics HLA region of chromosome 6: Changes in this area increase the probability of getting MS. MS is not considered a hereditary disease, but several genetic variations have been shown to increase the risk.[44] Some of these genes appear to have higher levels of expression in microglial cells than expected by chance.[45] The probability of developing the disease is higher in relatives of an affected person, with a greater risk among those more closely related.[9] An identical twin of an affected individual has a 30% chance of developing MS, 5% for a nonidentical twin, 2.5% for a sibling, and an even lower chance for a half sibling.[1][9][46] If both parents are affected, the risk in their children is 10 times that of the general population.[2] MS is also more common in some ethnic groups than others.[47] Specific genes that have been linked with MS include differences in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system—a group of genes on chromosome 6 that serves as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).[1] That differences in the HLA region are related to susceptibility has been known since the 1980s,[48] and this same region has also been implicated in the development of other autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes type I and systemic lupus erythematosus.[48] The most consistent finding is the association between multiple sclerosis and alleles of the MHC defined as DR15 and DQ6.[1] Other loci have shown a protective effect, such as HLA-C554 and HLA-DRB1*11.[1] HLA differences account for an estimated 20 to 60% of the genetic predisposition.[48] Modern genetic methods (genome-wide association studies) have revealed at least 200 variants outside the HLA locus that modestly increase the probability of MS.[49] Geography MS is more common in people who live farther from the equator, although exceptions exist.[1][50] These exceptions include ethnic groups that are at low risk and that live far from the equator such as the Sami, Amerindians, Canadian Hutterites, New Zealand Māori,[51] and Canada's Inuit,[2] as well as groups that have a relatively high risk and that live closer to the equator such as Sardinians,[2] inland Sicilians,[52] Palestinians, and Parsi.[51] The cause of this geographical pattern is not clear.[2] While the north–south gradient of incidence is decreasing,[50] as of 2010 it is still present.[2] MS is more common in regions with northern European populations,[1] so the geographic variation may simply reflect the global distribution of these high-risk populations.[2] A relationship between season of birth and MS lends support to this idea, with fewer people born in the Northern Hemisphere in November compared to May being affected later in life.[53] Environmental factors may play a role during childhood, with several studies finding that people who move to a different region of the world before the age of 15 acquire the new region's risk of MS. If migration takes place after age 15, the persons retain the risk of their home country.[1][54] Some evidence indicates that the effect of moving may still apply to people older than 15.[1] Other Smoking may be an independent risk factor for MS.[55] Stress may be a risk factor, although the evidence to support this is weak.[54] Association with occupational exposures and toxins—mainly organic solvents[56]—has been evaluated, but no clear conclusions have been reached.[54] Vaccinations were studied as causal factors; most studies, though, show no association.[54][57] Several other possible risk factors, such as diet and hormone intake, have been evaluated, but evidence on their relation with the disease is "sparse and unpersuasive".[55] Gout occurs less than would be expected and lower levels of uric acid have been found in people with MS. This has led to the theory that uric acid is protective, although its exact importance remains unknown.[58] Obesity during adolescence and young adulthood is a risk factor for MS.[59] Pathophysiology Main article: Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis Multiple sclerosis The three main characteristics of MS are the formation of lesions in the central nervous system (also called plaques), inflammation, and the destruction of myelin sheaths of neurons. These features interact in a complex and not yet fully understood manner to produce the breakdown of nerve tissue, and in turn, the signs and symptoms of the disease.[1] Cholesterol crystals are believed both to impair myelin repair and aggravate inflammation.[60][61] MS is believed to be an immune-mediated disorder that develops from an interaction of the individual's genetics and as yet unidentified environmental causes.[9] Damage is believed to be caused, at least in part, by attack on the nervous system by a person's own immune system.[1] Lesions Demyelination in MS: On Klüver-Barrera myelin staining, decoloration in the area of the lesion can be appreciated. The name multiple sclerosis refers to the scars (sclerae – better known as plaques or lesions) that form in the nervous system. These lesions most commonly affect the white matter in the optic nerve, brain stem, basal ganglia, and spinal cord, or white matter tracts close to the lateral ventricles.[1] The function of white matter cells is to carry signals between grey matter areas, where the processing is done, and the rest of the body. The peripheral nervous system is rarely involved.[9] To be specific, MS involves the loss of oligodendrocytes, the cells responsible for creating and maintaining a fatty layer—known as the myelin sheath—which helps the neurons carry electrical signals (action potentials).[1] This results in a thinning or complete loss of myelin, and as the disease advances, the breakdown of the axons of neurons. When the myelin is lost, a neuron can no longer effectively conduct electrical signals.[9] A repair process, called remyelination, takes place in early phases of the disease, but the oligodendrocytes are unable to completely rebuild the cell's myelin sheath.[62] Repeated attacks lead to successively less effective remyelinations, until a scar-like plaque is built up around the damaged axons.[62] These scars are the origin of the symptoms and during an attack magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often shows more than 10 new plaques.[1] This could indicate that some number of lesions exist, below which the brain is capable of repairing itself without producing noticeable consequences.[1] Another process involved in the creation of lesions is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the destruction of nearby neurons.[1] A number of lesion patterns have been described.[63] Inflammation Apart from demyelination, the other sign of the disease is inflammation. Fitting with an immunological explanation, the inflammatory process is caused by T cells, a kind of lymphocytes that plays an important role in the body's defenses.[9] T cells gain entry into the brain as a result of disruptions in the blood–brain barrier. The T cells recognize myelin as foreign and attack it, explaining why these cells are also called "autoreactive lymphocytes."[1] The attack on myelin starts inflammatory processes, which trigger other immune cells and the release of soluble factors like cytokines and antibodies. A further breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, in turn, causes a number of other damaging effects, such as swelling, activation of macrophages, and more activation of cytokines and other destructive proteins.[9] Inflammation can potentially reduce transmission of information between neurons in at least three ways.[1] The soluble factors released might stop neurotransmission by intact neurons. These factors could lead to or enhance the loss of myelin, or they may cause the axon to break down completely.[1] Blood–brain barrier The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a part of the capillary system that prevents the entry of T cells into the central nervous system. It may become permeable to these types of cells secondary to an infection by a virus or bacteria. After it repairs itself, typically once the infection has cleared, T cells may remain trapped inside the brain.[9][64] Gadolinium cannot cross a normal BBB, so gadolinium-enhanced MRI is used to show BBB breakdowns.[65] Diagnosis Main article: Multiple sclerosis diagnosis Animation showing dissemination of brain lesions in time and space as demonstrated by monthly MRI studies along a year Multiple sclerosis as seen on MRI Multiple sclerosis is typically diagnosed based on the presenting signs and symptoms, in combination with supporting medical imaging and laboratory testing.[5] It can be difficult to confirm, especially early on, since the signs and symptoms may be similar to those of other medical problems.[1][66] The McDonald criteria, which focus on clinical, laboratory, and radiologic evidence of lesions at different times and in different areas, is the most commonly used method of diagnosis[67] with the Schumacher and Poser criteria being of mostly historical significance.[68] As of 2017, no single test (including biopsy) can provide a definitive diagnosis.[69] Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spine may show areas of demyelination (lesions or plaques). Gadolinium can be administered intravenously as a contrast agent to highlight active plaques, and by elimination, demonstrate the existence of historical lesions not associated with symptoms at the moment of the evaluation.[70][71] Central vein signs (CVSs) have been proposed as a good indicator of MS in comparison with other conditions causing white lesions.[72][73][74][75] One small study found fewer CVSs in older and hypertensive people.[76] Further research on CVS as a biomarker for MS is ongoing.[77] Brain atrophy is seen as an indicator of MS.[78][79] Testing of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from a lumbar puncture can provide evidence of chronic inflammation in the central nervous system. The cerebrospinal fluid is tested for oligoclonal bands of IgG on electrophoresis, which are inflammation markers found in 75–85% of people with MS.[70][80] Differential diagnosis Several diseases present similarly to MS.[81][82] Medical professionals use a patient's specific presentation, history, and exam findings to make an individualized differential. Red flags are findings that suggest an alternate diagnosis, although they do not rule out MS. Red flags include a patient younger than 15 or older than 60, less than 24 hours of symptoms, involvement of multiple cranial nerves, involvement of organs outside of the nervous system, and atypical lab and exam findings.[81][82] In an emergency setting, it is important to rule out a stroke or bleeding in the brain.[82] Intractable vomiting, severe optic neuritis,[25] or bilateral optic neuritis[25] raises suspicion for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD).[83] Infectious diseases that may look similar to multiple sclerosis include HIV, Lyme disease, and Syphilis. Autoimmune diseases include Sarcoidosis, Lupus, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Behçet's disease. Psychiatric conditions such as Anxiety or Conversion disorder may also present in a similar way. Other rare diseases on the differential include CNS lymphoma, congenital leukodystrophies, and anti-MOG-associated myelitis.[81][82] Types and variants Several phenotypes (commonly termed "types"), or patterns of progression, have been described. Phenotypes use the past course of the disease in an attempt to predict the future course. They are important not only for prognosis, but also for treatment decisions. The International Advisory Committee on Clinical Trials of MS describes four types of MS (revised in 2013) in what is known as the Lublin classification:[84][85] Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Primary progressive MS (PPMS) Secondary progressive MS (SPMS) RRMS is characterized by unpredictable relapses followed by periods of months to years of relative quiet (remission) with no new signs of disease activity. Deficits that occur during attacks may either resolve or leave problems, the latter in about 40% of attacks and being more common the longer a person has had the disease.[1][5] This describes the initial course of 80% of individuals with MS.[1] The relapsing-remitting subtype usually begins with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). In CIS, a person has an attack suggestive of demyelination, but does not fulfill the criteria for multiple sclerosis.[1][86] 30 to 70% of persons who experience CIS, later develop MS.[86] PPMS occurs in roughly 10–20% of individuals with the disease, with no remission after the initial symptoms.[5][87] It is characterized by progression of disability from onset, with no, or only occasional and minor, remissions and improvements.[14] The usual age of onset for the primary progressive subtype is later than of the relapsing-remitting subtype. It is similar to the age that secondary progressive usually begins in RRMS, around 40 years of age.[1] SPMS occurs in around 65% of those with initial RRMS, who eventually have progressive neurologic decline between acute attacks without any definite periods of remission.[1][14] Occasional relapses and minor remissions may appear.[14] The most common length of time between disease onset and conversion from RRMS to SPMS is 19 years.[88] Special courses Independently of the types published by the MS associations, regulatory agencies such as the FDA often consider special courses, trying to reflect some clinical trials results on their approval documents. Some examples could be "highly active MS" (HAMS),[89] "active secondary MS" (similar to the old progressive-relapsing)[90] and "rapidly progressing PPMS".[91] Also, deficits always resolving between attacks is sometimes referred to as "benign" MS,[92] although people still build up some degree of disability in the long term.[1] On the other hand, the term malignant multiple sclerosis is used to describe people with MS having reached significant level of disability in a short period.[93] An international panel has published a standardized definition for the course HAMS.[89] Variants Atypical variants of MS have been described; these include tumefactive multiple sclerosis, Balo concentric sclerosis, Schilder's diffuse sclerosis, and Marburg multiple sclerosis. Debate remains on whether they are MS variants or different diseases.[94] Some diseases previously considered MS variants, such as Devic's disease, are now considered outside the MS spectrum.[95] Management Main article: Management of multiple sclerosis Although no cure for multiple sclerosis has been found, several therapies have proven helpful. Several effective treatments can decrease the number of attacks and the rate of progression.