1936 Original REAL SEBBA PHOTO Conductor WILLIAM STEINBERG Palestine ORCHESTRA

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Seller: judaica-bookstore (2,022) 100%, Location: TEL AVIV, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 283106775438 DESCRIPTION : Up for auction is an extremely rare original real - candid ACTION PHOTOGRAPH of great historical importance , Combining 3 important issues - WILLIAM STEINBERG , The PALESTINE ORCHESTRA and the acclaimed Jewish artist , The PHOTOGRAPHER SHALOM SEBBA who took this photo in 1936 . The subject is the conductor WILLIAM STEINBERG , The Jewish musician of German descent who was banned in his homeland by the NAZI regime and was forced to escape to ERETZ ISRAEL ( Then was also refered to as PALESTINE ) , Where, At the age of only 36 , He helped ARTURO TOSCANINI and BRONISLAW HUBERMAN doing the first steps of the PALESTINE ORCHESTRA - Here , In this ORIGINAL CANDID ACTION PHOTO , Depicted during an early rehearsal of the Palestine Orchestra with a wet shirt due to the Israeli hot climate and lack of appropriate airconditioned facilities at the time. It's an ORIGINAL SILVER GELATINE one of its kind PHOTOGRAPH , Stamped on its verso by the photographer SEBBA in Tel Aviv. Taken from the stage. Around 9.5 x 6.0 " .Excellent condition . A few tiny imperfections on margins. Clean. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Will be sent inside a protective rigid packaging . PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal . SHIPPMENT :SHIPP worldwide via registered airmail is $ 17 . Will be sent inside a protective packaging. Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated Int'l duration around 14 days. MORE DETAILS : William Steinberg (Cologne, August 1, 1899 – New York City, May 16, 1978) was a German-American conductor. Contents 1 Biography2 Conductor and music director 2.1 Selected discography3 References4 External links Biography Steinberg was born Hans Wilhelm Steinberg in Cologne, Germany. He displayed early talent as a violinist, pianist, and composer, conducting his own choral/ orchestral composition (based on texts from Ovid's Metamorphoses) at age 13. In 1914, he began studies at the Cologne Conservatory, where his piano teacher was the Clara Schumann pupil Lazzaro Uzielli and his conducting mentor was Hermann Abendroth. He graduated with distinction, winning the Wüllner Prize for conducting, in 1919. He immediately became a second violinist in the Cologne Opera orchestra, but was dismissed from the position by Otto Klemperer for using his own bowings. He was soon hired by Klemperer as an assistant, and in 1922 conducted Fromental Halévy's La Juive as a substitute. When Klemperer left in 1924, Steinberg served as Principal Conductor. He left a year later, in 1925, for Prague, where he was conductor of the German Theater. He next took the position of music director of the Frankfurt Opera. In 1930, in Frankfurt, he conducted the world premiere of Arnold Schoenberg's Von heute auf morgen. He was relieved of his post in 1933 by the Third Reich because he was Jewish. According to the grandson of composer Ernst Toch, Steinberg was "rehearsing [Toch's opera Der Fächer (The Fan)] in Cologne when Nazi brownshirts came storming into the hall and literally lifted the baton out of his hand".;[1] Steinberg, who had married Lotte Stern in Frankfurt in 1934, was then restricted to conducting concerts for the Jewish Culture League in Frankfurt and Berlin. The Steinbergs left Germany in 1936 for the British Mandate of Palestine, which is now Israel.[2] Eventually, with co-founder Bronisław Huberman, Steinberg trained the Palestine Symphony Orchestra, which would later be known as the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. Steinberg was conducting the orchestra when Arturo Toscanini visited there in 1936. So delighted was Toscanini with Steinberg's preliminary groundwork for his concerts that he chose him as an assistant in preparing for the NBC Symphony Orchestra radio broadcasts.[3] Steinberg emigrated to the United States in 1938. He conducted a number of concerts with the NBC Symphony Orchestra from 1938 to 1940. Steinberg conducted summer concerts at Lewisohn Stadium in New York (1940–41), led New York Philharmonic concerts in 1943-44, and also conducted at the San Francisco Opera. He became a US citizen in 1944, and was engaged as music director of the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra from 1945 to 1952. He is best known for his tenure as music director of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra from 1952 to 1976. Steinberg's Pittsburgh appearances in January 1952 were so impressive that he was quickly both engaged as music director and signed to a contract with Capitol Records. Thereafter Pittsburgh was the center of his activity although he held other important positions. From 1958 to 1960 he also conducted the London Philharmonic Orchestra, but eventually resigned that post because the added workload led to problems with his arm.[4] He led the New York Philharmonic for twelve weeks while on sabbatical leave from Pittsburgh in 1964-65, which led to his engagement as the Philharmonic's principal guest conductor from 1966 to 1968. From 1969 to 1972 Steinberg was music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (with which he had achieved earlier success as guest conductor) while maintaining his Pittsburgh post. He toured Europe with the Boston Symphony in April 1971. These additional engagements often led to rumors that Steinberg would leave Pittsburgh for a full-time position elsewhere. In 1968 though he declared, "We are too closely wed, the Pittsburgh Symphony and I, to contemplate any divorce."[5] On another occasion Steinberg said that conducting had become the profession of a traveling salesman. "A conductor has to stay put to educate an orchestra."