1990's CUTE Hula Dancer Enamel -Hat, Lapel Pin Tie Tack Hawaiian 1"inch

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Seller: classichawaiianjewelry (2,121) 100%, Location: Waipahu, Hawaii, Ships to: US, Item: 281783816520 Cute Laulau Luau Hula Dancer Happy Hawaii Love Feels Good Show your Local Hawaii Flair with this beautiful Hat Pin/ Tie or Lapel Pin Approximately 1" inch -see photos New showroom sample /vintage old stock from 1990's Shows some tarnish because of age but will not detract from overall beauty of pin. Limited stock-Buy it Now! Mahalo for looking. `````````````````````````````````````````wikipedia Hula Girls From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the Japanese film. For other uses, see Hula (disambiguation). Hula Girls Directed by Sang-il Lee Produced by Bong-Ou Lee Hiroshi Kawai Yoshiaki Hosono Written by Sang-il Lee Daisuke Habara Starring Yasuko Matsuyuki Etsushi Toyokawa Yū Aoi Ittoku Kishibe Sumiko Fuji Music by Jake Shimabukuro Cinematography Hideo Yamamoto Editing by Tsuyoshi Imai Distributed by Cinequanon Release dates September 23, 2006 Running time 120 min. Country Japan Language Japanese Box office $9,480,415[1] Hula Girls (フラガール Hura Gāru?) is an award-winning Japanese film, directed by Sang-il Lee and co-written by Lee and Daisuke Habara, and first released across Japanese theaters on September 23, 2006. Starring Yū Aoi, Yasuko Matsuyuki, Etsushi Toyokawa, Shizuyo Yamazaki, Ittoku Kishibe, Eri Tokunaga, Yoko Ikezu and Sumiko Fuji, it is based on the real-life event of how a group of enthusiastic girls take on hula dancing to save their small mining village, Iwaki, helping the formation of Joban Hawaiian Center (now known as Spa Resort Hawaiians), which was later to become one of Japan's most popular theme parks.[2][3][4] It received its premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival. Hula Girls was critically acclaimed upon release in Japan[5] and nominated for a total of 12 awards at the 2007 Japan Academy Awards, going on to win five major awards, including that of best film, best director, best screenplay, best supporting actress (for Yū Aoi), and most popular film.[5][6] It also won two major awards at the 80th Kinema Junpo awards, including that of best film and best supporting actress (for Yū Aoi).[6] Since its release in Japan, the film has been shown across theaters and film festivals worldwide.[2][7] Contents 1 Story2 Locations featured in film3 Awards4 Production notes5 References6 External links Story Kimiko Tanigawa (Yū Aoi) and Sayuri Kumano (Shizuyo Yamazaki) perform the hula. In 1965, the cold, northern coal mining town of Iwaki, was facing unemployment due to oil becoming the predominant energy resource in Japan. The mining company develops a plan to use hot springs, which seeped into the mines, to provide heat for a Hawaiian Center spa resort. The plan is greeted with hostility by the miners, but the company recruits Madoka Hirayama (Matsuyuki) a down-on-her-luck dance instructor from Tokyo to train local girls in the hula. At first, only a small core group take the challenge. Sanae (Tokunaga) is worried that her widowed father will lose his job, and the ability to support the four kids. She convinces her lifelong best friend Kimiko (Aoi) to join her at the disastrous first meeting. After the rumor runs through attendees that they will be dancing topless, Sanae and Kimiko seem to be the only two listening to the assurances that the rumor is false, as dozens of their companions flee. The two girls are joined by Hatsuko (Ikezu), the organizer's secretary, and Sayuri (Yamazaki), a large clumsy girl. Things go poorly as training begins, and a frustrated Hirayama nearly gives up, until the girls' enthusiasm persuades her to give the plan another try. Kimiko and her mother, Chiyo (Fuji), have an argument, which prompts the girl to leave home to stay at the school, but as training continues and local unemployment looms, some of the other girls come back and join the school. On the day that Sanae's father is fired, he comes home to find her in Hawaiian costume, and beats her. This outrages Hirayama, who attacks him. When he leaves, Sanae goes with him to take care of her siblings, after getting Kimiko, who has become the leader of the girls, to promise that she will keep going. Crushed by the departure of her friend, Kimiko finds it impossible to maintain the focus needed in dancing, but is told The show must go on. She does not accept this until her brother (Toyokawa) tells her to see it through. She pulls herself together in time to join the publicity tour. After a disastrous first performance in the tour, the girls come together as a team and the tour is a great success, until a mine accident in which Sayuri's father is caught. Told of the accident just before the last planned performance, the troupe prepares to leave for home. Knowing that her father wants her to succeed, Sayuri begs for the chance to finish the tour. The bus pulls into town hours after Sayuri's father dies, and as distraught family and friends berate her, Hirayama claims responsibility for not returning immediately, accepting another failure in her career. Her