[21] The primary aims of therapy are returning function after an attack, preventing new attacks, and preventing disability. Starting medications is generally recommended in people after the first attack when more than two lesions are seen on MRI.[96] The first approved medications used to treat MS were modestly effective, though were poorly tolerated and had many adverse effects.[3] Several treatment options with better safety and tolerability profiles have been introduced,[21] improving the prognosis of MS. As with any medical treatment, medications used in the management of MS have several adverse effects. Alternative treatments are pursued by some people, despite the shortage of supporting evidence of efficacy. Initial management of acute flare During symptomatic attacks, administration of high doses of intravenous corticosteroids, such as methylprednisolone, is the usual therapy,[1] with oral corticosteroids seeming to have a similar efficacy and safety profile.[97] Although effective in the short term for relieving symptoms, corticosteroid treatments do not appear to have a significant impact on long-term recovery.[98][99] The long-term benefit is unclear in optic neuritis as of 2020.[100][25] The consequences of severe attacks that do not respond to corticosteroids might be treatable by plasmapheresis.[1] Chronic management Relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis Multiple disease-modifying medications were approved by regulatory agencies for RRMS; they are modestly effective at decreasing the number of attacks.[101] Interferons[102] and glatiramer acetate are first-line treatments[5] and are roughly equivalent, reducing relapses by approximately 30%.[103] Early-initiated long-term therapy is safe and improves outcomes.[104][105] Treatment of CIS with interferons decreases the chance of progressing to clinical MS.[1][106][107] Efficacy of interferons and glatiramer acetate in children has been estimated to be roughly equivalent to that of adults.[108] The role of some newer agents such as fingolimod,[109] teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate,[110] is not yet entirely clear.[111] Making firm conclusions about the best treatment is difficult, especially regarding the long‐term benefit and safety of early treatment, given the lack of studies directly comparing disease-modifying therapies or long-term monitoring of patient outcomes.[112] The relative effectiveness of different treatments is unclear, as most have only been compared to placebo or a small number of other therapies.[113] Direct comparisons of interferons and glatiramer acetate indicate similar effects or only small differences in effects on relapse rate, disease progression, and MRI measures.[114] Alemtuzumab, natalizumab, and fingolimod may be more effective than other drugs in reducing relapses over the short term in people with RRMS.[115] Natalizumab and interferon beta-1a (Rebif) may reduce relapses compared to both placebo and interferon beta-1a (Avonex) while Interferon beta-1b (Betaseron), glatiramer acetate, and mitoxantrone may also prevent relapses.[113] Evidence on relative effectiveness in reducing disability progression is unclear.[113][115] All medications are associated with adverse effects that may influence their risk to benefit profiles.[113][115] Ublituximab was approved for medical use in the United States in December 2022.[116] Progressive multiple sclerosis In 2011, mitoxantrone was the first medication approved for secondary progressive MS.[117] In this population, tentative evidence supports mitoxantrone moderately slowing the progression of the disease and decreasing rates of relapses over two years.[118][119] New approved medications continue to emerge in modern medicine. In March 2017, the FDA approved ocrelizumab as a treatment for primary progressive MS in adults, the first drug to gain that approval,[120][121][122] with requirements for several Phase IV clinical trials.[123] It is also used for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease in adults.[122] According to a 2021 Cochrane review, ocrelizumab may reduce worsening of symptoms for primary progressive MS and probably increases unwanted effects but makes little or no difference to the number of serious unwanted effects.[124] In 2019, siponimod and cladribine were approved in the United States for the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS).[120] Subsequently, ozanimod was approved in 2020, and ponesimod was approved in 2021, which were both approved for management of CIS, relapsing MS, and SPMS in the U.S., and RRMS in Europe.[125] Adverse effects Irritation zone after injection of glatiramer acetate. The disease-modifying treatments have several adverse effects. One of the most common is irritation at the injection site for glatiramer acetate and the interferons (up to 90% with subcutaneous injections and 33% with intramuscular injections).[102][126] Over time, a visible dent at the injection site, due to the local destruction of fat tissue, known as lipoatrophy, may develop.[126] Interferons may produce flu-like symptoms;[127] some people taking glatiramer experience a post-injection reaction with flushing, chest tightness, heart palpitations, and anxiety, which usually lasts less than thirty minutes.[128] More dangerous but much less common are liver damage from interferons,[129] systolic dysfunction (12%), infertility, and acute myeloid leukemia (0.8%) from mitoxantrone,[118][130] and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occurring with natalizumab (occurring in 1 in 600 people treated).[5][131] Fingolimod may give rise to hypertension and slowed heart rate, macular edema, elevated liver enzymes, or a reduction in lymphocyte levels.[109][111] Tentative evidence supports the short-term safety of teriflunomide, with common side effects including: headaches, fatigue, nausea, hair loss, and limb pain.[101] There have also been reports of liver failure and PML with its use and it is dangerous for fetal development.[111] Most common side effects of dimethyl fumarate are flushing and gastrointestinal problems.[110][132][111] While dimethyl fumarate may lead to a reduction in the white blood cell count there were no reported cases of opportunistic infections during trials.[133] Associated symptoms Both medications and neurorehabilitation have been shown to improve some symptoms, though neither changes the course of the disease.[134] Some symptoms have a good response to medication, such as bladder spasticity, while others are little changed.[1] Equipment such as catheters for neurogenic bladder dysfunction or mobility aids can be helpful in improving functional status. A multidisciplinary approach is important for improving quality of life; however, it is difficult to specify a 'core team' as many health services may be needed at different points in time.[1] Multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs increase activity and participation of people with MS but do not influence impairment level.[135] Studies investigating information provision in support of patient understanding and participation suggest that while interventions (written information, decision aids, coaching, educational programmes) may increase knowledge, the evidence of an effect on decision making and quality of life is mixed and low certainty.[136] There is limited evidence for the overall efficacy of individual therapeutic disciplines,[137][138] though there is good evidence that specific approaches, such as exercise,[139][140][141][142] and psychological therapies are effective.[143] Cognitive training, alone or combined with other neuropsychological interventions, may show positive effects for memory and attention though firm conclusions are not possible given small sample numbers, variable methodology, interventions and outcome measures.[144] The effectiveness of palliative approaches in addition to standard care is uncertain, due to lack of evidence.[145] The effectiveness of interventions, including exercise, specifically for the prevention of falls in people with MS is uncertain, while there is some evidence of an effect on balance function and mobility.[146] Cognitive behavioral therapy has shown to be moderately effective for reducing MS fatigue.[147] The evidence for the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for chronic pain is insufficient to recommend such interventions alone, however their use in combination with medications may be reasonable.[148] Non-pharmaceutical There is some evidence that aquatic therapy is a beneficial intervention.[149] The spasticity associated with MS can be difficult to manage because of the progressive and fluctuating course of the disease.[150] Although there is no firm conclusion on the efficacy in reducing spasticity, PT interventions can be a safe and beneficial option for patients with multiple sclerosis. Physical therapy including vibration interventions, electrical stimulation, exercise therapy, standing therapy, and radial shock wave therapy (RSWT), were beneficial for limiting spasticity, helping limit excitability, or increasing range of motion.[151] Alternative treatments Over 50% of people with MS may use complementary and alternative medicine, although percentages vary depending on how alternative medicine is defined.[18] Regarding the characteristics of users, they are more frequently women, have had MS for a longer time, tend to be more disabled and have lower levels of satisfaction with conventional healthcare.[18] The evidence for the effectiveness for such treatments in most cases is weak or absent.[18][152] Treatments of unproven benefit used by people with MS include dietary supplementation and regimens,[18][153][154] vitamin D,[155] relaxation techniques such as yoga,[18] herbal medicine (including medical cannabis),[18][156][157] hyperbaric oxygen therapy,[158] self-infection with hookworms, reflexology, acupuncture,[18][159] and mindfulness.[160] Evidence suggests vitamin D supplementation, irrespective of the form and dose, provides no benefit for people with MS; this includes for measures such as relapse recurrence, disability, and MRI lesions while effects on health‐related quality of life and fatigue are unclear.[161] There is insufficient evidence supporting high-dose biotin[162][163][164] and some evidence for increased disease activity and higher risk of relapse with its use.[165] Prognosis The availability of treatments that modify the course of multiple sclerosis beginning in the 1990s, known as disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), has improved prognosis. These treatments can reduce relapses and slow progression, but as of 2022 there is no cure.[21][166] The prognosis of MS depends on the subtype of the disease, and there is considerable individual variation in the progression of the disease.[167] In relapsing MS, the most common subtype, a 2016 cohort study found that after a median of 16.8 years from onset, one in ten needed a walking aid, and almost two in ten transitioned to secondary progressive MS, a form characterized by more progressive decline.[21] With treatments available in the 2020s, relapses can be eliminated or substantially reduced. However, "silent progression" of the disease still occurs.[166][168] In addition to secondary progressive MS (SPMS), a small proportion of people with MS (10–15%) experience progressive decline from the onset, known as primary progressive MS (PPMS). Most treatments have been approved for use in relapsing MS; there are fewer treatments with lower efficacy for progressive forms of MS.[169][166][21] The prognosis for progressive MS is worse, with faster accumulation of disability, though with considerable individual variation.[169] In untreated PPMS, the median time from onset to requiring a walking aid is estimated as seven years.[21] In SPMS, a 2014 cohort study reported that people required a walking aid after an average of five years from onset of SPMS, and were chair or bed-bound after an average of fifteen years.[170] After diagnosis of MS, characteristics that predict a worse course are male sex, older age, and greater disability at the time of diagnosis; female sex is associated with a higher relapse rate.[171] As of 2018, no biomarker can accurately predict disease progression in every patient.[167] Spinal cord lesions, abnormalities on MRI, and more brain atrophy are predictive of a worse course, though brain atrophy as a predictor of disease course is experimental and not used in clinical practice as of 2018.[171] Early treatment leads to a better prognosis, but a higher relapse frequency when treated with DMTs is associated with a poorer prognosis.[167][171] A 60-year longitudinal population study conducted in Norway found a 7-year shorter life expectancy in MS compared with the general population and a rise in survival in MS during the observation period. Median life expectancy for RRMS patients was 77.8 years and 71.4 years for PPMS, compared to 81.8 years for the general population. Life expectancy for men was 5 years shorter than for women.[172] Epidemiology This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2022) Deaths from multiple sclerosis per million persons in 2012   0   1   2   3–5   6–12   13–25 MS is the most common autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system.[20] The latest estimation of the total number of people with MS was 2.8 million globally, with a prevalence of 36 per 100,000 people. Moreover, prevalence varies widely in different regions around the world.[22] In Africa, there are 5 people per 100,000 diagnosed with MS, compared to South East Asia where the prevalence is 9 per 100,000, 112 per 100,000 in the Americas, and 133 per 100,000 in Europe.[173] Increasing rates of MS may be explained simply by better diagnosis.[2] Studies on populational and geographical patterns have been common[40] and have led to a number of theories about the cause.[16][54][55] MS usually appears in adults in their late twenties or early thirties but it can rarely start in childhood and after 50 years of age.[2][67] The primary progressive subtype is more common in people in their fifties.[87] Similarly to many autoimmune disorders, the disease is more common in women, and the trend may be increasing.[1][50] As of 2020, globally it is about two times more common in women than in men, and the ratio of women to men with MS is as high as 4:1 in some countries.[174][medical citation needed] In children, it is even more common in females than males,[1] while in people over fifty, it affects males and females almost equally.