[6] Steinberg guest-conducted most of the major US orchestras, including the Chicago Symphony, Cincinnati Symphony, Cleveland Orchestra, Dallas Symphony, Los Angeles Philharmonic, San Francisco Symphony, Seattle Symphony, and Philadelphia Orchestra. Abroad he conducted the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, Berlin Philharmonic, Frankfurt Opera and Museum Orchestra, Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra, Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Montreal Symphony Orchestra, Munich Philharmonic, Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire, Orchestra dell'Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, RAI Orchestra of Rome, Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (in their 1955 Beethoven cycle), Royal Liverpool Philharmonic, Tonhalle Orchester Zürich, Toronto Symphony Orchestra, Vancouver Symphony Orchestra, and WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne. He also appeared at summer festivals in the US and Canada (Ambler Temple University Festival, Hollywood Bowl, Ojai, Ravinia, Robin Hood Dell, Saratoga, Tanglewood, and Vancouver) as well as in Europe (Salzburg, Lucerne, Montreux). He conducted the Metropolitan Opera in several productions including Barber's Vanessa, Verdi's Aida, and Wagner's Die Walküre during his sabbatical in 1964-65. Steinberg recorded Don Juan and his own suite from Der Rosenkavalier (works by Richard Strauss) with Walter Legge's Philharmonia Orchestra in the summer of 1957. The following year he conducted them in concerts at Lucerne before assuming the conductorship of the London Philharmonic. Steinberg's first recording was however made in 1928, when he accompanied Bronisław Huberman in Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto with the Staatskapelle Berlin. In 1940 Steinberg recorded excerpts from Wagner's "Lohengrin ," "Tristan und Isolde," and Tannhäuser, as well as Mozart's "The Marriage of Figaro," with Metropolitan Opera members, issued anonymously on "World's Greatest Opera" records.[7] After the war Steinberg made a single album for the Musicraft label with the Buffalo Philharmonic - the premiere recording of Shostakovich's Symphony No. 7 in 1946. He led several accompaniments for concerto recordings on RCA Victor by Alexander Brailowsky, Jascha Heifetz, William Kapell, and Arthur Rubinstein. Steinberg made numerous recordings for Capitol Records, all but two of them with the Pittsburgh Symphony. The exceptions included a recording with the Los Angeles Woodwinds of Mozart's Gran Partita, K.361, taped in Hollywood in August 1952, and the aforementioned Strauss disc with the Philharmonia Orchestra. His Pittsburgh recordings for Capitol, all made in the Syria Mosque, included concertos with Nathan Milstein and Rudolf Firkušný, as well as a cross-section of the symphonic repertoire from Beethoven to Wagner. Nearly all of Steinberg's Capitol recordings were reissued in a 20-CD box set by EMI in September 2011.[8] In February 1960 Steinberg and the Pittsburgh Symphony moved to Everest Records, but by mutual agreement this contract was terminated after three releases since Everest abandoned their classical recording program. A casualty of this decision was a planned recording of Mahler's Sixth Symphony with the London Philharmonic, which was to have been made in conjunction with Steinberg's performance given as part of the Mahler centenary in London. Steinberg and the Pittsburgh Symphony in March 1961 signed a pact with Enoch Light's Command label. Light had attended a Steinberg concert in Danbury, Connecticut a few years before and told the conductor he'd like to record the orchestra. After the Everest contract lapsed, Steinberg subsequently made a number of technically acclaimed records for Command on 35mm film recording stock. The Command releases, hailed as "outstanding examples of contemporary recording," were made in the Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall in Pittsburgh. Light preferred the sound of this high-ceilinged auditorium to the Syria Mosque for recording.[9][10] The initial Command recordings, Brahms Symphony No. 2 and Rachmaninoff Symphony No. 2, were taped on May 1–2, 1961. Steinberg's recording of the Brahms Symphony No. 2 was nominated for a Grammy for Classical Album of the Year in 1962.[11] Steinberg's Command recordings eventually included complete cycles of the Beethoven and Brahms Symphonies, along with a diverse list of other works. Command's Pittsburgh Symphony activity ended after Steinberg recorded Bruckner's Seventh Symphony, his early Overture in G minor, two arrangements by Robert Russell Bennett, and Dimitri Shostakovich's Symphony No. 1 in April 1968.[12] When Steinberg assumed his post with the Boston Symphony in 1969, he made several recordings first for RCA, then Deutsche Grammophon, which contracted the Boston Symphony upon expiration of the RCA pact. His Boston recordings for both RCA and DG were of the first rank both musically and technically. Steinberg received numerous awards, including both the Kilenyi Bruckner Medal and the Kilenyi Mahler Medal from The Bruckner Society of America.[13][14] He was named a member of the International Institute of Arts and Letters in 1960.[15] Steinberg was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame the same year. The Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce named Steinberg Man of the Year for 1964 for his contributions to the city's cultural life, and for leading the Pittsburgh Symphony on a triumphant tour of Europe and the Middle East.[16] He was also an honorary member of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, the national fraternity for men in music.[17] Steinberg received an honorary doctorate of music from Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1954,[18] an honorary doctorate of music from Duquesne University in 1964,[19] and an honorary doctorate of humanities from the University of Pittsburgh in 1966.[20] He was named Sanford Professor of Music at Yale University in 1974. Steinberg died in New York City on May 16, 1978, having entered the hospital after conducting a New York Philharmonic concert on May 1 that featured violinist Isaac Stern.[5] William Steinberg was noted throughout his career for his straightforward yet expressive musical style, leading familiar works with integrity and authority such that they sounded fresh and vital. Despite the dynamic drive of his interpretations, his podium manner was a model of restraint. Steinberg said of his interpretive philosophy, "One must always respect the character of the music and never try to grow lush foliage in a well tempered English garden."[21] Referring to some of his more acrobatic colleagues, Steinberg remarked, "The more they move around, the quieter I get."[22] Pittsburgh principal flute Bernard Goldberg told how Steinberg "looked forward to being 70 years old because only then did a conductor know what he was doing."[23] Armando Ghitalla, distinguished Boston Symphony principal trumpet from 1966–79, said of Steinberg that "his musical taste was one of the finest I've ever heard."[24] Boston Symphony concertmaster Joseph Silverstein said Steinberg was "as sophisticated a musician as I have ever known."