students, however, refuse to let her leave. However, the imported palm trees are threatened by cold weather. A package from Sanae arrives for Kimiko. Her mother, Chiyo, brings it to the dance studio, where she sees the skills her daughter has gained. Chiyo collects stoves to give her daughter the chance to live her dream. She even attends the opening night of the show, at which Kimiko wears the flower sent by Sanae. The opening show is a great success, establishing the Joban Hawaiian Center as a tourist destination. Locations featured in film Fukushima Prefecture IwakiFurudono, Ishikawa DistrictSpa Resort Hawaiians (actual spa resort located in Iwaki)[5] Ibaraki Prefecture KitaibarakiTakahagiNakaminato Station (located in Hitachinaka) Awards Hula Girls won several awards upon release, including five major awards at the 2007 Japan Academy Awards, including that of best film, best director, best screenplay, best supporting actress (for Yū Aoi), and most popular film.[5][6] It also won best film and supporting actress award (for Yū Aoi) at the 80th Kinema Junpō awards, held on January 9, 2007. At the 31st Hōchi Film Awards, held on November 28, 2006, it won the awards for best film and supporting actress, while at the 19th Nikkan Sports Awards, held on December 5, 2006, it won the awards for best film, best actress (for Yasuko Matsuyuki), best supporting actress (for Sumiko Fuji) and best new talent (for Yū Aoi). At the 61st Mainichi Film Awards, held on January 19, 2007, it won the awards for best supporting actress (for Yū Aoi) and best film. At the 49th Blue Ribbon Awards, it won the awards for best film, best actress (for Yū Aoi) and best supporting actress (for Sumiko Fuji).[5] It was also chosen for Japan's entry for the 79th Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Production notes The dancers spent three months learning and becoming skilled in hula. The character Madoka Hirayama is loosely based on Kaleinani Hayakawa, the original kumu hula at Joban, who stayed for 32 years, while also becoming the founder of the first hula school in Japan. Her work helped inspire the hula craze in Japan. References "Hula Girls" . Boxofficemojo. Retrieved March 04, 2012. "Kakiseni.com - Hula Girls" . Retrieved 2007-08-24. "Hula Girls" . Retrieved 2007-08-24. "Hula Girls" . Research Institute for Digital Media and Content, Keio University. Retrieved 2007-08-24. "Hula Girls (JAPAN 2006)" . Retrieved 2007-08-24. "Hula gâru (2006) - Awards" . Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2007-08-24. "Hula Girls (Hula Garu)" . 2007 Seattle International Film Festival. Retrieved 2007-08-24. ````````````````````````````````````honolulumagazine.com and deists) A 2010 Glenmary Research Center study also places the Roman Catholic population as greater than 22%.[115] A special case is Hoʻoponopono, an ancient Hawaiian practice of reconciliation and forgiveness, combined with prayer. It is both philosophy and way of life. Traditionally hoʻoponopono is practiced by healing priests or kahuna lapaʻau among family members of a person who is physically ill. LGBT A 2012 poll by Gallup found that Hawaii had the largest proportion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults in the country, at 5.1 per cent. This constitutes a total LGBT adult population estimate of 53,966 individuals. The number of same-sex couple households in 2010 stood at 3,239. This grew by 35.45% from a decade earlier.[116][117] In 2013, Hawaii became the fifteenth state to legalize same-sex marriage and a University of Hawaii researcher stated that the law may boost tourism by $217 million.[118] Economy See also: Hawaii locations by per capita income Punalu'u Beach on the Big Island. Tourism is Hawaii's leading employer. Famous Lanikai Beach on Oahu. A shipping dock in Hawaii. The history of Hawaii can be traced through a succession of dominant industries: sandalwood,[119] whaling,[120] sugarcane (see Sugar plantations in Hawaii), pineapple, military, tourism, and education. Since statehood in 1959, tourism has been the largest industry, contributing 24.3% of the Gross State Product (GSP) in 1997, despite efforts to diversify. The gross output for the state in 2003 was US$47 billion; per capita income for Hawaii residents was US$30,441. Hawaiian exports include food and apparel. These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, however, due to the considerable shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the United States. Food exports include coffee (see coffee production in Hawaii), macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, sugarcane, and both honey[121] and honeybees: "by weight, Hawaii's honeybees may be the state's most valuable export."[122] Agricultural sales for 2002, according to the Hawaii Agricultural Statistics Service, were US$370.9 million from diversified agriculture, US$100.6 million from pineapple, and US$64.3 million from sugarcane. Hawaii's relatively constant climate has attracted the Genetically modified food research industry which is able to test three generations of crops in a single year on the islands as compared to one or two on the mainland.