[87] History Medical discovery Detail of Carswell's drawing of MS lesions in the brain stem and spinal cord (1838) Robert Carswell (1793–1857), a British professor of pathology, and Jean Cruveilhier (1791–1873), a French professor of pathologic anatomy, described and illustrated many of the disease's clinical details, but did not identify it as a separate disease.[175] Specifically, Carswell described the injuries he found as "a remarkable lesion of the spinal cord accompanied with atrophy".[1] Under the microscope, Swiss pathologist Georg Eduard Rindfleisch (1836–1908) noted in 1863 that the inflammation-associated lesions were distributed around blood vessels.[176][177] The French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) was the first person to recognize multiple sclerosis as a distinct disease in 1868.[175] Summarizing previous reports and adding his own clinical and pathological observations, Charcot called the disease sclerose en plaques. Diagnosis history The first attempt to establish a set of diagnostic criteria was also due to Charcot in 1868. He published what now is known as the "Charcot Triad", consisting in nystagmus, intention tremor, and telegraphic speech (scanning speech).[178] Charcot also observed cognition changes, describing his patients as having a "marked enfeeblement of the memory" and "conceptions that formed slowly".[23] Diagnosis was based on Charcot triad and clinical observation until Schumacher made the first attempt to standardize criteria in 1965 by introducing some fundamental requirements: Dissemination of the lesions in time (DIT) and space (DIS), and that "signs and symptoms cannot be explained better by another disease process".[178] The DIT and DIS requirement was later inherited by the Poser and McDonald criteria, whose 2017 revision is in use.[178][167] During the 20th century, theories about the cause and pathogenesis were developed and effective treatments began to appear in the 1990s.[1] Since the beginning of the 21st century, refinements of the concepts have taken place. The 2010 revision of the McDonald criteria allowed for the diagnosis of MS with only one proved lesion (CIS).[179] In 1996, the US National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS) (Advisory Committee on Clinical Trials) defined the first version of the clinical phenotypes that is in use. In this first version they provided standardized definitions for four MS clinical courses: relapsing-remitting (RR), secondary progressive (SP), primary progressive (PP), and progressive relapsing (PR). In 2010, PR was dropped and CIS was incorporated.[179] Three years later, the 2013 revision of the "phenotypes for the disease course" were forced to consider CIS as one of the phenotypes of MS, making obsolete some expressions like "conversion from CIS to MS".[180] Other organizations have proposed later new clinical phenotypes, like HAMS (Highly Active MS).[181] Historical cases Photographic study of locomotion of a woman with MS with walking difficulties created in 1887 by Muybridge There are several historical accounts of people who probably had MS and lived before or shortly after the disease was described by Charcot. A young woman called Halldora who lived in Iceland around 1200 suddenly lost her vision and mobility but recovered them seven days after. Saint Lidwina of Schiedam (1380–1433), a Dutch nun, may be one of the first clearly identifiable people with MS. From the age of 16 until her death at 53, she had intermittent pain, weakness of the legs and vision loss: symptoms typical of MS.[182] Both cases have led to the proposal of a "Viking gene" hypothesis for the dissemination of the disease.[183] Augustus Frederick d'Este (1794–1848), son of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex and Lady Augusta Murray and a grandson of George III of the United Kingdom, almost certainly had MS. D'Este left a detailed diary describing his 22 years living with the disease. His diary began in 1822 and ended in 1846, although it remained unknown until 1948. His symptoms began at age 28 with a sudden transient visual loss (amaurosis fugax) after the funeral of a friend. During his disease, he developed weakness of the legs, clumsiness of the hands, numbness, dizziness, bladder disturbance and erectile dysfunction. In 1844, he began to use a wheelchair. Despite his illness, he kept an optimistic view of life.[184][185] Another early account of MS was kept by the British diarist W. N. P. Barbellion, pen name of Bruce Frederick Cummings (1889–1919), who maintained a detailed log of his diagnosis and struggle.[185] His diary was published in 1919 as The Journal of a Disappointed Man.[186] Charles Dickens, a keen observer, described possible bilateral optic neuritis with reduced contrast vision and Uhthoff phenomenon in the main female character of Bleak House (1852–1853), Esther Summerville.[187] Research Main article: Multiple sclerosis research Epstein-Barr virus ongoing studies As of 2022, the pathogenesis of MS as it relates to EBV is actively investigated, as are disease-modifying therapies; understanding of how risk factors combine with EBV to initiate MS is sought. Whether EBV is the only cause of MS might be better understood if an EBV vaccine is developed and shown to prevent MS as well.[15] Even though a variety of studies showed the connection between an EBV infection and a later development of multiple sclerosis, the mechanisms behind this correlation are still not completely clear. Though there are some leading theories which are explaining the relationship between the two diseases closer. It is expected that the involvement of EBV-infected B-cells[188] and the involvement of anti-EBNA antibodies, which appear to be significantly higher in multiple sclerosis patients, play a crucial role in the development of the disease.[189] This is supported by the fact that with treatment against B-cells, e.g. through Ocrelizumab therapy, the course of multiple sclerosis symptoms will be improved. Annual relapses will appear in a minor rate and disability progression is slower.[190] A study led by a Stanford research unit which was published in 2022, has shown that during an EBV infection, molecular mimicry can occur, where the immune system will produce antibodies against the EBNA1 protein, which at the same time is able to bind to GlialCAM in the myelin. Additionally, they observed a phenomenon which is uncommon in healthy individuals but often detected in multiple sclerosis patients – B-cells are trafficking to the brain and spinal cord, where they are producing oligoclonal antibody bands. A majority of these oligoclonal bands do have an affinity to the viral protein EBNA1, which is cross-reactive to GlialCAM. These antibodies are abundant in approximately 20–25% of multiple sclerosis patients and worsen the autoimmune demyelination which leads consequently to an pathophysiologocal exacerbation of the disease. Furthermore, the intrathecal oligoclonal expansion with a constant somatic hypermutation is unique in multiple sclerosis when compared to other neuroinflammatory diseases. In the study there was also the abundance of antibodies with IGHV 3–7 genes measured, which appears to be connected to the disease progress. Antibodies which are IGHV3–7-based are binding with a high affinity to EBNA1 and GlialCAM. This process is actively thriving the demyelination. It is probable that B-cells, expressing IGHV 3–7 genes entered the CSF and underwent there affinity maturation after facing GlialCAM, which led consequently to the production of high affinity anti-GlialCAM antibodies. This was additionally shown in the EAE mouse model where immunization with EBNA1 lead to a strong B-cell response against GlialCAM, which worsened the EAE.[191] Medications Medications that influence voltage-gated sodium ion channels are under investigation as a potential neuroprotective strategy because of hypothesized role of sodium in the pathological process leading to axonal injury and accumulating disability. There is insufficient evidence of an effect of sodium channel blockers for people with MS.[192] Pathogenesis MS is a clinically defined entity with several atypical presentations. Some auto-antibodies have been found in atypical MS cases, giving birth to separate disease families and restricting the previously wider concept of MS. Anti-AQP4 autoantibodies were found in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), which was previously considered a MS variant. A spectrum of diseases named NMOSD (NMO spectrum diseases) or anti-AQP4 diseases has been accepted.[193] Some cases of MS were presenting anti-MOG autoantibodies, mainly overlapping with the Marburg variant. Anti-MOG autoantibodies were found to be also present in ADEM, and a second spectrum of separated diseases is being considered. This spectrum is named inconsistently across different authors, but it is normally something similar to anti-MOG demyelinating diseases.[193] A third kind of auto-antibodies is accepted. They are several anti-neurofascin auto-antibodies which damage the Ranvier nodes of the neurons. These antibodies are more related to the peripheral nervous demyelination, but they were also found in chronic progressive PPMS and combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD, which is considered another atypical MS presentation).[194] In addition to the significance of auto-antibodies in MS, four different patterns of demyelination have been reported, opening the door to consider MS as a heterogeneous disease.[195] Disease biomarkers MRI brain scan produced using a Gradient-echo phase sequence showing an iron deposit in a white matter lesion (inside green box in the middle of the image; enhanced and marked by red arrow top-left corner)[196] Since disease progression is the result of degeneration of neurons, the roles of proteins showing loss of nerve tissue such as neurofilaments, tau, and N-acetylaspartate are under investigation.[197][198] Improvement in neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) or MRI carry a promise for better diagnosis and prognosis predictions. Regarding MRI, there are several techniques that have already shown some usefulness in research settings and could be introduced into clinical practice, such as double-inversion recovery sequences, magnetization transfer, diffusion tensor, and functional magnetic resonance imaging.[199] These techniques are more specific for the disease than existing ones, but still lack some standardization of acquisition protocols and the creation of normative values.[199] This is particularly the case for proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, for which a number of methodological variations observed in the literature may underlie continued inconsistencies in central nervous system metabolic abnormalities, particularly in N-acetyl aspartate, myoinositol, choline, glutamate, GABA, and GSH, observed for multiple sclerosis and its subtypes.[200] There are other techniques under development that include contrast agents capable of measuring levels of peripheral macrophages, inflammation, or neuronal dysfunction,[199] and techniques that measure iron deposition that could serve to determine the role of this feature in MS, or that of cerebral perfusion.[199] COVID-19 The hospitalization rate was found to be higher among individuals with MS and COVID-19 infection, at 10%, while the pooled infection rate is estimated at 4%. The pooled prevalence of death in hospitalized individuals with MS is estimated as 4%.[201] Other emerging theories One emerging hypothesis, referred to as the hygiene hypothesis, suggests that early-life exposure to infectious agents helps to develop the immune system and reduces susceptibility to allergies and autoimmune disorders, including MS. Germ-free mice infected with transplanted fecal matter from MS patients exhibit an increased risk of developing EAE, an animal model of MS.[202][medical citation needed] It has also been proposed that certain bacteria found in the gut use molecular mimicry to infiltrate the brain via the gut-brain axis, initiating an inflammatory response and increasing blood-brain barrier permeability. Vitamin D levels have also been correlated with MS; lower levels of vitamin D correspond to an increased risk of MS, suggesting a reduced prevalence in the tropics – an area with more Vitamin D-rich sunlight – strengthening the impact of geographical location on MS development.[203] MS mechanisms begin when peripheral autoreactive effector CD4+ T cells get activated and move into the CNS. Antigen-presenting cells localize the reactivation of autoreactive effector CD4-T cells once they have entered the CNS, attracting more T cells and macrophages to form the inflammatory lesion.[204][medical citation needed] In MS patients, macrophages and microglia assemble at locations where demyelination and neurodegeneration are actively occurring, and microglial activation is more apparent in the normal-appearing white matter of MS patients.[205] Astrocytes generate neurotoxic chemicals like nitric oxide and TNFα, attract neurotoxic inflammatory monocytes to the CNS, and are responsible for astrogliosis, the scarring that prevents the spread of neuroinflammation and kills neurons inside the scarred area.[206][better source needed] The term child actor or child actress is generally applied to a child acting on stage or in movies or television. An adult who began their acting career as a child may also be called a child actor, or a "former child actor". Closely associated terms include teenage actor or teen actor, an actor who reached popularity as a teenager. Famous earlier examples include Elizabeth Taylor, who started as a child star in the early 1940s in productions like National Velvet before becoming a popular film star as an adult in movies. Many child actors find themselves struggling to adapt as they become adults, mainly due to typecasting. Macaulay Culkin and Lindsay Lohan are two particular famous child actors who eventually experienced much difficulty with the fame they acquired at a young age. Some child actors do go on to have successful acting careers as adults; notable actors who first gained fame as children include Mickey Rooney, Kurt Russell, Jodie Foster, Christian Bale, Elijah Wood, Natalie Portman, and Scarlett Johansson. Other child actors have gone on to successful careers in other fields, including director Ron Howard, politicians Lech and Jarosław Kaczyński, and singer Jenny Lewis. Regulation In the United States, the activities of child actors are regulated by the governing labor union, if any, and state laws. Some projects film in distant locations specifically to evade regulations intended to protect the child. Longer work hours or risky stunts prohibited by California, for example, might be permitted to a project filming in British Columbia. US federal law "specifically exempted minors working in the entertainment business from all provisions of the child labor Laws."