[25] Steinberg had a wide range of repertoire, including a sympathy for the English music of Elgar and Vaughan Williams. He led several important premieres, including the US premiere of Anton Webern's Six Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 6. During his first Pittsburgh season, Steinberg conducted works by Bartók, Berg, Bloch, Britten, Copland, Harris, Honegger, Milhaud, Schuman, Stravinsky, Vaughan Williams, and Villa-Lobos at the Pittsburgh International Contemporary Music Festival (all of these performances appeared on record, and the Bloch, Schuman, and Vaughan Williams were licensed by Capitol). He was also admired as an interpreter of Beethoven, Brahms, Bruckner, Mahler, Strauss, and Wagner. He made a famous recording of Holst's The Planets with the Boston Symphony for Deutsche Grammophon, after learning the piece at the age of 70. Unusual for a conductor born in Europe, Steinberg was a sympathetic conductor of George Gershwin's music (he made Gershwin recordings for three different labels). His last Metropolitan Opera appearances were three performances of Wagner's Parsifal in April 1974. Although sometimes criticized for his unusual programming, Steinberg was a champion of certain lesser known works including Berlioz's Roméo et Juliette, Tchaikovsky's Manfred Symphony, Reger's Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Mozart, and his own orchestral transcription of Verdi's String Quartet in E minor. Steinberg said, "The literature is so enormous. I look into what my colleagues won't. Actually, I am not success minded. I merely dare. I take a risk. Criticism I get anyway."[26] Steinberg's prestige however filled Carnegie Hall to 80 percent capacity under the unlikely circumstance of the first all-Schoenberg orchestral program ever given in New York.[27] Steinberg once remarked to a San Francisco Symphony musician he corrected, "I may be wrong, but I don't think so." Violinist David Schneider said, "This quality of not taking himself too seriously endeared him to the musicians."[28] Although all business on the podium, Steinberg was not above a bit of clowning in public; at one Pittsburgh Symphony fundraiser, he donned a blonde wig on his bald head that Johnny Carson jokingly presented him. Steinberg's puckish humor was often in evidence, as when he told Time Magazine that he had conceived "something for the New York snobs—an all-Mendelssohn program. This is really the height of snobbishness, the wonderful answer to the question of just what do the snobs need."[29] He said that he spoke four and a half languages - the half being English.[5] Of his habit of eating a steak before every concert he conducted, Steinberg told a columnist, "So you see, it's an expensive business - this concert conducting."[30] Referring to a disagreement with violinist Nathan Milstein that led to Milstein walking out of a rehearsal, Steinberg said, "He decided he would not stay and I decided I would not have him."[31] Concerning acoustics he said, "If the hall is resonant, the tempos must be changed. If the acoustics are too bad, you go fast in order to go home quickly!"[32] To an interviewer who said he had heard that the conductor did not care for giving interviews, Steinberg replied that it was fine as long as the subject was one that interested him - "for instance, myself."[33] Conductor and music director 1924 Oper Köln1925–1929 Prague State Opera1929–1933 Oper Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main1936–1938 Palestine Symphony1945–1952 Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra1952–1976 Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra1958–1960 London Philharmonic1969–1972 Boston Symphony Orchestra Selected discography Recordings made with the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra for Musicraft: December 4, 1946 Dmitri Shostakovich: Symphony No. 7, "Leningrad" (This was the first commercial recording of the work) Recordings made with the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra for Everest Records: February 13, 14, 16, 1960 Robert Russell Bennett: A Commemoration Symphony (based on works by Stephen Foster); A Symphonic Story of Jerome KernFebruary 13, 14, 16, 1960 Johannes Brahms: Symphony No. 4February 13, 14, 16, 1960 George Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (with Jesus Maria Sanroma), An American in Paris Recordings made with the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra for Command Classics: May 1/2, 1961 Johannes Brahms: Symphony No. 2May 1/2, 1961 Sergei Rachmaninoff: Symphony No. 2November 1/4, 1961 Johannes Brahms: Symphony No. 1November 1/4, 1961 Richard Wagner: Selections from Der Ring des NibelungenNovember 1/4, 1961 Franz Schubert: Symphony No. 3April 30/May 2, 1962 Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 7April 30/May 2, 1962 Johannes Brahms: Symphony No. 3, Tragic OvertureApril 30/May 2, 1962 Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 4, Leonore Overture No. 3April 30/May 2, 1962 Franz Schubert: Symphony No. 8April 29/May 1, 1963 Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 3, "Eroica"April 29/May 1, 1963 Richard Wagner: Preludes and OverturesApril 29/May 1, 1963 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 4April 27/29, 1964 Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 2April 27/29, 1964 Giuseppe Verdi: String Quartet in E (arr. Steinberg)April 27/29, 1964 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: Nutcracker SuiteJune 7/9, 1965 Johannes Brahms: Symphony No. 4June 7/9, 1965 Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 5June 7/9, 1965 Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 6April 4/8, 1966 Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 9April 4/8, 1966 Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 8April 4/8, 1966 Igor Stravinsky: PetrushkaMay 15, 17, 18, 1967 Maurice Ravel: Valses nobles et sentimentalesMay 15, 17, 18, 1967 Antonín Dvořák: Scherzo capricciosoMay 15, 17, 18, 1967 Hector Berlioz: Rakoczy MarchMay 15, 17, 18, 1967 Camille Saint-Saëns: French Military MarchMay 15, 17, 18, 1967 Johann Strauss: Perpetual Motion, Tritsch-Tratsch PolkaMay 15, 17, 18, 1967 George Gershwin: Porgy and Bess - Symphonic Picture, An American in ParisMay 15, 17, 18, 1967 Aaron Copland: Appalachian Spring, Billy the KidApril 8–11, 1968 Robert Russell Bennett: The Sound of Music - Symphonic Picture, My Fair Lady - Symphonic PictureApril 8–11, 1968 Dimitri Shostakovich: Symphony No. 1April 8–11, 1968 Anton Bruckner: Symphony No. 7, Overture in G Minor Recordings