[123] Hawaii was one of the few states to control gasoline prices through a Gas Cap Law. Since oil company profits in Hawaii compared to the mainland U.S. were under scrutiny, the law tied local gasoline prices to those of the mainland. It took effect in September 2005 amid price fluctuations caused by Hurricane Katrina, but was suspended in April 2006. Hawaiian Electric Industries provides electricity (mostly from fossil-fuel power stations) to 95% of the state's population. As of January 2010, the state's unemployment rate was 6.9%.[124] In 2009, the United States military spent $12.2 billion in Hawaii, accounting for 18% of spending in the state for that year. 75,000 United States Department of Defense personnel reside in Hawaii.[125] According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Hawaii had the fourth-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 7.18 percent.[126] Taxation Hawaii has a relatively high state tax burden. In 2003, Hawaii residents had the highest state tax per capita at US$2,838.[citation needed] This is partly because education, health care and social services are all provided directly by the state, as opposed to local government in all other states.[improper synthesis?] Millions of tourists contribute to the tax take by paying the general excise tax and hotel room tax; thus not all taxes come directly from residents. Business leaders, however, consider the state's tax burden too high, contributing to both higher prices and the perception of an unfriendly business climate.[127] Cost of living The cost of living in Hawaii, specifically Honolulu, is quite high compared to most major cities in the United States. However, the cost of living in Honolulu is 6.7% lower than in New York City and 3.6% lower than in San Francisco.[128] These numbers may not take into account certain costs, such as increased travel costs for longer flights, additional shipping fees, and the loss of promotional participation opportunities for customers "outside the continental United States". While some online stores do offer free shipping on orders to Hawaii,[129] many merchants exclude Hawaii and Alaska, as well as Puerto Rico and certain other US territories. The median home value in Hawaii in the 2000 US Census was $272,700 while the national median home value was less than half of that, at $119,600. Hawaii home values were the highest of all states, including California with a median home value of $211,500.[130] More recent research from the National Association of Realtors places the 2010 median sale price of a single family home in Honolulu, Hawaii at $607,600 and the US median sales price at $173,200. The sale price of single family homes in Hawaii was the highest of any US city in 2010, just above the "Silicon Valley" area of California ($602,000).[131] One of the most significant contributors to the high cost of living in Hawaii is the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (also known as the Jones Act), which prevents foreign-flagged ships from carrying cargo between two American ports (a practice known as cabotage). Most U.S. consumer goods are manufactured in East Asia at present, but because of the Jones Act, foreign ships inbound with those goods cannot stop in Honolulu, offload Hawaii-bound goods, load mainland-bound Hawaii-manufactured goods, and continue to West Coast ports. Instead, they must proceed directly to the West Coast, where distributors break bulk and send Hawaiian-bound Asian-manufactured goods back west across the ocean by U.S.-flagged ships.[132][133] Hawaiian consumers ultimately bear the expense of transporting goods again across the Pacific on U.S.-flagged ships subject to the extremely high operating costs imposed by the Jones Act. This also makes Hawaii less competitive with West Coast ports as a shopping destination for tourists from home countries with much higher taxes (like Japan), even though prices for Asian-manufactured goods in theory should be cheaper since Hawaii is much closer to Asia.[134][135] Culture This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2013) Jack Johnson, folk rock musician, was born and raised on Oahu's North Shore See also: Culture of the Native Hawaiians Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, Oahu. The aboriginal culture of Hawaii is Polynesian. Hawaii represents the northernmost extension of the vast Polynesian triangle of the south and central Pacific Ocean. While traditional Hawaiian culture remains only as vestiges in modern Hawaiian society, there are reenactments of the ceremonies and traditions throughout the islands. Some of these cultural influences are strong enough to affect the United States at large, including the popularity (in greatly modified form) of luaus and hula. Cuisine of Hawaii The Cuisine of Hawaii is a fusion of many foods brought by immigrants to the Hawaiian Islands, particularly of American, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Polynesian and Portuguese origins, including plant and animal food sources imported from around the world for agricultural use in Hawaii. Many local restaurants serve the ubiquitous plate lunch featuring the Asian staple, two scoops of rice, a simplified