[citation needed] Any regulation of child actors is governed by disparate state laws. California Due to the large presence of the entertainment industry in Hollywood, the state of California has some of the most explicit laws protecting child actors. Being a minor, a child actor must secure an entertainment work permit before accepting any paid work. Compulsory education laws mandate that the education of the child actor not be disrupted while the child is working, whether the child actor is enrolled in public school, private school or even home school. The child does their schoolwork under the supervision of a studio teacher while on the set. United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, a child actor is defined as someone under school leaving age.[1] Before a child can work, they require a performance license from their Local Education Authority as well as a licensed chaperone; a parent can only chaperone their own child, and a chaperone's duties include acting in loco parentis and record arrival and departure time from the work place, the time a child is working, their breaks and the amount of tutoring.[1][2] A child requires three hours minimum of tutoring daily and a lesson must be a minimum of 30 minutes to count towards the total and with regards to 16 and 17-year-old in further education, considerations are made in regards to their studies.[3] There are regulations and guidance to safeguard all actors under the age of 18; OFCOM guidance states a child's health and safety, well being and welfare is paramount in television production and factors such as their age, maturity and life experiences can affect their performance.[4] OFCOM also advises that broadcasters undertake risk assessments, consider seeking expert advice and follow best practice.[4] Issues Ownership of earnings In the United States before the 1930s, many child actors never got to see the money they earned because they were not in charge of this money. Jackie Coogan earned millions of dollars from working as a child actor only to see most of it squandered by his parents. In 1939, California weighed in on this controversy and enacted the Coogan Bill, which requires a portion of the earnings of a child to be preserved in a special savings account called a blocked trust.[5] A trust that is not actively monitored can also be problematic, however, as in the case of Gary Coleman, who after working from 1974, later sued his adoptive parents and former business advisor for $3.8 million over misappropriation of his trust fund.[6][7] Competitive pressure Some people[who?] also criticize the parents of child actors for allowing their children to work, believing that more "normal" activities should be the staple during the childhood years. Others[who?] observe that competition is present in all areas of a child's life—from sports to student newspaper to orchestra and band—and believe that the work ethic instilled or the talent developed accrues to the child's benefit.[citation needed] The child actor may experience unique and negative pressures when working under tight production schedules. Large projects which depend for their success on the ability of the child to deliver an effective performance add to the pressure.[citation needed] Ethel Merman, who several times worked in long-running stage productions with child actors, disliked what she eventually saw as their over-professionalization—"acting more like midgets than children"—and disapproved of parents pushing adulthood on them.[8] After the childhood success This section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Jodie Foster in 1974 There are many instances of troubled adult lives due to the stressful environment to which child actors are subjected. It is common to see a child actor grow up in front of the camera, whether in films, TV shows or both. However, it is not uncommon to see child actors continue their careers throughout as actors or in a different professional field. Jodie Foster started acting at age 3, becoming the quintessential child actor during the 1970's with roles in films such as Tom Sawyer (1973), Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore (1974), Taxi Driver (1976), Bugsy Malone (1976), The Little Girl Who Lives Down the Lane (1976), and Freaky Friday (1976). A child prodigy, Foster received her first Academy Award nomination at age 13 and later took a sabbatical from films to attend Yale University. She made a successful transition to adult roles, winning two Academy Awards for Best Actress before the age of 30, and starring in several successful and acclaimed films such as The Accused (1988), The Silence of the Lambs (1991), Nell (1994), Maverick (1994), Contact (1997), and The Brave One (2007), thus establishing herself as one of the most accomplished and sought-after actresses of her generation. She has also ventured into directing and her directing credits include films such as Little Man Tate (1991), Money Monster (2016) and television shows such as House of Cards, Orange Is the New Black, and Black Mirror. Now adults, Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint and Emma Watson, the three leads of the acclaimed Harry Potter film series (2001–11), starred in every installment in the series, and have since continued to act in film, television, and theater in their early 30's. Dakota Fanning rose to prominence after her breakthrough performance at age 7 in the film I Am Sam (2001). Her performance earned her a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination at age 8 in 2002, making her the youngest nominee in SAG history. She later appeared in major Hollywood productions, in such acclaimed blockbuster films as Man on Fire (2004), War of the Worlds (2005), Charlotte's Web (2006), Hounddog (2007), The Secret Life of Bees (2008), Coraline (2009), The Twilight Saga film series (2009–12), The Runaways (2010), and The Motel Life (2012). Fanning's younger sister, Elle Fanning also rose to prominence as a child actress, having appeared in many films since before she turned 3. Miranda Cosgrove, known mainly for her role as Megan on the Nickelodeon sitcom Drake & Josh as a child, gained more attention for her role as a teenager in the show iCarly. Since the end of the show she has been featured in other roles, including as the voice of Margo in the Despicable Me franchise. Once she was of age, she decided to pursue a college degree in film at the University of Southern California.[9] Late actress Shirley Temple became a public figure and diplomat, beginning in the 1960's. Some of her duties included representing the United Nations, and becoming a U.S. ambassador in countries such as Ghana and Czechoslovakia.[10] Mary-Kate Olsen, who shared the role of Michelle Tanner with her twin sister Ashley on the ABC sitcom Full House, was treated for an eating disorder, deemed anorexia, but Ashley remained less troubled. In an article with the magazine Marie Claire, Mary-Kate expressed the bittersweet nature of the twins' childhood. "I look at old photos of me, and I don't feel connected to them at all," she said. "I would never wish my upbringing on anyone... but I wouldn't take it back for the world." The twins eventually retired from acting to pursue a full-time career in the fashion industry, which, to this day, is continuously successful with an estimated net worth of approximately $100,000,000. Mandy Moore is one of the child stars to have success as an adult with the start of her growing career in 1993. Drew Barrymore, a former child star, started acting at age 3. During her childhood she battled with drugs, but recovered and currently continues to act. Natalie Portman took a small break in acting to get a bachelor's degree in Psychology from Harvard University before continuing her career as an actress. Rider Strong, known as "Shawn Hunter" in Boy Meets World, was educated at Columbia University and now runs a successful blog and has published a graphic novel.[11] Neil Patrick Harris started his career as a child actor in Doogie Howser, M.D. He continues to act in television, films and theater. Harris is now a cult figure icon. Jonathan Lipnicki, known mostly for the Stuart Little films, now successfully competes in Brazilian jiu-jitsu.[11] Sara Gilbert is known for her role on Roseanne and later created and served as a co-host for CBS's The Talk. Also from Roseanne, Michael Fishman continued to work in film, but behind the scenes and has since been nominated for an Emmy for the work he did in Sports Science. Both Gilbert and Fishman returned for the later series based on Roseanne, The Conners, with Gilbert also serving as an executive producer and guiding the series through its transition after Roseanne Barr was fired after the tenth season of the revived Roseanne.[11] Kirsten Dunst and Lacey Chabert both made the transition from a child actress to an adult actress with a rough patch including depression. After a stay in a rehabilitation center, Dunst was able to recover and continue her career. She proves that the pressures of growing up under the spotlight may not come without repercussions.[12] Roddy McDowall, who had a long and outstanding career including as the regular star of the Planet of the Apes series; Micky Dolenz, who started his career as a child star in the 1950s, grew up to be a musician of the successful 1960s pop group The Monkees, which had its own successful television show; Ron Howard, who, in addition to being the star of both of the long running The Andy Griffith Show and Happy Days television series, became an Academy Award-winning director in adulthood; Elijah Wood, who continued his career successfully into adulthood, starring as Frodo Baggins in The Lord of the Rings film series and starring as Ryan Newman in the television series Wilfred. Other careers This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Many actors and child actors careers are often quite short. Many actors, out of personal choice, that start their careers as child actors decide not to pursue the same careers as adults. Shirley Temple, for example became a public figure and diplomat. Peter Ostrum, appearing in his only role, the lead character of Charlie Bucket in Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory became a large-scale veterinarian surgeon. While Jenny Lewis, formerly of film Troop Beverly Hills in 1989, is a well-known singer-songwriter indie rock musician. In Poland, former child actors and identical twin brothers Lech and Jarosław Kaczyński became successful politicians, at one time Lech being president and Jarosław the prime minister. Walter Elias Disney (/ˈdɪzni/;[2] December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966) was an American animator, film producer and entrepreneur. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons. As a film producer, he holds the record for most Academy Awards earned and nominations by an individual, having won 22 Oscars from 59 nominations. He was presented with two Golden Globe Special Achievement Awards and an Emmy Award, among other honors. Several of his films are included in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress and have also been named as some of the greatest films ever by the American Film Institute. Disney was the first person to be nominated for Academy Awards in six different categories. Born in Chicago in 1901, Disney developed an early interest in drawing. He took art classes as a boy and got a job as a commercial illustrator at the age of 18. He moved to California in the early 1920s and set up the Disney Brothers Studio with his brother Roy. With Ub Iwerks, he developed the character Mickey Mouse in 1928, his first highly popular success; he also provided the voice for his creation in the early years. As the studio grew, he became more adventurous, introducing synchronized sound, full-color three-strip Technicolor, feature-length cartoons and technical developments in cameras. The results, seen in features such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Pinocchio, Fantasia (both 1940), Dumbo (1941), and Bambi (1942), furthered the development of animated film. New animated and live-action films followed after World War II, including the critically successful Cinderella (1950), Sleeping Beauty (1959) and Mary Poppins (1964), the last of which received five Academy Awards. In the 1950s, Disney expanded into the amusement park industry, and in July 1955 he opened Disneyland in Anaheim, California. To fund the project he diversified into television programs, such as Walt Disney's Disneyland and The Mickey Mouse Club. He was also involved in planning the 1959 Moscow Fair, the 1960 Winter Olympics, and the 1964 New York World's Fair. In 1965, he began development of another theme park, Disney World, the heart of which was to be a new type of city, the "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow" (EPCOT). Disney was a heavy smoker throughout his life and died of lung cancer in December 1966 before either the park or the EPCOT project were completed. Disney was a shy, self-deprecating and insecure man in private but adopted a warm and outgoing public persona. He had high standards and high expectations of those with whom he worked. Although there have been accusations that he was racist or antisemitic, they have been contradicted by many who knew him. Historiography of Disney has taken a variety of perspectives, ranging from views of him as a purveyor of homely patriotic values to being a representative of American imperialism. He remains an important figure in the history of animation and in the cultural history of the United States, where he is considered a national cultural icon. His film work continues to be shown and adapted, and the Disney theme parks have grown in size and number to attract visitors in several countries. Early life Pale yellow wooden house with brown trim surrounded by white picket fence Disney's childhood home Disney was born on December 5, 1901, at 1249 Tripp Avenue, in Chicago's Hermosa neighborhood.[a] He was the fourth son of Elias Disney‍—‌born in the Province of Canada, to Irish parents‍—‌and Flora (née Call), an American of German and English descent.[4][5][b] Aside from Walt, Elias and Flora's sons were Herbert, Raymond and Roy; and the couple had a fifth child, Ruth, in December 1903.[8] In 1906, when Disney was four, the family moved to a farm in Marceline, Missouri, where his uncle Robert had just purchased land. In Marceline, Disney developed his interest in drawing when he was paid to draw the horse of a retired neighborhood doctor.