made with the Boston Symphony Orchestra for RCA Victor: September 29, 1969 Franz Schubert: Symphony No. 9, D 944 The GreatJanuary 12, 1970 Camille Saint-Saëns: Danse macabre with Joseph Silverstein, violinJanuary 12, 1970 Richard Strauss: Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, Op. 28January 19 and October 19, 1970 Anton Bruckner: Symphony No. 6October 26, 1970 Paul Dukas: The Sorcerer's Apprentice Unissued recordings made with the Boston Symphony Orchestra for RCA Victor: January 12, 1970 Igor Stravinsky: Scherzo fantastique, Op. 3; Scherzo a la RusseOctober 26, 1970 Felix Mendelssohn: Scherzo from Octet in E flat Recordings made with the Boston Symphony Orchestra for DGG: September 28 and October 12, 1970 Gustav Holst: The PlanetsMarch 24, 1971 Richard Strauss: Also sprach Zarathustra, Op. 30October 4/5, 1971 Paul Hindemith: Symphony: Mathis der MalerOctober 5, 1971 Paul Hindemith: Concert Music for Strings and Brass Live recordings issued commercially: December 3, 1946 Dmitri Shostakovich: Symphony No. 7, "Leningrad" - Buffalo Philharmonic, Allegro Records (LP, sourced from concert performance given the day before the Musicraft recording of the work)September 10, 1965 Gustav Mahler: Symphony No. 2, "Resurrection" - Cologne Radio Symphony Orchestra and Chorus, ICA ClassicsDecember 19, 1969 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: "Don Giovanni" Overture - Boston Symphony Orchestra Archives ReleaseFebruary 26, 1972 Anton Bruckner: Symphony No. 8 - Boston Symphony Orchestra, BSO From the Broadcast Archives 1943-2000June 15, 1973 Ludwig van Beethoven: Missa Solemnis - Cologne Radio Symphony Orchestra and Chorus, ICA Classics Video concert recordings issued commercially: Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 7 (October 6, 1970) & Symphony No. 8 (January 9, 1962); Joseph Haydn: Symphony No. 55 (October 7, 1969) - Boston Symphony Orchestra, ICA Classics DVDAnton Bruckner: Symphony No. 8 (January 9, 1962) - Boston Symphony Orchestra, ICA Classics DVD · William Steinberg (born Wilhelm Hans Steinberg) was a conductor and an exceptional orchestra builder and interpreter of the Romantic to early-twentieth century repertory. · He developed precociously as a musician. At the age of 13 he composed and conducted a cantata for chorus and orchestra based on selections of Ovid's Metamorphoses. He was also a fast-developing pianist and violinist. He studied at Cologne Conservatory with Franz Bölsche in music theory, Lazzaro Uzielli in piano, and Hermann Abendroth in conducting. He won the Wüllner prize in conducting in his graduation year of 1920. · He obtained a position conducting at Cologne Opera, where he was assistant to Otto Klemperer. When Klemperer left in 1924, Steinberg received the appointment as Principal Conductor. In 1925 he accepted the post of conductor of the German Theater in Prague. In 1929 he became musical director of the Frankfurt Opera. His tenure there was marked by an interest in modern opera. His productions included Berg's Wozzeck, Schoenberg's Von heute auf Morgen, Antheil's Transatlantic, and Weill's Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny. · The advent of Nazi rule in 1933 effectively ended his German career. He was restricted to conducting concerts for the Jewish Culture League in Frankfurt and Berlin. This was an insidious creation of the Nazis that both furthered its institutionalized anti-Semitism by creating a segregated organization for a segregated orchestra, while preserving the illusion that the Nazis goals went no further than ethnic separation. Steinberg left Germany in 1936 for Palestine, where he conducted the new orchestra there that eventually became the Israel Philharmonic. The Palestine Philharmonic's first concert was conducted by Arturo Toscanini. After working with Steinberg, Toscanini invited him to go to the United States as associate conductor of his NBC Symphony Orchestra. Steinberg took up that position in 1938. · Toscanini and Klemperer were Steinberg's two mentors. He adopted their clear, faithful approach to the classic scores and, like Klemperer, lost much of his early interest in modern music. Steinberg guest conducted regularly during his tenure with the NBC Symphony Orchestra. In 1945 he became Music Director of the Buffalo (New York) Philharmonic Orchestra. In 1952 he obtained the major appointment of his career, as music director of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. He restored that orchestra to an artistic high point. Concurrently, he was musical director of the London Philharmonic Orchestra (1958 - 1960). · In 1960 he scored a great success guest conducting the Boston Symphony Orchestra and was the preferred choice of its board for their next music director, as Charles Münch was stepping down from the position. However, RCA, the orchestra's record company, successfully pressured them to appoint Erich Leinsdorf, already on their roster of conductors. After Leinsdorf's tenure, one of mixed success, ended, they did appoint Steinberg to the post effective 1969. This was also only a partial success, because then health problems interfered with his abilities and caused frequent substitutions. He left the position in 1972 and restricted his activities. · William Steinberg, original name Hans Wilhelm Steinberg (born Aug. 1, 1899, Cologne, Ger.—died May 16, 1978, New York, N.Y., U.S.), German-born American conductor who directed the Pittsburgh Symphony from 1952 to 1976. · Steinberg worked as an apprentice under Otto Klemperer at the Cologne Opera and in 1924 became principal conductor there. He conducted opera at Prague (1925–29) and Frankfurt-am-Main (1929–33) before he founded, with Bronislaw Huberman, the Palestine Symphony (later the Israel Philharmonic) in 1936. · In 1938 Steinberg went to the United States. He became assistant to Arturo Toscanini at the NBC Symphony. In addition to conducting the Pittsburgh Symphony, Steinberg concurrently served as music director of the London Philharmonic (1958–60) and later of the Boston Symphony (1969–72). He retired as music director of the Pittsburgh Symphony in 1976 after building it into one of the strongest musical institutions in the United States. William Steinberg was clear about the future direction of his life from an early age: when he was only thirteen years old he conducted his own setting for chorus and orchestra of excerpts from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, in addition to being active as a pianist and violinist. He studied piano, theory and conducting at the Cologne