version of American macaroni salad (consisting of macaroni and mayonnaise), and a variety of different toppings ranging from the hamburger patty, a fried egg, and gravy of a Loco Moco, Japanese style tonkatsu or the traditional lu'au favorite, kalua pig and beef, and curry. Customs and etiquette in Hawaii Some key customs and etiquette in Hawaii are as follows: When visiting a home, it is considered good manners to bring a small gift (for example, a dessert) for one's host. Thus, parties are usually in the form of potlucks. Most locals take their shoes off before entering a home. It is customary for Hawai‘i families, regardless of ethnicity, to hold a luau to celebrate a child's first birthday. It is customary at Hawai'i weddings, especially at Filipino weddings, for the bride and groom to do a Money dance (also called the pandango). Print media and local residents recommend that one refer to non-Hawaiians as "locals of Hawaii" or "people of Hawaii". Folklore in Hawaii The folklore in Hawaii in modern times is a mixture of various aspects of Hawaiian mythology and various urban legends that have been passed on regarding various places in the Hawaiian islands. According to Hawaiian legend, night marchers (huaka‘i po in Hawaiian) are ghosts of ancient warriors. Local folklore on the island of Oahu says that one should never carry pork over the Pali Highway connecting Honolulu and Windward Oahu. In Paradise Park and the Manoa Falls Hiking Trail, folk legends say you can hear a spectre screaming. Across the street from Kahala Mall is a graveyard. It is said that if you drive past the remaining portion of this graveyard with your windows open, you will feel somebody else is in your car. The story of the green lady is that of a woman who would visit the gulch of Wahiawa and will take any child that she comes across. Hawaiian mythology Hawaiian mythology comprises the legends, historical tales, and sayings of the ancient Hawaiian people. It is considered a variant of a more general Polynesian mythology, developing its own unique character for several centuries before about 1800. It is associated with the Hawaiian religion. The religion was officially suppressed in the 19th century, but kept alive by some practitioners to the modern day. A statue of Hawaiian deity Prominent figures and terms include Aumakua, the spirit of an ancestor or family god and Kāne, the highest of the four major Hawaiian deities. List of Hawaiian state parks There are many Hawaiian state parks. The main Hawaiʻi (island) has state parks, recreation areas, and historical parks. Kauaʻi has the Ahukini State Recreation Pier, six state parks, and the Russian Fort Elizabeth State Historical Park. Maui has two state monuments, several state parks, and the Polipoli Spring State Recreation Area. Moloka‘i has the Pala'au State Park. Oʻahu has several state parks, a number of state recreation areas, and a number of monuments, including the Ulu Pō Heiau State Monument. Literature in Hawaii The literature in Hawaii is diverse and includes authors such as Kiana Davenport, Lois-Ann Yamanaka, and Kaui Hart Hemmings, author of The Descendants. Hawaiian magazines include Hana Hou!, Hawaii Business Magazine and Honolulu, among others. Music of Hawaii The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. Hawaii's musical contributions to the music of the United States are out of proportion to the state's small size. Styles like slack-key guitar are well-known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of Hollywood soundtracks. Hawaii also made a major contribution to country music with the introduction of the steel guitar.[136] Traditional Hawaiian folk music is a major part of the state's musical heritage. The Hawaiian people have inhabited the islands for centuries and have retained much of their traditional musical knowledge. Their music is largely religious in nature, and includes chanting and dance music. Hawaiian music has had an enormous impact on the music of other Polynesian islands; indeed, music author Peter Manuel called the influence of Hawaiian music a "unifying factor in the development of modern Pacific musics".[137] Polynesian mythology Polynesian mythology is the oral traditions of the people of Polynesia, a grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island archipelagos in the Polynesian triangle together with the scattered cultures known as the Polynesian outliers. Polynesians speak languages that descend from a language reconstructed as Proto-Polynesian that was probably spoken in the Tonga - Samoa area around 1000 BC. A sacred god figure wrapping for the war god 'Oro, made of woven dried coconut fibre (sennit), which would have protected a Polynesian god effigy (to'o), made of wood. Prior to the 15th century AD, Polynesian people fanned out to the east, to the Cook Islands, and from there to other groups such as Tahiti and the Marquesas. Their descendants later discovered the islands from Tahiti to Rapa Nui, and later Hawai‘i and New Zealand. Latest research puts the settlement of New Zealand at about 1300 AD. The various Polynesian languages are all part of the Austronesian language family. Many are close enough