[9] Elias was a subscriber to the Appeal to Reason newspaper, and Disney practiced drawing by copying the front-page cartoons of Ryan Walker.[10] He also began to develop an ability to work with watercolors and crayons.[5] He lived near the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway line and became enamored with trains.[11] He and his younger sister Ruth started school at the same time at the Park School in Marceline in late 1909.[12] The Disney family were active members of a Congregational church.[13] In 1911, the Disneys moved to Kansas City, Missouri.[14] There, Disney attended the Benton Grammar School, where he met fellow-student Walter Pfeiffer, who came from a family of theatre fans and introduced him to the world of vaudeville and motion pictures. Before long, Disney was spending more time at the Pfeiffers' house than at home.[15] Elias had purchased a newspaper delivery route for The Kansas City Star and Kansas City Times. Disney and his brother Roy woke up at 4:30 every morning to deliver the Times before school and repeated the round for the evening Star after school. The schedule was exhausting, and Disney often received poor grades after falling asleep in class, but he continued his paper route for more than six years.[16] He attended Saturday courses at the Kansas City Art Institute and also took a correspondence course in cartooning.[5][17] In 1917, Elias bought stock in a Chicago jelly producer, the O-Zell Company, and moved back to the city with his family.[18] Disney enrolled at McKinley High School and became the cartoonist of the school newspaper, drawing patriotic pictures about World War I;[19][20] he also took night courses at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts.[21] In mid-1918, he attempted to join the United States Army to fight the Germans, but he was rejected as too young. After forging the date of birth on his birth certificate, he joined the Red Cross in September 1918 as an ambulance driver. He was shipped to France but arrived in November, after the armistice.[22] He drew cartoons on the side of his ambulance for decoration and had some of his work published in the army newspaper Stars and Stripes.[23] He returned to Kansas City in October 1919,[24] where he worked as an apprentice artist at the Pesmen-Rubin Commercial Art Studio, where he drew commercial illustrations for advertising, theater programs and catalogs, and befriended fellow artist Ub Iwerks.[25] Career Early career: 1920–1928 Walt Disney's business envelope featured a self-portrait, c. 1921. In January 1920, as Pesmen-Rubin's revenue declined after Christmas, Disney, aged 18, and Iwerks were laid off. They started their own business, the short-lived Iwerks-Disney Commercial Artists.[26] Failing to attract many customers, Disney and Iwerks agreed that Disney should leave temporarily to earn money at the Kansas City Film Ad Company, run by A. V. Cauger; the following month Iwerks, who was not able to run their business alone, also joined.[27] The company produced commercials using the cutout animation technique.[28] Disney became interested in animation, although he preferred drawn cartoons such as Mutt and Jeff and Max Fleischer's Out of the Inkwell. With the assistance of a borrowed book on animation and a camera, he began experimenting at home.[29][c] He came to the conclusion that cel animation was more promising than the cutout method.[d] Unable to persuade Cauger to try cel animation at the company, Disney opened a new business with a co-worker from the Film Ad Co, Fred Harman.[31] Their main client was the local Newman Theater, and the short cartoons they produced were sold as "Newman's Laugh-O-Grams".[32] Disney studied Paul Terry's Aesop's Fables as a model, and the first six "Laugh-O-Grams" were modernized fairy tales.[33] 3:23 Newman Laugh-O-Gram (1921) In May 1921, the success of the "Laugh-O-Grams" led to the establishment of Laugh-O-Gram Studio, for which he hired more animators, including Fred Harman's brother Hugh, Rudolf Ising and Iwerks.[34] The Laugh-O-Grams cartoons did not provide enough income to keep the company solvent, so Disney started production of Alice's Wonderland‍—‌based on Alice's Adventures in Wonderland‍—‌which combined live action with animation; he cast Virginia Davis in the title role.[35] The result, a 12-and-a-half-minute, one-reel film, was completed too late to save Laugh-O-Gram Studio, which went into bankruptcy in 1923.[36] See also: Walt Disney Animation Studios Disney moved to Hollywood in July 1923 at 21 years old. Although New York was the center of the cartoon industry, he was attracted to Los Angeles because his brother Roy was convalescing from tuberculosis there,[37] and he hoped to become a live-action film director.[38] Disney's efforts to sell Alice's Wonderland were in vain until he heard from New York film distributor Margaret J. Winkler. She was losing the rights to both the Out of the Inkwell and Felix the Cat cartoons, and needed a new series. In October, they signed a contract for six Alice comedies, with an option for two further series of six episodes each.[38][39] Disney and his brother Roy formed the Disney Brothers Studio‍—‌which later became The Walt Disney Company‍—‌to produce the films;[40][41] they persuaded Davis and her family to relocate to Hollywood to continue production, with Davis on contract at $100 a month. In July 1924, Disney also hired Iwerks, persuading him to relocate to Hollywood from Kansas City.[42] In 1926,[43] the first official Walt Disney Studio was established at 2725 Hyperion Avenue, demolished in 1940.[44] A cartoon rabbit is driving a tramcar; other cartoon rabbits are in, under, on and around the car. Theatrical poster for Trolley Troubles (1927) By 1926, Winkler's role in the distribution of the Alice series had been handed over to her husband, the film producer Charles Mintz, although the relationship between him and Disney was sometimes strained.[45] The series ran until July 1927,[46] by which time Disney had begun to tire of it and wanted to move away from the mixed format to all animation.[45][47] After Mintz requested new material to distribute through Universal Pictures, Disney and Iwerks created Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, a character Disney wanted to be "peppy, alert, saucy and venturesome, keeping him also neat and trim".[47][48] In February 1928, Disney hoped to negotiate a larger fee for producing the Oswald series, but found Mintz wanting to reduce the payments. Mintz had also persuaded many of the artists involved to work directly for him, including Harman, Ising, Carman Maxwell and Friz Freleng. Disney also found out that Universal owned the intellectual property rights to Oswald. Mintz threatened to start his own studio and produce the series himself if Disney refused to accept the reductions. Disney declined Mintz's ultimatum and lost most of his animation staff, except Iwerks, who chose to remain with him.[49][50][e] Creation of Mickey Mouse to the first Academy Awards: 1928–1933 To replace Oswald, Disney and Iwerks developed Mickey Mouse, possibly inspired by a pet mouse that Disney had adopted while working in his Laugh-O-Gram studio, although the origins of the character are unclear.[52][f] Disney's original choice of name was Mortimer Mouse, but his wife Lillian thought it too pompous, and suggested Mickey instead.[53][g] Iwerks revised Disney's provisional sketches to make the character easier to animate. Disney, who had begun to distance himself from the animation process,[55] provided Mickey's voice until 1947. In the words of one Disney employee, "Ub designed Mickey's physical appearance, but Walt gave him his soul."[56] A cartoon mouse is operating a ship's steering wheel The first appearance of Mickey Mouse, in Steamboat Willie (1928) Mickey Mouse first appeared in May 1928 as a single test screening of the short Plane Crazy, but it, and the second feature, The Gallopin' Gaucho, failed to find a distributor.[57] Following the 1927 sensation The Jazz Singer, Disney used synchronized sound on the third short, Steamboat Willie, to create the first post-produced sound cartoon. After the animation was complete, Disney signed a contract with the former executive of Universal Pictures, Pat Powers, to use the "Powers Cinephone" recording system;[58] Cinephone became the new distributor for Disney's early sound cartoons, which soon became popular.[59] To improve the quality of the music, Disney hired the professional composer and arranger Carl Stalling, on whose suggestion the Silly Symphony series was developed, providing stories through the use of music; the first in the series, The Skeleton Dance (1929), was drawn and animated entirely by Iwerks. Also hired at this time were several local artists, some of whom stayed with the company as core animators; the group later became known as the Nine Old Men.[60][h] Both the Mickey Mouse and Silly Symphonies series were successful, but Disney and his brother felt they were not receiving their rightful share of profits from Powers. In 1930, Disney tried to trim costs from the process by urging Iwerks to abandon the practice of animating every separate cel in favor of the more efficient technique of drawing key poses and letting lower-paid assistants sketch the inbetween poses. Disney asked Powers for an increase in payments for the cartoons. Powers refused and signed Iwerks to work for him; Stalling resigned shortly afterwards, thinking that without Iwerks, the Disney Studio would close.[61] Disney had a nervous breakdown in October 1931‍—‌which he blamed on the machinations of Powers and his own overwork‍—‌so he and Lillian took an extended holiday to Cuba and a cruise to Panama to recover.[62] Grigori Aleksandrov, Sergei Eisenstein, Disney and Eduard Tisse in 1930 With the loss of Powers as distributor, Disney studios signed a contract with Columbia Pictures to distribute the Mickey Mouse cartoons, which became increasingly popular, including internationally.[63][64][i] Disney and his crew would also introduce new cartoon stars like Pluto in 1930, Goofy in 1932 and Donald Duck in 1934.[65] Always keen to embrace new technology and encouraged by his new contract with United Artists, Disney filmed Flowers and Trees (1932) in full-color three-strip Technicolor;[66] he was also able to negotiate a deal giving him the sole right to use the three-strip process until August 31, 1935.[67] All subsequent Silly Symphony cartoons were in color.[68] Flowers and Trees was popular with audiences[69] and won the inaugural Academy Award for best Short Subject (Cartoon) at the 1932 ceremony. Disney had been nominated for another film in that category, Mickey's Orphans, and received an Honorary Award "for the creation of Mickey Mouse".[70][71] In 1933, Disney produced The Three Little Pigs, a film described by the media historian Adrian Danks as "the most successful short animation of all time".[72] The film won Disney another Academy Award in the Short Subject (Cartoon) category. The film's success led to a further increase in the studio's staff, which numbered nearly 200 by the end of the year.[73] Disney realized the importance of telling emotionally gripping stories that would interest the audience,[74] and he invested in a "story department" separate from the animators, with storyboard artists who would detail the plots of Disney's films.[75] Golden age of animation: 1934–1941 Walt Disney sits in front of a set of models of the seven dwarfs Walt Disney introduces each of the seven dwarfs in a scene from the original 1937 Snow White theatrical trailer. By 1934, Disney had become dissatisfied with producing formulaic cartoon shorts,[65] and believed a feature-length cartoon would be more profitable.[76] The studio began the four-year production of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, based on the fairy tale. When news leaked out about the project, many in the film industry predicted it would bankrupt the company; industry insiders nicknamed it "Disney's Folly".[77] The film, which was the first animated feature made in full color and sound, cost $1.5 million to produce‍—‌three times over budget.[78] To ensure the animation was as realistic as possible, Disney sent his animators on courses at the Chouinard Art Institute;[79] he brought animals into the studio and hired actors so that the animators could study realistic movement.[80] To portray the changing perspective of the background as a camera moved through a scene, Disney's animators developed a multiplane camera which allowed drawings on pieces of glass to be set at various distances from the camera, creating an illusion of depth. The glass could be moved to create the impression of a camera passing through the scene. The first work created on the camera‍—‌a Silly Symphony called The Old Mill (1937)‍—‌won the Academy Award for Animated Short Film because of its impressive visual power. Although Snow White had been largely finished by the time the multiplane camera had been completed, Disney ordered some scenes be re-drawn to use the new effects.[81] Snow White premiered in December 1937 to high praise from critics and audiences. The film became the most successful motion picture of 1938 and by May 1939 its total gross of $6.5 million made it the most successful sound film made to that date.[77][j] Disney won another Honorary Academy Award, which consisted of one full-sized and seven miniature Oscar statuettes.[83][k] The success of Snow White heralded one of the most productive eras for the studio; the Walt Disney Family Museum calls the following years "the 'Golden Age of Animation' ".[84][85] With work on Snow White finished, the studio began producing Pinocchio in early 1938 and Fantasia in November of the same year. Both films were released in 1940, and neither performed well at the box office‍—‌partly because revenues from Europe had dropped following the start of World War II in 1939. The studio made a loss on both pictures and was deeply in debt by the end of February 1941.[86] In response to the financial crisis, Disney and his brother Roy started the company's first public stock offering in 1940, and implemented heavy salary cuts. The latter measure, and Disney's sometimes high-handed and insensitive manner of dealing with staff, led to a 1941 animators' strike which lasted five weeks.[87] While a federal mediator from the National Labor Relations Board negotiated with the two sides, Disney accepted an offer from the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs to make a goodwill trip to South America, ensuring he was absent during a resolution he knew would be unfavorable to the studio.[88][l] As a result of the strike‍—‌and the financial state of the company‍—‌several animators left the studio, and Disney's relationship with other members of staff was permanently strained as a result.