Conservatory, where his tutors included Hermann Abendroth, and graduated in 1919, winning the Wüllner Prize for conducting. He immediately joined the Cologne Orchestra as a second violinist, only to be dismissed by Otto Klemperer for using his own bowings. Shortly afterwards however Klemperer took him on as an unpaid assistant, and in June 1922 he conducted Halévy’s La Juive at short notice. Promoted to the post of principal conductor at Cologne in 1924, during the following year Steinberg succeeded Zemlinsky at the German Theatre in Prague; and after making his debut with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra at the beginning of 1929 he was appointed chief conductor of the Frankfurt Opera. Here he led the first performances of George Antheil’s Transatlantic and Schoenberg’s Von Heute auf Morgen, as well as the local premières of Berg’s Wozzeck and Weill’s Aufsteig und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny. In addition he appeared regularly in Berlin at the Staatsoper. As a result of the assumption of power by the Nazi party in 1933 Steinberg was sacked from his post in Frankfurt, but was permitted to conduct for the Jewish Culture League. He became chief conductor of the Berlin branch of this organization in 1936, the year in which he managed to leave Germany, travelling to Palestine by way of Antwerp, Stockholm and Vienna, in each of which he enjoyed success as a conductor. In Palestine he took charge of the orchestra formed by his colleague the violinist Bronislaw Huberman and prepared it for concerts with Toscanini at the end of 1936, as well as conducting it from 1937: Toscanini was sufficiently impressed with Steinberg’s work to invite him to take over from Rodzinski as assistant conductor of the NBC Symphony Orchestra in New York. Steinberg first conducted this orchestra during June 1938 and broadcast with it until the end of 1940. Helped by colleagues from Europe, such as the brothers Adolf and Fritz Busch, Steinberg soon began to gain guest engagements in America: he conducted the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1941 and the New York Philharmonic in 1943, and served as permanent guest conductor of the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra from 1944 to 1948, alongside Pierre Monteux. On Toscanini’s recommendation he was appointed as chief conductor of the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra in 1945. Referring to himself during his period with the orchestra, 1945 to 1953, as ‘Buffalo Bill’, having already taken American citizenship in 1944, he recruited many players from Europe and through his relentless demand for impeccable performance he raised the standard of the orchestra significantly, as may be heard in its first recording, that of Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 7 ‘Leningrad’. Steinberg’s success in Buffalo established his name as a conductor of note in the USA, and in 1952 he was appointed to his most significant position, as chief conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. He remained with this orchestra effectively for the rest of his life, until 1976, and, to quote the critic Richard Freed, it was he who gave it ‘definition’. In addition to his work in Pittsburgh he also held several other important posts, as chief conductor of the London Philharmonic Orchestra (1958–1960), principal guest conductor of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra (1966–1968), and chief conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (1969–1972), by which time he was already suffering from poor health. Steinberg expressed his vision of the ideal artistic interpreter eloquently in print in 1965: ‘I think it is only he who is capable of making the work speak entirely for itself, who, besides integrity, possesses all implied spiritual traits and virtues of character which he polishes in the furnace of intuition and inspiration, and he who can muster enough modesty to hide himself from the eyes of a crowd craving to be entertained or provoked.’ As a conductor he shared the philosophy of Toscanini in that it was the conductor’s first responsibility to reveal as far as possible the intentions of the composer without any personal gloss. At his best he was held to possess an exemplary command of the baton in terms of clarity and precision and his recordings faithfully reflect his straightforward, uncluttered and deeply considered approach to performance. For the Capitol label Steinberg made numerous recordings with the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra; these included powerful accounts of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 7 and Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 6 ‘Pathétique’, as well as eloquent readings of two excerpts from Wagner’s Götterdämmerung, and Elgar’s Enigma Variations. His support for the contemporary music of his lifetime is well exemplified by his recordings of Vaughan Williams’s Five Tudor Portraits (an unusual recording taken from a live concert), Hindemith’s Mathis der Maler Symphony and the Symphony No. 3 of Ernst Toch, commissioned and first performed by Steinberg in 1955 and notable for its highly unusual orchestration, including a ‘hisser’, a tank of carbon dioxide which produces sound by the release of a valve, and a contraption filled with wooden balls set in motion by a rotating crank. After the orchestra’s relationship with Capitol and EMI ended it made a number of excellent ‘audiophile’ recordings for the Command Classics label, several of which show Steinberg and the Pittsburghers at their very considerable best. These included the complete symphonies of Brahms, Bruckner’s Symphony No. 7, Rachmaninov’s Symphony No. 2, and Stravinsky’s Petrushka. During his short time with the Boston Symphony Orchestra Steinberg made a number of recordings for RCA and Deutsche Grammophon. These included typically strong-boned accounts of Holst’s The Planets, Richard Strauss’s Also sprach Zarathustra, and the Symphonies No. 6 of Bruckner and No. 9 ‘Great C major’ of Schubert. A vivid image of Steinberg’s character as a musician has been given by one of his players in the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra: ‘He was giving something to the people, handing it gently to them, beautifully.’ Shalom Sebba - Painter and Architect. b. 1897, Prussia. Immigrated to Eretz-Israel (Palestine) 1936. Worked in agriculture and photography and as architect; made metal items for daily use in Bauhaus style; made stage sets, among them 'Wilhelm Tell' for Habima. Prize: 1952 Dizengoff Prize.Works in Public Places: 1944 Wall Painting; 1955 Yad Labanim Wall, Givatayim and Hotel Wall, Tel Aviv. Exhibitions: 1945, 1955, 1961 Tel Aviv Museum; 1963 Frankfurt, Germany; 1994 Retrospective, Tefen; 1995 Retrospective, Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Died 1975 in Germany where he had lived from 1963. Shalom Sebba was an Israeli visual artist who was born in 1897. Shalom Sebba has had several gallery and museum exhibitions, including at the Museum of Art, Ein Harod. Numerous works by the artist have been sold at auction, including 'Casting bronze' sold at Matsart Auctioneers & Appraisers 'Israeli and International Winter Sale' in 2010 for $35,000. The artist died in 1975. זיגפריד שלום סֶבָּא (Siegfried Shalom Sebba; 1897, גרמניה – 1975) היה צייר, מעצב תפאורה ופסל ישראלי. נולד במזרח פרוסיה. רכש את הכשרתו האמנותית בקניגסברג ובברלין. הוא ערך מסעות באינדונזיה, בפינלנד ובמדבר הנובי. בין השנים 1929–1930 הוא שהה בצרפת, ובשנת 1936 עלה לארץ ישראל והשתקע בה. במסגרת מסורת הציור הישראלית, ניתן לראות בסבא את אחד האמנים הטרום-כנעניים הבולטים באותן השנים. ציורו המפורסם "הגז" משנת 1947 מחבר בין תפיסה כנענית אודות הקשר הפולחני בין אדם לאדמה ולחקלאות, לבין תפיסת "היהודי החדש" ("יהדות השרירים" של מקס נורדאו, "בראש ובראשונה – ידיים" של מאיר יערי). בציור אחר משנת 1946 - "בוקר (הרועה הצעיר)", מופיע רועה צאן המחזיק בידיו טלה. ככל הנראה המודל לציור היה לאו רוט עצמו. הציור מתכתב עם מוטיב "הרועה הנאמן" שהיה ועודנו נפוץ בתרבויות האזור: החל בדמות הרועה בתבליטים מסופוטמיים, עבור בדמותו של הרועה בדתות המונותאיסטיות (משה רבנו, ישו) וכלה בדמויות בנות-זמננו (כגון אריק שרון). עבודותיו הוצגו במוזיאון תל אביב לאמנות במסגרת פעילותו של אויגן קולב, מנהל המוזיאון. משנת 1947 עד שנת 1954 הוא עסק בחקר בעיות אופטיות במסגרת תאוריית "האובייקטיביות החדשה", שבהּ בנה את השטח במישורים גאומטריים המגלמים אשליות נפחיות. ב-1955 הציג לקהל קומפוזיציות על ראייה חדשה של עצמים במרחב. Arturo Toscanini (Italian pronunciation: [arˈtuːro toskaˈniːni]; March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian conductor. He was one of the most acclaimed musicians of the late 19th and 20th century, renowned for his intensity, his perfectionism, his ear for orchestral detail and sonority, and his photographic memory.[1] He was at various times the music director of La Scala Milan, the Metropolitan Opera in New York, and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra. Later in his career he was appointed the first music director of the NBC Symphony Orchestra (1937-54), and this led to his becoming a household name (especially in the United States) through his radio and television broadcasts and many recordings of the operatic and symphonic repertoire Biography Early years Toscanini was born in Parma, Emilia-Romagna, and won a scholarship to the local music conservatory, where he studied the cello. He joined the orchestra of an opera company, with which he toured South America in 1886. While presenting Aida in Rio de Janeiro, Leopoldo Miguez, the locally hired conductor, reached the summit of a two-month escalating conflict with the performers due to his rather poor command of the work, to the point that the singers went on strike and forced the company's general manager to seek a substitute conductor. Carlo Superti and Aristide Venturi tried unsuccessfully to finish the work. In desperation, the singers suggested the name of their assistant Chorus Master, who knew the whole opera from memory. Although he had no conducting experience, Toscanini was eventually convinced by the musicians to take up the baton at 9:15 pm, and led a performance of the two-and-a-half hour opera. The public was taken by surprise, at first by the youth and sheer aplomb of this unknown conductor, then by his solid mastery. The result was astounding acclaim. For the rest of that season Toscanini conducted eighteen operas, all with absolute success. Thus began his career as a conductor, at age 19.[2][3] Upon returning to Italy, Toscanini set out on a dual path for some time. He continued to conduct, his first appearance in Italy being at the Teatro Carignano in Turin, on November 4, 1886,[4] in the world premiere of the revised version of Alfredo Catalani's Edmea (it had had its premiere in its original form at La Scala, Milan, on February 27, of that year). This was the beginning of Toscanini's lifelong friendship and championing of Catalani; he even named his first daughter Wally after the heroine of Catalani's opera La Wally.[5] However, he also returned to his chair in the cello section, and participated as cellist in the world premiere of Verdi's Otello (La Scala, Milan, 1887) under the composer's supervision. Verdi, who habitually complained that conductors never seemed interested in directing his scores the way he had written them, was impressed by reports from Arrigo Boito about Toscanini's ability to interpret his scores. The composer was also impressed when Toscanini consulted him personally about the Te Deum, suggesting an allargando where it was not set out in the score. Verdi said that he had left it out for fear that "certain interpreters would have exaggerated the marking".[6][7] National and international fame Gradually the young musician's reputation as an operatic conductor of unusual authority and skill supplanted his cello career. In the following decade he consolidated his career in Italy, entrusted with the world premieres of Puccini's La bohème and Leoncavallo's Pagliacci. In 1896, Toscanini conducted his first symphonic concert (in Turin, with works by Schubert, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, and Wagner). He exhibited a considerable capacity for hard work: in 1898 he conducted 43 concerts in Turin.[8] By 1898 he was principal conductor at La Scala, where he remained until 1908, returning as Music Director, 1921–1929. He took the Scala Orchestra to the United States on a concert tour in 1920/21; it was during that tour that Toscanini made his first recordings (for the Victor Talking Machine Company). Outside Europe, he conducted at the Metropolitan Opera in New York (1908–1915) as well as the New York Philharmonic Orchestra (1926–1936). He toured Europe with the New York Philharmonic in 1930; he and the musicians were acclaimed by critics and audiences wherever they went. Toscanini was the first non-German conductor to appear at Bayreuth (1930–1931), and the New York Philharmonic was the first non-German orchestra to play there. In the 1930s he conducted at the Salzburg Festival (1934–1937) and at the inaugural concert in 1936 of the Palestine Orchestra (later renamed the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra) in Tel Aviv, and later performed with them in Jerusalem, Haifa, Cairo and Alexandria. During his engagement with the New York Philharmonic, Hans Lange, the son of the last Master of the Sultan's Music in Istanbul, who was later to become conductor at the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the legendary founder of the New Mexico Symphony Orchestra as a professional ensemble, was his concert master.