in terms of vocabulary and grammar to permit communication between some other language speakers. There are also substantial cultural similarities between the various groups, especially in terms of social organisation, childrearing, as well as horticulture, building and textile technologies; their mythologies in particular demonstrate local reworkings of commonly shared tales. The various Polynesian cultures each have distinct but related oral traditions, that is, legends or myths traditionally considered to recount the history of ancient times (the time of "pō") and the adventures of gods (“atua”) and deified ancestors. Tourism Main article: Tourism in Hawaii Tourism is an important part of the Hawaii economy. In 2003 alone, according to state government data, there were over 6.4 million visitors to the Hawaiian Islands with expenditures of over $10 billion.[138] Due to the mild year-round weather, tourist travel is popular throughout the year. The summer months and major holidays are the most popular times for outsiders to visit, however, especially when residents of the rest of the United States are looking to escape from cold, winter weather. The Japanese, with their economic and historical ties to Hawaii and the USA as well as relative geographical proximity, are also principal tourists. Hawaii is home to numerous cultural events. The annual Merrie Monarch Festival is an international Hula competition.[139] The state is also home to the Hawaii International Film Festival, the premier film festival for Pacific rim cinema.[140] Honolulu is also home to the state's long running GLBT film festival, the Rainbow Film Festival.[141][142] Health Main article: Hawaii Prepaid Health Care Act Hawaii's health care system insures 92% (2009) of residents. Under the state's plan, businesses are required to provide insurance to employees who work more than twenty hours per week. Heavy regulation of insurance companies helps keep the cost to employers down. Due in part to heavy emphasis on preventive care, Hawaiians require hospital treatment less frequently than the rest of the United States, while total health care expenses (measured as a percentage of state GDP) are substantially lower. Given these achievements, proponents of universal health care elsewhere in the U.S. sometimes use Hawaii as a model for proposed federal and state health care plans. Education Public schools Main article: Hawai'i Department of Education Hawaii has the only school system within the United States that is unified statewide. Policy decisions are made by the fourteen-member state Board of Education. The Board sets policy and hires the superintendent of schools, who oversees the state Department of Education. The Department of Education is divided into seven districts, four on Oʻahu and one for each of the three other counties. The main rationale for centralization is to combat inequalities between highly populated Oʻahu and the more rural Neighbor Islands, and between lower-income and more affluent areas. In most of the United States, schools are funded from local property taxes. Educators struggle with children of non-native-English-speaking immigrants, whose cultures are different from those of the mainland (where most course materials and testing standards originate). Public elementary, middle, and high school test scores in Hawaii are below national averages on tests mandated under the No Child Left Behind Act. Some of the gap has been attributed to the Hawaii Board of Education's requirement that all eligible students take these tests and report all student test scores (other states, Texas and Michigan for example, do not). Results reported in August 2005, indicate that of 282 schools across the state, 185 (2/3) failed to reach federal minimum performance standards in math and reading.[143] On the other hand, the ACT college placement tests show that in 2005, seniors scored slightly above the national average (21.9 compared with 20.9).[144] In the widely accepted SAT examinations, Hawaii's college-bound seniors tend to score below the national average in all categories except mathematics. Private schools Collectively, independent educational institutions of primary and secondary education have one of the highest percentages of enrollment of any state. During the 2011-2012 school year, Hawaii public and charter schools had an enrollment of 181,213,[145] while private schools had 37,695.[146] Private schools thus educated over 17% of the students that school year, nearly three times the approximate national average of 6%.[147] It has four of the largest independent schools: ʻIolani School, Kamehameha Schools, Mid-Pacific Institute, and Punahou School. The second Buddhist high school in the United States, and first Buddhist high school in Hawaii, Pacific Buddhist Academy, was founded in 2003. The first native controlled public charter school was the Kanu O Ka Aina New Century Charter School. Independent and charter schools can select their students, while the regular public schools must take all students in their district. The Kamehameha Schools are the only schools in the United States that openly grant admission to students based on ancestry, and the wealthiest schools in the United States, if not the world, having over nine billion US dollars in estate assets. In 2005, Kamehameha enrolled 5,398 students, 8.4% of the Native Hawaiian children in the state.