[91] The strike temporarily interrupted the studio's next production, Dumbo (1941), which Disney produced in a simple and inexpensive manner; the film received a positive reaction from audiences and critics alike.[92] World War II and beyond: 1941–1950 Disney drawing Goofy for a group of girls in Argentina, 1941 Shortly after the release of Dumbo in October 1941, the U.S. entered World War II. Disney formed the Walt Disney Training Films Unit within the company to produce instruction films for the military such as Four Methods of Flush Riveting and Aircraft Production Methods.[93] Disney also met with Henry Morgenthau Jr., the Secretary of the Treasury, and agreed to produce short Donald Duck cartoons to promote war bonds.[94] Disney also produced several propaganda productions, including shorts such as Der Fuehrer's Face‍—‌which won an Academy Award‍—‌and the 1943 feature film Victory Through Air Power.[95] The military films generated only enough revenue to cover costs, and the feature film Bambi‍—‌which had been in production since 1937‍—‌underperformed on its release in April 1942, and lost $200,000 at the box office.[96] On top of the low earnings from Pinocchio and Fantasia, the company had debts of $4 million with the Bank of America in 1944.[97][m] At a meeting with Bank of America executives to discuss the future of the company, the bank's chairman and founder, Amadeo Giannini, told his executives, "I've been watching the Disneys' pictures quite closely because I knew we were lending them money far above the financial risk. ... They're good this year, they're good next year, and they're good the year after. ... You have to relax and give them time to market their product."[98] Disney's production of short films decreased in the late 1940s, coinciding with increasing competition in the animation market from Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Roy Disney, for financial reasons, suggested more combined animation and live-action productions.[58][n] In 1948, Disney initiated a series of popular live-action nature films, titled True-Life Adventures, with Seal Island the first; the film won the Academy Award in the Best Short Subject (Two-Reel) category.[99] Theme parks, television and other interests: 1950–1966 In early 1950, Disney produced Cinderella, his studio's first animated feature in eight years. It was popular with critics and theater audiences. Costing $2.2 million to produce, it earned nearly $8 million in its first year.[100][o] Disney was less involved than he had been with previous pictures because of his involvement in his first entirely live-action feature, Treasure Island (1950), which was shot in Britain, as was The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men (1952).[101] Other all-live-action features followed, many of which had patriotic themes.[58][p] He continued to produce full-length animated features too, including Alice in Wonderland (1951) and Peter Pan (1953). From the early to mid-1950s, Disney began to devote less attention to the animation department, entrusting most of its operations to his key animators, the Nine Old Men, although he was always present at story meetings. Instead, he started concentrating on other ventures.[102] Around the same time, Disney would establish his own film distribution chain Buena Vista, replacing his most recent distributor RKO Pictures.[103] Disney shows the plans of Disneyland to officials from Orange County in December 1954. For several years Disney had been considering building a theme park. When he visited Griffith Park in Los Angeles with his daughters, he wanted to be in a clean, unspoiled park, where both children and their parents could have fun.[104] He visited the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen, Denmark, and was heavily influenced by the cleanliness and layout of the park.[105] In March 1952 he received zoning permission to build a theme park in Burbank, near the Disney studios.[106] This site proved too small, and a larger plot in Anaheim, 35 miles (56 km) south of the studio, was purchased. To distance the project from the studio‍—‌which might attract the criticism of shareholders‍—‌Disney formed WED Enterprises (now Walt Disney Imagineering) and used his own money to fund a group of designers and animators to work on the plans;[107][108] those involved became known as "Imagineers".[109] After obtaining bank funding he invited other stockholders, American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres‍—‌part of American Broadcasting Company (ABC)‍—‌and Western Printing and Lithographing Company.[58] In mid-1954, Disney sent his Imagineers to every amusement park in the U.S. to analyze what worked and what pitfalls or problems there were in the various locations and incorporated their findings into his design.[110] Construction work started in July 1954, and Disneyland opened in July 1955; the opening ceremony was broadcast on ABC, which reached 70 million viewers.[111] The park was designed as a series of themed lands, linked by the central Main Street, U.S.A.‍—‌a replica of the main street in his hometown of Marceline. The connected themed areas were Adventureland, Frontierland, Fantasyland and Tomorrowland. The park also contained the narrow gauge Disneyland Railroad that linked the lands; around the outside of the park was a high berm to separate the park from the outside world.[112][113] An editorial in The New York Times considered that Disney had "tastefully combined some of the pleasant things of yesterday with fantasy and dreams of tomorrow".[114] Although there were early minor problems with the park, it was a success, and after a month's operation, Disneyland was receiving over 20,000 visitors a day; by the end of its first year, it attracted 3.6 million guests.[115] The money from ABC was contingent on Disney television programs.[116] The studio had been involved in a successful television special on Christmas Day 1950 about the making of Alice in Wonderland. Roy believed the program added millions to the box office takings. In a March 1951 letter to shareholders, he wrote that "television can be a most powerful selling aid for us, as well as a source of revenue. It will probably be on this premise that we enter television when we do".[58] In 1954, after the Disneyland funding had been agreed, ABC broadcast Walt Disney's Disneyland, an anthology consisting of animated cartoons, live-action features and other material from the studio's library. The show was successful in terms of ratings and profits, earning an audience share of over 50%.[117][q] In April 1955, Newsweek called the series an "American institution".[118] ABC was pleased with the ratings, leading to Disney's first daily television program, The Mickey Mouse Club, a variety show catering specifically to children.[119] The program was accompanied by merchandising through various companies (Western Printing, for example, had been producing coloring books and comics for over 20 years, and produced several items connected to the show).[120] One of the segments of Disneyland consisted of the five-part miniseries Davy Crockett which, according to Gabler, "became an overnight sensation".[121] The show's theme song, "The Ballad of Davy Crockett", became internationally popular, and ten million records were sold.[122] As a result, Disney formed his own record production and distribution entity, Disneyland Records.[123] As well as the construction of Disneyland, Disney worked on other projects away from the studio. He was consultant to the 1959 American National Exhibition in Moscow; Disney Studios' contribution was America the Beautiful, a 19-minute film in the 360-degree Circarama theater that was one of the most popular attractions.[58] The following year he acted as the chairman of the Pageantry Committee for the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, California, where he designed the opening, closing and medal ceremonies.[124] He was one of twelve investors in the Celebrity Sports Center, which opened in 1960 in Glendale, Colorado; he and Roy bought out the others in 1962, making the Disney company the sole owner.[125] Disney in 1954 Despite the demands wrought by non-studio projects, Disney continued to work on film and television projects. In 1955, he was involved in "Man in Space", an episode of the Disneyland series, which was made in collaboration with NASA rocket designer Wernher von Braun.[r] Disney also oversaw aspects of the full-length features Lady and the Tramp (the first animated film in CinemaScope) in 1955, Sleeping Beauty (the first animated film in Technirama 70 mm film) in 1959, One Hundred and One Dalmatians (the first animated feature film to use Xerox cels) in 1961, and The Sword in the Stone in 1963.[127] In 1964, Disney produced Mary Poppins, based on the book series by P. L. Travers; he had been trying to acquire the rights to the story since the 1940s.[128] It became the most successful Disney film of the 1960s, although Travers disliked the film intensely and regretted having sold the rights.[129] The same year he also became involved in plans to expand the California Institute of the Arts (colloquially called CalArts), and had an architect draw up blueprints for a new building.[130] Disney provided four exhibits for the 1964 New York World's Fair, for which he obtained funding from selected corporate sponsors. For PepsiCo, who planned a tribute to UNICEF, Disney developed It's a Small World, a boat ride with audio-animatronic dolls depicting children of the world; Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln contained an animatronic Abraham Lincoln giving excerpts from his speeches; Carousel of Progress promoted the importance of electricity; and Ford's Magic Skyway portrayed the progress of mankind. Elements of all four exhibits‍—‌principally concepts and technology‍—‌were re-installed in Disneyland, although It's a Small World is the ride that most closely resembles the original.[131][132] During the early to mid-1960s, Disney developed plans for a ski resort in Mineral King, a glacial valley in California's Sierra Nevada. He hired experts such as the renowned Olympic ski coach and ski-area designer Willy Schaeffler.[133][134][s] With income from Disneyland accounting for an increasing proportion of the studio's income, Disney continued to look for venues for other attractions. In 1963 he presented a project to create a theme park in downtown St. Louis, Missouri; he initially reached an agreement with the Civic Center Redevelopment Corp, which controlled the land, but the deal later collapsed over funding.[136][137] In late 1965, he announced plans to develop another theme park to be called "Disney World" (now Walt Disney World), a few miles southwest of Orlando, Florida. Disney World was to include the "Magic Kingdom"‍—‌a larger and more elaborate version of Disneyland‍—‌plus golf courses and resort hotels. The heart of Disney World was to be the "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow" (EPCOT),[138] which he described as: an experimental prototype community of tomorrow that will take its cue from the new ideas and new technologies that are now emerging from the creative centers of American industry. It will be a community of tomorrow that will never be completed, but will always be introducing and testing and demonstrating new materials and systems. And EPCOT will always be a showcase to the world for the ingenuity and imagination of American free enterprise.[139] During 1966, Disney cultivated businesses willing to sponsor EPCOT.[140] He received a story credit in the 1966 film Lt. Robin Crusoe, U.S.N. as Retlaw Yensid, his name spelt backwards.[141] He increased his involvement in the studio's films, and was heavily involved in the story development of The Jungle Book, the live-action musical feature The Happiest Millionaire (both 1967) and the animated short Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day (1968).[142] Illness, death and aftermath A gravestone inscribed 'Walter Elias Disney', 'Lillian Bounds Disney', 'Robert B. Brown', Sharon Disney Brown Lund ashes scattered in paradise' Grave of Walt Disney at Forest Lawn, Glendale Disney had been a heavy smoker since World War I. He did not use cigarettes with filters and had smoked a pipe as a young man. In early November 1966, he was diagnosed with lung cancer and was treated with cobalt therapy.[143] On November 30, he felt unwell and was taken by ambulance from his home to St. Joseph Hospital where, on December 15, 1966, aged 65, he died of circulatory collapse caused by the cancer.[144] His remains were cremated two days later and his ashes interred at the Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California.[145][t] The release of The Jungle Book and The Happiest Millionaire in 1967 raised the total number of feature films that Disney had been involved in to 81.[19] When Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day was released in 1968, it earned Disney an Academy Award in the Short Subject (Cartoon) category, awarded posthumously.[149] After Disney's death, his studios continued to produce live-action films prolifically but largely abandoned animation until the late 1980s, after which there was what The New York Times describes as the "Disney Renaissance" that began with The Little Mermaid (1989).[150] Disney's companies continue to produce successful film, television and stage entertainment.[151] Roy O. Disney finished the building of Walt Disney World. Disney's plans for the futuristic city of EPCOT did not come to fruition. After Disney's death, his brother Roy deferred his retirement to take full control of the Disney companies. He changed the focus of the project from a town to an attraction.[152] At the inauguration in 1971, Roy dedicated Walt Disney World to his brother.[153][u] Walt Disney World expanded with the opening of Epcot Center in 1982; Walt Disney's vision of a functional city was replaced by a park more akin to a permanent world's fair.[155] In 2009, the Walt Disney Family Museum, designed by Disney's daughter Diane and her son Walter E. D. Miller, opened in the Presidio of San Francisco.[156] Thousands of artifacts from Disney's life and career are on display, including numerous awards that he received.[157] In 2014, the Disney theme parks around the world hosted approximately 134 million visitors.[158] Personal life and character Early in 1925, Disney hired an ink artist, Lillian Bounds. They married in July of that year, at her brother's house in her home town of Lewiston, Idaho.[159] The marriage was generally happy, according to Lillian, although according to Disney's biographer Neal Gabler she did not "accept Walt's decisions meekly or his status unquestionably, and she admitted that he was always telling people 'how henpecked he is'."