[9] During his career, Toscanini worked with such legendary artists as Enrico Caruso, Feodor Chaliapin, Ezio Pinza, Jussi Björling, and Geraldine Farrar. Although he also worked with Wagnerian heldentenor Lauritz Melchior, he would not work with Melchior's frequent partner Kirsten Flagstad after her political sympathies became suspect during World War II; it was Helen Traubel who sang with Melchior instead of Flagstad at the Toscanini concerts. Departure from Italy to the United States In 1919, Toscanini ran unsuccessfully as a Fascist parliamentary candidate in Milan. He had been called "the greatest conductor in the world" by Fascist leader Benito Mussolini. However, he became disillusioned with fascism and repeatedly defied the Italian dictator after the latter's ascent to power in 1922. He refused to display Mussolini's photograph or conduct the Fascist anthem Giovinezza at La Scala.[10] He raged to a friend, "If I were capable of killing a man, I would kill Mussolini."[11] At a memorial concert for Italian composer Giuseppe Martucci on May 14, 1931 at the Teatro Comunale in Bologna, he was ordered to begin by playing Giovinezza but he refused even though the fascist foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano was present in the audience. Afterwards he was, in his own words, "attacked, injured and repeatedly hit in the face" by a group of blackshirts.[12] Mussolini, incensed by the conductor's refusal, had his phone tapped, placed him under constant surveillance and took away his passport. The passport was returned only after a world outcry over Toscanini's treatment.[10] On the outbreak of the Second World War, Toscanini left Italy. He would return seven years later to conduct a concert at the restored La Scala Opera House, which was destroyed by bombs during the war.[13] NBC Symphony Toscanini returned to the United States where the NBC Symphony Orchestra was created for him in 1937. He conducted his first NBC broadcast concert on December 25, 1937, in NBC Studio 8-H in New York City's Rockefeller Center.[14] The acoustics of the specially built studio were very dry; some remodeling in 1939 added a bit more reverberation. (In 1950, the studio was further remodeled for television productions; today it is used by NBC for Saturday Night Live. In 1980, it was used by Zubin Mehta and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra in a series of special televised NBC concerts called "Live From Studio 8H", the first one being a tribute to Toscanini, punctuated by clips from his television concerts.) The NBC broadcasts were preserved on large transcription discs, recorded at both 78-rpm and 33-1/3 rpm, until NBC began using magnetic tape in 1947. NBC used special RCA high fidelity microphones both for the broadcasts and for recording them; these microphones can be seen in some photographs of Toscanini and the orchestra. Some of Toscanini's recording sessions for RCA Victor were mastered on sound film in a process developed about 1941, as detailed by RCA producer Charles O'Connell in his memoirs, On and Off The Record. In addition, hundreds of hours of Toscanini's rehearsals with the NBC were preserved and are now housed in the Toscanini Legacy archive at The New York Public Library. Toscanini was often criticized for neglecting American music; however, on November 5, 1938, he conducted the world premieres of two orchestral works by Samuel Barber, Adagio for Strings and Essay for Orchestra.[15][16] The performance received significant critical acclaim.[15] In 1945, he led the orchestra in recording sessions of the Grand Canyon Suite by Ferde Grofé in Carnegie Hall (supervised by Grofé) and An American in Paris by George Gershwin in NBC's Studio 8-H. Both works had earlier been performed in broadcast concerts. He also conducted broadcast performances of Copland's El Salón México; Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue with soloists Earl Wild and Benny Goodman and Piano Concerto in F with pianist Oscar Levant; and music by other American composers, including marches of John Philip Sousa. He even wrote his own orchestral arrangement of The Star-Spangled Banner, which was incorporated into the NBC Symphony's performances of Verdi's Hymn of the Nations. (Earlier, while music director of the New York Philharmonic, he conducted music by Abram Chasins, Bernard Wagenaar, and Howard Hanson.) In 1940, Toscanini took the orchestra on a "goodwill" tour of South America. Later that year, Toscanini had a disagreement with NBC management over their use of his musicians in other NBC broadcasts. This, among other reasons, resulted in a letter which Toscanini wrote on March 10, 1941 to RCA's David Sarnoff. He stated that he now wished "to withdraw from the militant scene of Art" and thus declined to sign a new contract for the up-coming winter season, but left the door open for an eventual return "if my state of mind, health and rest will be improved enough". So Leopold Stokowski was engaged on a three-year contract instead and served as the NBC Symphony's music director from 1941 until 1944. Toscanini's state of mind soon underwent a change and he returned as Stokowski's co-conductor for the latter's second and third seasons resuming full control in 1944. One of the more remarkable broadcasts was in July 1942, when Toscanini conducted the American premiere of Dmitri Shostakovich's Symphony No. 7. Due to World War II, the score was microfilmed in the Soviet Union and brought by courier to the United States. Stokowski had previously given the US premieres of Shostakovich's 1st, 3rd and 6th Symphonies in Philadelphia, and in December 1941 urged NBC to obtain the score of the 7th as he wanted to conduct its premiere as well. But Toscanini coveted this for himself and there were a number of remarkable letters between the two conductors (reproduced by Harvey Sachs in his biography) before Stokowski agreed to let Toscanini have the privilege of conducting the first performance. Unfortunately for New York listeners, a major thunderstorm virtually obliterated the NBC radio signals there, but the performance was heard elsewhere and preserved on transcription discs.