[148] See also: List of elementary schools in Hawaii, List of middle schools in Hawaii, and List of high schools in Hawaii Colleges and universities Main Entrance of the University of Hawaii at Hilo Graduates of secondary schools in Hawaii often enter directly into the work force. Some attend colleges and universities on the mainland or other countries, and the rest attend an institution of higher learning in Hawaii. The largest is the University of Hawaii System. It consists of: the research university at Mānoa; two comprehensive campuses Hilo and West Oʻahu; and seven Community Colleges. Private universities include Brigham Young University–Hawaii, Chaminade University of Honolulu, Hawaii Pacific University, and Wayland Baptist University. The Saint Stephen Diocesan Center is a seminary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu. Kona hosts the University of the Nations, which is not an accredited university. See also: List of colleges and universities in Hawaii Governance The Hawaii State Capitol, as seen from the rim of Punchbowl Crater. Aliʻiōlani Hale, home of the Supreme Court of Hawaii See also: Politics of Hawaii and Political party strength in Hawaii The state government of Hawaii is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from the kingdom era of Hawaiian history. As codified in the Constitution of Hawaii, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Hawaii assisted by the Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii, both elected on the same ticket. The governor is the only state public official elected statewide; all others are appointed by the governor. The lieutenant governor acts as the Secretary of State. The governor and lieutenant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the State Capitol. The official residence of the governor is Washington Place. The legislative branch consists of the bicameral Hawaii State Legislature, which is composed of the 51-member Hawaii House of Representatives led by the Speaker of the House and the 25-member Hawaii Senate led by the President of the Senate. The Legislature meets at the State Capitol. The unified judicial branch of Hawaii is the Hawai'i State Judiciary. The state's highest court is the Supreme Court of Hawaii, which uses Aliʻiōlani Hale as its chambers. Unique to Hawaii is the lack of municipal governments. All local governments are administered at the county level. The only incorporated area in the state is a consolidated city–county, Honolulu County, which governs the entire island of Oahu. County executives are referred to as mayors: The mayor of Hawaii County, mayor of Honolulu, mayor of Kauaʻi and mayor of Maui. The mayors are all elected in nonpartisan races. Political subdivisions See also: Counties of Hawaii The movement of the Hawaiian royal family from the Big Island to Maui, and subsequently to Oʻahu, explains why population centers exist where they do today. Kamehameha III chose the largest city, Honolulu, as his capital because of its natural harbor, the present-day Honolulu Harbor. Now the state capital, Honolulu is located along the southeast coast of Oʻahu. The previous capital was Lahaina, Maui, and before that Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. Some major towns are Hilo; Kāneʻohe; Kailua; Pearl City; Waipahu; Kahului; Kailua-Kona. Kīhei; and Līhuʻe. Hawaii comprises five counties: Hawaii County, Honolulu County, Kauai County, Kalawao County, and Maui County. Federal government Brian Schatz is the senior United States Senator from Hawaii Hawaii is represented in the United States Congress by two Senators and two Representatives. All four are Democrats. Colleen Hanabusa represents the 1st congressional district in the House, representing southeastern Oahu, including central Honolulu. Tulsi Gabbard represents the 2nd congressional district, representing the rest of the state, which is mainly rural. Brian Schatz is the senior United States Senator from Hawaii. He was appointed to the office on the December 26, 2012, by Governor Neil Abercrombie, following the death of former Senator Daniel Inouye. The state's junior senator is Mazie Hirono, the former Representative from the 2nd congressional district. Hirono owns the distinction of being the first Asian American female and first Buddhist senators. Hawaii incurred the biggest seniority shift between the 112th the 113th Congress. The Aloha state went from a delegation with senators who were first and 21st in seniority before Inouye’s death and Senator Daniel Akaka’s retirement, to senators who are 87th and 93rd.[149] Federal officials in Hawaii are based at the Prince Kūhiō Federal Building near the Aloha Tower and Honolulu Harbor in Honolulu. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, Internal Revenue Service and the Secret Service maintain their offices there, and the building is also the site of the federal District Court for the District of Hawaii and the United States Attorney for the District of Hawaii. National politics Presidential elections results Year Republican Democratic 2012 27.84% 121,015 70.55% 306,658 2008 26.58% 120,446 71.85% 325,588 2004 45.26% 194,191 54.01% 231,708 2000 37.46% 137,845 55.79% 205,286 1996 31.64% 113,943 56.93% 205,012 1992 36.70% 136,822 48.09% 179,310 1988 44.75% 158,625 54.27% 192,364 1984 55.10% 185,050 43.82% 147,154 1980 42.90% 130,112 44.80% 135,879 1976 48.06% 140,003 50.59% 147,375 1972 62.48% 168,865 37.52% 101,409 1968 38.70% 91,425 59.83% 141,324 1964 21.24% 44,022 78.76% 163,249 1960 49.97% 92,295 50.03% 92,410 Since gaining statehood and participating in its first election in 1960, Hawaii has supported Democrats in every presidential election but two (1972 and 1984, both landslide victories for Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan respectively). During that time, only Minnesota has supported Republican candidates fewer times in presidential elections. In 2004, John Kerry won the state's four electoral votes by a margin of nine percentage points with 54% of the vote. Every county supported the Democratic candidate. In 1964, favorite son candidate Senator Hiram Fong of Hawaii sought the Republican presidential nomination, while Patsy Mink ran in the Oregon primary in 1972. Honolulu native Barack Obama, then serving as United States Senator from Illinois, was elected the 44th President of the United States on November 4, 2008, and was reelected for a second term on November 6, 2012. Obama had won the Hawaiian Democratic Caucus on February 19, 2008 with 76% of the vote. He was the third Hawaii-born candidate to seek the nomination of a major party and the first presidential nominee from Hawaii.[150][151] Transportation See also: Hawaii Department of Transportation and Aviation in Hawaii A system of state highways encircles each main island. Only Oʻahu has federal highways, and is the only area outside the contiguous 48 states to have signed Interstate highways. Travel can be slow due to narrow winding roads, and congestion in populated places. Each major island has a public bus system. The main welcome sign for Honolulu Airport Honolulu International Airport (IATA:HNL), which shares runways with the adjacent Hickam Field (IATA:HIK), is the major commercial aviation hub of Hawaii. The commercial aviation airport offers intercontinental service to North America, Asia, Australia, and Oceania. Within Hawaii, Hawaiian Airlines, Mokulele Airlines and go! use jets between the larger airports in Honolulu, Līhuʻe, Kahului, Kona and Hilo, while Island Air and Pacific Wings serve smaller airports. These airlines also provide air freight service amongst the islands. Until air passenger service became available in the 1920s,[152] private boats were the sole means of traveling between the islands. Seaflite operated hydrofoils between the major islands in the mid-1970s.[153] The Hawaii Superferry operated between Oʻahu and Maui between December 2007 and March 2009, with additional routes planned for other islands. Legal issues over environmental impact statements and protests ended the service, though the company operating Superferry has expressed a wish to begin ferry service again at a future date.[154] Currently there is passenger ferry service in Maui County between Molokaʻi and Maui,[155] and between Lanaʻi and Maui,[156] though neither of these takes vehicles. Currently Norwegian Cruise Lines and Princess Cruises provide passenger cruise ship service between the larger islands.[157][158] Rail At one time Hawaii had a network of railroads on each of the larger islands that helped move farm commodities as well as passengers. These railroads were all 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge for the majority; although there were some 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge on some of the smaller islands. Standard US gauge is 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm). The largest railroad by far was the Oahu Railway and Land Company (OR&L) which ran multiple lines from Honolulu across the western and northern part of Oahu.[159] The OR&L was an important player moving troops and goods during World War II. Traffic on this line was busy enough that there were signals on the lines facilitating movement of trains and wigwag signals at some railroad crossings for the protection of motorists. The main line was officially abandoned in 1947; although part of it was bought by the US Navy and operated until 1970. Thirteen miles (21 km) of track remain and preservationists occasionally run trains over a portion of this line.[159] The Honolulu High-Capacity Transit Corridor Project aims to add elevated passenger rail on Oahu to relieve highway congestion. Niʻihau (70 sq. mi.) Kauaʻi (552.3 sq. mi.) Oʻahu (598 sq. mi.) Maui (727.3 sq. mi.) Molokaʻi (260 sq. mi.) Lānaʻi (140.5 sq. mi.) Kahoʻolawe (44.6 sq. mi.) Hawaii (4,028.2 sq. mi.) ` Colleges and schools The Research Building at the John A Burns School of Medicine University of Hawai'i at Mānoa has 19 schools and colleges, including the School of Architecture, School of Earth Science and Technology, the College of Arts and Humanities, the Shidler College of Business, the College of Education, and the College of Engineering. The College of Business Administration was renamed the Shidler College of Business on September 6, 2006, after real estate executive Jay Shidler, an alumnus of the college, donated $25 million to the college.