[160][v] Lillian had little interest in films or the Hollywood social scene and she was, in the words of the historian Steven Watts, "content with household management and providing support for her husband".[161] Their marriage produced two daughters, Diane (born December 1933) and Sharon (adopted in December 1936, born six weeks previously).[162][w] Within the family, neither Disney nor his wife hid the fact Sharon had been adopted, although they became annoyed if people outside the family raised the point.[163] The Disneys were careful to keep their daughters out of the public eye as much as possible, particularly in the light of the Lindbergh kidnapping; Disney took steps to ensure his daughters were not photographed by the press.[164] Disney family at Schiphol Airport (1951) In 1949, Disney and his family moved to a new home in the Holmby Hills district of Los Angeles. With the help of his friends Ward and Betty Kimball, who already had their own backyard railroad, Disney developed blueprints and immediately set to work on creating a miniature live steam railroad for his back yard. The name of the railroad, Carolwood Pacific Railroad, came from his home's location on Carolwood Drive. The miniature working steam locomotive was built by Disney Studios engineer Roger E. Broggie, and Disney named it Lilly Belle after his wife;[165] after three years Disney ordered it into storage due to a series of accidents involving his guests.[166] Disney grew more politically conservative as he got older. A Democratic Party supporter until the 1940 presidential election, when he switched allegiance to the Republican Party,[167] he became a generous donor to Thomas E. Dewey's 1944 bid for the presidency.[168] In 1946, he was a founding member of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, an organization who stated they "believ[ed] in, and like, the American Way of Life ... we find ourselves in sharp revolt against a rising tide of Communism, Fascism and kindred beliefs, that seek by subversive means to undermine and change this way of life".[169] In 1947, during the Second Red Scare, Disney testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), where he branded Herbert Sorrell, David Hilberman and William Pomerance, former animators and labor union organizers, as communist agitators; Disney stated that the 1941 strike led by them was part of an organized communist effort to gain influence in Hollywood.[170][171] It was alleged by The New York Times in 1993 that Disney had been passing secret information to the FBI from 1940 until his death in 1966. In return for this information, J. Edgar Hoover allowed Disney to film in FBI headquarters in Washington. Disney was made a "full Special Agent in Charge Contact" in 1954.[172] Disney's public persona was very different from his actual personality.[173] Playwright Robert E. Sherwood described him as "almost painfully shy ... diffident" and self-deprecating.[174] According to his biographer Richard Schickel, Disney hid his shy and insecure personality behind his public identity.[175] Kimball argues that Disney "played the role of a bashful tycoon who was embarrassed in public" and knew that he was doing so.[176] Disney acknowledged the façade and told a friend that "I'm not Walt Disney. I do a lot of things Walt Disney would not do. Walt Disney does not smoke. I smoke. Walt Disney does not drink. I drink."[177] Critic Otis Ferguson, in The New Republic, called the private Disney: "common and everyday, not inaccessible, not in a foreign language, not suppressed or sponsored or anything. Just Disney."[176] Many of those with whom Disney worked commented that he gave his staff little encouragement due to his exceptionally high expectations. Norman recalls that when Disney said "That'll work", it was an indication of high praise.[178] Instead of direct approval, Disney gave high-performing staff financial bonuses, or recommended certain individuals to others, expecting that his praise would be passed on.[179] Reputation A portrait of Disney with cartoon representations of different nationalities on a 6 cent US stamp 1968 U.S. postage stamp Views of Disney and his work have changed over the decades, and there have been polarized opinions.[180] Mark Langer, in the American Dictionary of National Biography, writes that "Earlier evaluations of Disney hailed him as a patriot, folk artist, and popularizer of culture. More recently, Disney has been regarded as a paradigm of American imperialism and intolerance, as well as a debaser of culture."[58] Steven Watts wrote that some denounce Disney "as a cynical manipulator of cultural and commercial formulas",[180] while PBS records that critics have censured his work because of its "smooth façade of sentimentality and stubborn optimism, its feel-good re-write of American history".[181] Disney has been accused of anti-Semitism for having given Nazi propagandist Leni Riefenstahl a tour of his studio a month after Kristallnacht,[182] something he disavowed three months later, claiming he was unaware who she was when he was issued the invitation.[183][x][y] None of Disney's employees—including the animator Art Babbitt, who disliked Disney intensely—ever accused him of making anti-Semitic slurs or taunts.[186] The Walt Disney Family Museum acknowledges that ethnic stereotypes common to films of the 1930s were included in some early cartoons[z] but also points out that Disney donated regularly to Jewish charities, was named "1955 Man of the Year" by the B'nai B'rith chapter in Beverly Hills,[188][189] and his studio employed a number of Jews, some of whom were in influential positions.[190][aa] Gabler, the first writer to gain unrestricted access to the Disney archives, concludes that the available evidence does not support accusations of anti-Semitism and that Disney was "not [anti-Semitic] in the conventional sense that we think of someone as being an anti-Semite". Gabler concludes that "though Walt himself, in my estimation, was not anti-Semitic, nevertheless, he willingly allied himself with people who were anti-Semitic [meaning some members of the MPAPAI], and that reputation stuck. He was never really able to expunge it throughout his life."[192] Disney distanced himself from the Motion Picture Alliance in the 1950s.[193] According to Disney's daughter Diane Disney-Miller, her sister Sharon dated a Jewish boyfriend for a period of time, to which her father raised no objections and even reportedly said "Sharon, I think it's wonderful how these Jewish families have accepted you."[184] Disney has also been accused of other forms of racism because some of his productions released between the 1930s and 1950s contain racially insensitive material.[194][ab] The feature film Song of the South was criticized by contemporary film critics, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and others for its perpetuation of black stereotypes,[195] but Disney later campaigned successfully for an Honorary Academy Award for its star, James Baskett, the first black actor so honored.[196][ac] Gabler argues that "Walt Disney was no racist. He never, either publicly or privately, made disparaging remarks about blacks or asserted white superiority. Like most white Americans of his generation, however, he was racially insensitive."[194] Floyd Norman, the studio's first black animator who worked closely with Disney during the 1950s and 1960s, said, "Not once did I observe a hint of the racist behavior Walt Disney was often accused of after his death. His treatment of people‍—‌and by this I mean all people‍—‌can only be called exemplary."[197] Watts argues that many of Disney's post-World War II films "legislated a kind of cultural Marshall Plan. They nourished a genial cultural imperialism that magically overran the rest of the globe with the values, expectations, and goods of a prosperous middle-class United States."[198] Film historian Jay P. Telotte acknowledges that many see Disney's studio as an "agent of manipulation and repression", although he observes that it has "labored throughout its history to link its name with notions of fun, family, and fantasy".[199] John Tomlinson, in his study Cultural Imperialism, examines the work of Ariel Dorfman and Armand Mattelart, whose 1971 book Para leer al Pato Donald (trans: How to Read Donald Duck) identifies that there are "imperialist ... values 'concealed' behind the innocent, wholesome façade of the world of Walt Disney"; this, they argue, is a powerful tool as "it presents itself as harmless fun for consumption by children."[200] Tomlinson views their argument as flawed, as "they simply assume that reading American comics, seeing adverts, watching pictures of the affluent ... ['Yankee'] lifestyle has a direct pedagogic effect".[201] Disney has been portrayed numerous times in fictional works. H. G. Wells references Disney in his 1938 novel The Holy Terror, in which World Dictator Rud fears that Donald Duck is meant to lampoon the dictator.[202] Disney was portrayed by Len Cariou in the 1995 made-for-TV film A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story,[203] and by Tom Hanks in the 2013 film Saving Mr. Banks.[204] In 2001, the German author Peter Stephan Jungk published Der König von Amerika (trans: The King of America), a fictional work of Disney's later years that re-imagines him as a power-hungry racist. The composer Philip Glass later adapted the book into the opera The Perfect American (2013).[205] Several commentators have described Disney as a cultural icon.[206] On Disney's death, journalism professor Ralph S. Izard comments that the values in Disney's films are those "considered valuable in American Christian society", which include "individualism, decency, ... love for our fellow man, fair play and toleration".[207] Disney's obituary in The Times calls the films "wholesome, warm-hearted and entertaining ... of incomparable artistry and of touching beauty".[208] Journalist Bosley Crowther argues that Disney's "achievement as a creator of entertainment for an almost unlimited public and as a highly ingenious merchandiser of his wares can rightly be compared to the most successful industrialists in history."[5] Correspondent Alistair Cooke calls Disney a "folk-hero ... the Pied Piper of Hollywood",[209] while Gabler considers Disney "reshaped the culture and the American consciousness".[210] In the American Dictionary of National Biography, Langer writes: Disney remains the central figure in the history of animation. Through technological innovations and alliances with governments and corporations, he transformed a minor studio in a marginal form of communication into a multinational leisure industry giant. Despite his critics, his vision of a modern, corporate utopia as an extension of traditional American values has possibly gained greater currency in the years after his death.[58] In December 2021, The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York opened a three month special exhibit in honor of Disney titled "Inspiring Walt Disney".[211] Awards and honors See also: List of Academy Awards for Walt Disney A black and white photograph of Walt Disney standing, holding an Academy Award. Disney in 1953, winning the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film for Water Birds Disney received 59 Academy Award nominations, including 22 awards: both totals are records.[212] He was nominated for three Golden Globe Awards, but did not win, but he was presented with two Special Achievement Awards‍—‌for Bambi (1942) and The Living Desert (1953)‍—‌and the Cecil B. DeMille Award.[213] He also received four Emmy Award nominations, winning once, for Best Producer for the Disneyland television series.[214] Several of his films are included in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant": Steamboat Willie, The Three Little Pigs, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Fantasia, Pinocchio, Bambi, Dumbo and Mary Poppins.[215] In 1998, the American Film Institute published a list of the 100 greatest American films, according to industry experts; the list included Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (at number 49), and Fantasia (at 58).[216] In February 1960, Disney was inducted to the Hollywood Walk of Fame with two stars, one for motion pictures and the other for his television work;[217] Mickey Mouse was given his own star for motion pictures in 1978.[218] Disney was also inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1986,[219] the California Hall of Fame in December 2006,[220] and was the inaugural recipient of a star on the Anaheim walk of stars in 2014.[221] The Walt Disney Family Museum records that he "along with members of his staff, received more than 950 honors and citations from throughout the world".[19] He was made a Chevalier in the French Légion d'honneur in 1935,[222] and in 1952 he was awarded the country's highest artistic decoration, the Officer d'Academie.[223] Other national awards include Thailand's Order of the Crown (1960); Germany's Order of Merit (1956),[224] Brazil's Order of the Southern Cross (1941),[225] and Mexico's Order of the Aztec Eagle (1943).[226] In the United States, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom on September 14, 1964,[227] and on May 24, 1968, he was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.[228] He received the Showman of the World Award from the National Association of Theatre Owners,[226] and in 1955, the National Audubon Society awarded Disney its highest honor, the Audubon Medal, for promoting the "appreciation and understanding of nature" through his True-Life Adventures nature films.[229] A minor planet discovered in 1980 by astronomer Lyudmila Karachkina, was named 4017 Disneya,[230] and he was also awarded honorary degrees from Harvard, Yale, the University of Southern California and the University of California, Los Angeles.[19] Synopsis Born on October 22, 1942, in Utica, New York, actress Annette Funicello gained early fame as a leading "Mouseketeer" on Walt Disney's The Mickey Mouse Club. She later starred in films like The Shaggy Dog and the Beach Party series with Frankie Avalon. Funicello became a spokesperson for Skippy peanut butter and was later diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, campaigning for increased awareness and research on the disease. She opened the Annette Funicello Research Fund for Neurological Disorders in 1993. Funicello died on April 8, 2013, at age 70. Background Born on October 22, 1942, in Utica, New York, Annette Joanne Funicello moved with her family to Los Angeles' San Fernando Valley when she was 4 years old. Funicello gained early fame as an actress on Walt Disney's The Mickey Mouse Club, quickly becoming the show's most popular cast member, and went on to appear in a series of beach party films. 