[14] Library Main article: Hamilton Library (Hawaii) The Library, which provides access to 3.4 million volumes, 50,000 journals, and thousands of digitized documents, is one of the largest academic research libraries in the United States, ranking 86th in parent institution investment among 113 North American members of the Association of Research Libraries.[15] Rankings The National Science Foundation ranks UH Mānoa in the top 30 public universities for federal research funding in engineering and science. In 2013, U.S. News & World Report ranks the UH College of Education in the top 17% of graduate education programs in the nation and in the top 100 for online education programs in the 2012 edition. William S. Richardson School of Law’s full-time program is ranked 106 out of the nation’s top 146 law schools, number one in country for the highest diversity, third-best in student/teacher ratio and is the highest-ranking small law school in the top tier. It also ranks among the top 25 most selective schools in terms of the ratio of admission offers/applications, 23rd for part-time programs and 22nd for top Environmental Law Program in the nation. School of Social Work is ranked 66th among the nation’s top 200 social work programs. John A. Burns School of Medicine primary care program is ranked 83rd in the nation, and 80th for the research program. Shidler College of Business part-time MBA program is ranked 116th Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Civil Engineering programs are ranked 102nd, 104th, and 108th in the country, respectively.[16] UH Mānoa is among the top-tier “Best National Universities” in the 2012 edition of U.S. News & World Report “Best Colleges” Shidler College of Business in the top 25 percent of “Best Undergraduate Business Programs” and the College’s undergraduate program in International Business 12th. U.S. News also ranked Shidler’s MBA programs in the top 25% overall for 2012 [17] Student life Student organizations Graduate Student OrganizationAssociated Students of the University of HawaiiBroadcast Communication AssociationBoard of PublicationsCampus Center BoardCircle K InternationalChi Epsilon Civil and Environmental Engineering Honor SocietyEngineer's Council at the University of HawaiiStudent Activity and Program Fee BoardNational Society of Collegiate ScholarsGolden Key International Honour SocietyAlpha Gamma DeltaBeta Beta GammaKappa Epsilon ThetaKappa SigmaTau Kappa EpsilonStudent Farm S.O.F.T. Debate and Forensics Society Student government The Associated Students of the University of Hawaii (ASUH) is the undergraduate student government representing all full-time, classified, and undergraduate students at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. ASUH was chartered by the University of Hawaii Board of Regents in 1912 and is now in its 97th year of serving and representing students.[when?] ASUH advocates on behalf of students with various entities, including the university administration, faculty, staff, community groups and government officials. ASUH also utilizes ASUH student fee money to fund diversified student programs and events on-campus.[citation needed] Ka Leo O Hawaii Ka Leo O Hawaii is the student newspaper at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, founded in 1922 (as The Mirror). The Ka Leo is now printed three times a week (Monday, Wednesday, Friday), and weekly during the winter and summer breaks. Page length is normally 8 pages, tabloid format. Circulation is approximately 7,000. Beginning in the Fall 2007 semester the Ka Leo is now printed in full color. Off-campus Lyon Arboretum The Newman Center / Catholic Campus Ministry serves the community at the University and surrounding area.The Lyon Arboretum serves as the only tropical arboretum belonging to any University in the United States. The Arboretum, located in Mānoa Valley, was established in 1918 by the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association to demonstrate watershed restoration and test various tree species for reforestation, as well as collect living plants of economic value. In 1953, it became part of the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. Its over 15,000 accessions focus primarily on the monocot families of palms, gingers, heliconias, bromeliads, and aroids. The Waikiki Aquarium, founded in 1904, is the third oldest public aquarium in the United States. A part of the University of Hawai'i since 1919, the Aquarium is located next to a living reef on the Waikiki shoreline. Athletics Main articles: Hawaii Rainbow Warriors and Hawaii Rainbow Wahine See also: Hawaii Rainbow Warriors football, Hawaii Rainbow Warriors basketball, and Hawaii Rainbow Wahine volleyball University of Hawai'i's Athletic Logo. mekealoha888 Store Condition: New, Inches: approx 1"in, Factory seconds: New with defects

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