'The Mickey Mouse Club' After dancing the lead in Walt Disney's production of Swan Lake at the Starlight Bowl in Burbank, California, in 1955, Funicello was invited by Disney to audition for his new children's show, The Mickey Mouse Club. She landed a part on the show, which premiered in October 1955, when Funicello was just 13 years old, and soon became the series' the most popular "Mouseketeer." Audiences regularly tuned in to watch Funicello and other members of the children's variety show perform song and dance routines in turtle-neck sweaters displaying their names in big block letters, blue skirts/slacks and, most notably, mouse-eared beanies. The actress would later credit the show as her claim to fame and an incredible learning experience, and call Walt Disney her "second father." She once stated, "I've always found Mr. Disney to be somewhat of a shy person, a kid at heart." Advertisement - Continue Reading Below Later Roles After leaving The Mickey Mouse Club, Annette Funicello remained under contract to Disney and appeared on TV shows such as Zorro (1957) and The Nine Lives of Elfego Baca (1958). She also starred in a number of Disney feature films, including The Shaggy Dog (1959), Babes in Toyland (1961), The Misadventures of Merlin Jones (1964) and The Monkey's Uncle (1965). In the early 1960s, Funicello starred in a series of beach party films with Frankie Avalon, including Beach Party (1963), Muscle Beach Party (1964), Bikini Beach (1964), Beach Blanket Bingo (1965) and How to Stuff a Wild Bikini (1965). During this time, she also recorded a series of Top 40 pop singles, including "Tall Paul," "First Name Initial," "How Will I Know My Love" and "Pineapple Princess." In 1987, Funicello again teamed up with Frankie Avalon to co-produce and star as parents of a pair of troublesome teenagers in Paramount's Back to the Beach. Then, in 1989 and 1990, Avalon and Funicello staged a nostalgic concert tour, performing the beach party music and hit singles they made famous in the 1960s. Final Years and Legacy In 1992, Funicello announced that she had been battling multiple sclerosis, a degenerative neurological disease, since 1987. To assist in fundraising to fight neurological disorders, the actress founded the Annette Funicello Teddy Bear Company, which markets a line of collectible bears. She also developed her own perfume line, Cello by Annette. A portion of the proceeds from these products goes to the Annette Funicello Research Fund for Neurological Disorders, an organization founded by the actress in 1993. Annette Funicello died on April 8, 2013, at age 70, at Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California. She was survived by second husband Glen Holt, whom she married in 1986, and three children from her earlier marriage to Jack Gilardi (1965-1981). In her later years, Funicello resided in Encino, a small neighborhood in Los Angeles' San Fernando Valley. QUICK FACTS Name: Annette Funicello Birth Year: 1942 Birth date: October 22, 1942 Birth State: New York Birth City: Utica Birth Country: United States Gender: Female Best Known For: Annette Funicello is an American singer and actress known for her starring roles on Walt Disney's The Mickey Mouse Club and in the Beach Party film series. Industries Television Film Astrological Sign: Libra Death Year: 2013 Death date: April 8, 2013 Death State: California Death City: Bakersfield Death Country: United States Annette Funicello, who has died of complications from multiple sclerosis aged 70, was instantly associated with two names: Mickey Mouse and Frankie Avalon, both of whom were squeaky clean. As a child, Funicello was one of the first Mouseketeers on the original Mickey Mouse Club, the hugely popular Walt Disney children's television programme. In her early 20s, Funicello co-starred with the pop singer Avalon in five "Beach Party" musicals, in which they played wholesome "teenage" sweethearts called Dee Dee and Frankie, always testing each other's fidelity. Born in Utica, New York, Funicello took ballet dancing lessons as a child to overcome shyness. In 1955, some years after her family had moved to southern California, the 12-year-old was chosen by Disney himself from 200 children auditioning for the first season of the Mickey Mouse Club. From 1955 to 1957, she danced, sang and acted in sketches while wearing the distinctive Mickey Mouse ears. She soon became a favourite with viewers, and in 1958 was given her own 19-episode series called Annette. In it, Funicello played a sweet (but not sugary), unspoilt orphan girl from the country who goes to live with her aunt and uncle in the big city, and has to adapt to new surroundings and people. In one episode, she launched her singing career with How Will I Know My Love?, though she had more charm than vocal talent. It became the first of many hit singles, which included Tall Paul, O Dio Mio, Train of Love and It's Really Love, the last written by Paul Anka, whom she dated. In fact, he wrote the song Puppy Love (1959) – "I cry each night these tears for you" – when they broke up. Disney then cast her in two live-action fantasy features, The Shaggy Dog (1959) and Babes in Toyland (1961), before allowing her, to everyone's surprise, to go to American International Pictures to make Beach Party (1963) on condition that she keep her virginal image, not wear a bikini and keep her navel covered. Nevertheless, she did bare her navel in all the films, and wore a bikini in Bikini Beach (1964). With rock'n'roll movies a thing of the past and twist movies on their last swaying legs, the Beach Party films, made for the youth market, invariably involved a group of young, scantily clad surfers defending their right to continue their love-ins and gyrations to surf music without interference from killjoy "squares". However, Funicello, Avalon and the gang were no rebels without causes, but credits to the community. The first film of the naive series, which opened with the title number sung by Funicello and Avalon, concerned an anthropology professor, Robert Cummings, studying the "mating habits" of the teenage denizens of Malibu beach. With not much sex to study, but to help his research, the professor makes an unthreatening play for Funicello, who is determined to make Avalon jealous and force him to marry her. Avalon makes Funicello jealous in Muscle Beach Party (1964), in which the surfers clash with a group of musclemen sent to ruin the kids' fun. Bikini Beach had Keenan Wynn attempting to evict surfers from the beach and prove that his chimpanzee is more intelligent than the average American teenager. Beach Blanket Bingo and How to Stuff a Wild Bikini (both 1965) delivered more of the same. However, what was noticeable was how much Funicello became wittier, sharper and sexier with each picture … and her singing improved! Away from the surf and sand, Funicello and Avalon were teamed up again for Fireball 500 (1966), in which he competes, on and off the stock car racing track, with a fellow driver for her affections. After Thunder Alley (1967), another schlocky stock car racing drama, Funicello retired from acting, apart from a self-deprecating cameo in Head (1968), featuring the Monkees, and guest appearances in TV series. In 1987, Funicello and Avalon good-naturedly starred as a middle-aged couple in Back to the Beach, a likable spoof of those 60s hormonal musical comedies. Funicello, who gets to do a reggae number, is acidly described by her teenage son as "having been in a good mood for 22 years". In 1992, Funicello announced that she had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. She had felt it necessary to go public to combat rumours that her difficulty in walking was the result of alcoholism. In 1993, she established the Annette Funicello Research Fund for Neurological Disorders at the California Community Foundation. Funicello is survived by her second husband, Glen Holt, a racehorse breeder, and by three children, Gina, Jack and Jason, from her marriage to the casting director Jack Gilardi, which ended in divorce.  Annette Joanne Funicello, actor and singer, born 22 October 1942; died 8 April 2013 Annette Funicello, one of the best-known members of the original 1950s “Mickey Mouse Club” and a star of numerous 1960s “beach party” films, died Monday at a California hospital, the Walt Disney Co. said. Funicello, who was 70, “died peacefully from complications due to multiple sclerosis, a disease she battled for over 25 years,” the Disney statement said. “We are so sorry to lose Mother,” her three children said in a statement. “She is no longer suffering anymore and is now dancing in heaven. We love and will miss her terribly.” Funicello was just 13 when she was selected by Walt Disney himself to be one of the original Mouseketeers of the “Mickey Mouse Club,” the 1950s television variety show aimed at children. Promotional portrait of Annette Funicello and Jimmie Dodd (left) (1910 - 1964)) for 'The Micky Mouse Club' television show, c. 1957. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) VIDEO Legendary Mouseketeer Funicello dies NR2pAnkaIntv_00021409.jpg VIDEO Paul Anka reveals source of 'Puppy Love' Annette Funicello, here in the mid-1950s, became famous as one of the original Mouseketeers on "The Mickey Mouse Club." Funicello, 70, died Monday, April 8, at a California hospital of complications from multiple sclerosis, the Walt Disney Co. said. GALLERY Remembering Annette Funicello pwl cordice slate GALLERY Photos: People we lost in 2013 Funicello, who had a background in dance, quickly became one of the most popular Mouseketeers. Opinion: Annette Funicello was my dream crush She “was and always will be a cherished member of the Disney family, synonymous with the word Mouseketeer, and a true Disney Legend,” Disney chairman and CEO Bob Iger said. She remained with Disney after leaving the “Mickey Mouse Club,” appearing in TV shows including “Zorro” (1957), “The Nine Lives of Elfego Baca” (1958) and starring in the Disney feature films “The Shaggy Dog” (1959), “Babes in Toyland” (1961), “The Misadventures of Merlin Jones” (1964) and “The Monkey’s Uncle” (1965). The most enduring images of Funicello, though, may be of her in a swimsuit, her primary wardrobe when she co-starred with teen idol Frankie Avalon in beach party movies in the early 1960s. These included “Beach Party” (1963), “Muscle Beach Party” (1964), “Bikini Beach” (1964), “Beach Blanket Bingo” (1965), and “How to Stuff a Wild Bikini” (1965). Although she started out in a more modest version, each movie revealed a bit more, leading eventually to Funicello in a bikini. The movies helped sell her music. Funicello had Top-40 hits including “Tall Paul,” “First Name Initial,” “How Will I Know My Love,” and “Pineapple Princess.”  Along with the singles, she recorded several successful albums, including “Hawaiiannette” (1960), “Italiannette” (1960) and “Dance Annette” (1961). Funicello reunited with Avalon in 1987 to star in “Back to the Beach,” in which the two former teen idols played as parents of a pair of troublesome teenagers. Avalon and Funicello followed the movie with a nostalgic concert tour in 1989 and 1990, singing their hits from the 1960s. “We have lost one of America’s sweethearts for generations upon generations,” Avalon said of her death. “I am fortunate enough to have been friends with Annette as well as appear in many films, TV and appearances with her. She will live on forever, I will miss her and the world will miss her.” “She will forever hold a place in our hearts as one of Walt Disney’s brightest stars, delighting an entire generation of baby boomers with her jubilant personality and endless talent,” Iger said in a statement released Monday. “Annette was well-known for being as beautiful inside as she was on the outside, and she faced her physical challenges with dignity, bravery and grace. All of us at Disney join with family, friends, and fans around the world in celebrating her extraordinary life.” ‘As a little kid you wore the little ears & thought you were something special’ Funicello moved with her family from her birthplace of Utica, New York, to Los Angeles when she was 4. Walt Disney saw her dancing the lead in “Swan Lake” at the Starlight Bowl in Burbank when she was 13. Disney asked her to audition for a new children’s TV series he was developing called “The Mickey Mouse Club.” She was hired on the spot to become a Mouseketeer, Disney’s statement said.  She became the viewers’ favorite soon after the show debuted in October 1955. Although only three original seasons were produced, the show continued to be see in reruns for another four decades. A 1980s child remembers Funicello Doctors diagnosed Funicello with multiple sclerosis, a degenerative neurological disease, in 1987. She kept the illness a secret until 1992, the year she established The Annette Funicello Research Fund for Neurological Diseases.  The charity, which is still active, supports research into the cause, treatment and cure of multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases. Funicello made few public appearances by the late 1990s as she became more debilitated by the disease. She lived under the care of her second husband Glen Holt, a rancher she married in 1986.  She had three children – Gina, Jack Jr. and Jason – from her first marriage to Jack Gilardi, which ended in 1981. “It hurts me deeply in the passing of Annette,” Jack Gilardi said. “She was such an important love in my life and blessed me with three beautiful children. I will remember her always and she will live in my heart forever.” “It is so sad to lose a wonderful lady like Annette Funicello,” said comedian Don Rickles. “I had so much fun working with her in those beach party pictures. She was a great trouper. My wife Barbara and I send our thoughts and prayers to her family.” “Annette’s sweet, unassuming spirit, her love of people, and her capacity to exude kindness and good feelings to everyone she met was part of her beautiful charisma, said Richard Sherman, the Oscar-winning composer who wrote many of her hits. “Because the songs we wrote for her brought us to the attention of Walt, Bob and I always referred to Annette as our ‘lucky star.’” Share your memories of Funicello Paul Reubens, who worked with Funicello and Avalon in a memorable appearance on Pee-wee Herman’s Christmas special in 1988 and in “Back to the Beach,” tweeted about her death: “I loved Annette Funicello from the 1st time I saw her on The Mickey Mouse Club. There wasn’t a warmer, lovelier person on the planet. RIP”
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