[17] It was later issued by RCA Victor in the 1967 centennial boxed set tribute to Toscanini, which included a number of NBC broadcasts never released on discs.[18] In Testimony Shostakovich himself expressed a dislike for the performance, after he heard a recording of the broadcast. In Toscanini's later years the conductor expressed dislike for the work and amazement that he had actually conducted it.[19] In the summer of 1950, Toscanini led the orchestra on an extensive transcontinental tour. It was during that tour that the well-known photograph of Toscanini riding the ski lift at Sun Valley, Idaho was taken. Toscanini and the musicians traveled on a special train chartered by NBC. The NBC concerts continued in Studio 8-H until the fall of 1950. They were then held in Carnegie Hall, where many of the orchestra's recording sessions had been held, due to the dry acoustics of Studio 8-H. The final broadcast performance, an all-Wagner program, took place on April 4, 1954, in Carnegie Hall. During this concert Toscanini suffered a memory lapse reportedly caused by a transient ischemic attack, although some have attributed the lapse to having been secretly informed that NBC intended to end the broadcasts and disband the NBC orchestra.[citation needed] He never conducted live in public again. That June, he participated in his final recording sessions, remaking portions of two Verdi operas so they could be commercially released. Toscanini was 87 years old when he retired. After his retirement, the NBC Symphony was reorganized as the Symphony of the Air, making regular performances and recordings, until it was disbanded in 1963. It was heard one last time (as the NBC Symphony Orchestra) in the 1963 telecast of Gian-Carlo Menotti's Christmas opera for television, Amahl and the Night Visitors. On radio, Toscanini conducted seven complete operas, including La bohème, La traviata, and Otello, all of which were eventually released on records and CD, thus enabling the modern listening public to have at least some idea of what an opera conducted by Toscanini sounded like. Last years With the help of his son Walter, Toscanini spent his remaining years editing tapes and transcriptions of his performances with the NBC Symphony. The "approved" recordings were issued by RCA Victor, which also has issued his recordings with the La Scala Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Philadelphia Orchestra. His recordings with the BBC Symphony Orchestra (1937–39) and the Philharmonia Orchestra (1952) were issued by EMI. Various companies have issued recordings on compact discs of a number of broadcasts and concerts that he did not officially approve. Among these are stereophonic recordings of his last two NBC broadcast concerts. Sachs and other biographers have documented the numerous conductors, singers, and musicians who visited Toscanini during his retirement. He was a big fan of early television, especially boxing and wrestling telecasts, as well as comedy programs. Toscanini died on January 16, 1957 at the age of 89 at his home in the Riverdale section of the Bronx in New York City. His body was returned to Italy and was buried in the Cimitero Monumentale in Milan. His epitaph is taken from one account of his remarks concluding the 1926 premiere of Puccini's unfinished Turandot: "Qui finisce l'opera, perché a questo punto il maestro è morto" ("Here the opera ends, because at this point the maestro died").[20] During his funeral service, Leyla Gencer sang an aria from Verdi's Requiem. In his will, he left his baton to his protégée Herva Nelli, who sang in the broadcasts of Otello, Aïda, Falstaff, the Verdi Requiem, and Un ballo in maschera. Toscanini was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1987. Personal life Toscanini married Carla De Martini on June 21, 1897, when she was not yet 20 years old. Their first child, Walter, was born on March 19, 1898. A daughter, Wally, was born on January 16, 1900. Carla gave birth to another boy, Giorgio, in September 1901, but he died of diphtheria on June 10, 1906. Then, that same year, Carla gave birth to their second daughter, Wanda. Toscanini worked with many great singers and musicians throughout his career, but few impressed him as much as Vladimir Horowitz. They worked together a number of times and recorded Brahms' second piano concerto and Tchaikovsky's first piano concerto with the NBC Symphony for RCA. Horowitz also became close to Toscanini and his family. In 1933, Wanda Toscanini married Horowitz, with the conductor's blessings and warnings. It was Wanda's daughter, Sonia, who was once photographed by Life playing with the conductor. During World War II, Toscanini lived in Wave Hill, a historic home in Riverdale.[21] Despite the reported infidelities revealed in Toscanini's letters documented by Harvey Sachs, he remained married to Carla until she died on June 23, 1951.[22][23] Innovations At La Scala, which had what was then the most modern stage lighting system installed in 1901 and an orchestral pit installed in 1907, Toscanini pushed through reforms in the performance of opera. He insisted on dimming the house-lights during performances. As his biographer Harvey Sachs wrote: "He believed that a performance could not be artistically successful unless unity of intention was first established among all the components: singers, orchestra, chorus, staging, sets, and costumes." Toscanini favored the traditional orchestral seating plan with the first violins and cellos on the left, the violas on the near right, and the second violins on the far right. Premieres Toscanini conducted the world premieres of many operas, four of which have become part of the standard operatic repertoire: Pagliacci, La bohème, La fanciulla del West and Turandot; he took an active role in Alfano's completion of Puccini's Turandot.[24] He also conducted the first Italian performances of Siegfried, Götterdämmerung, Salome, Pelléas et Mélisande, and Euryanthe, as well as the South American premieres of Tristan und Isolde and Madama Butterfly and the North American premiere of Boris Godunov. He also conducted the world premiere of Samuel Barber's most famous work, the Adagio for Strings. Operatic premieres Edmea (revised version) by Alfredo Catalani – Turin, November 4, 1886 Pagliacci by Ruggiero Leoncavallo – Milan, May 21, 1892 Guglielmo Swarten by Gnaga – Rome, November 15, 1892 Savitri by Natale Canti – Bologna, December 1, 1894 Emma Liona by Antonio Lozzi – Venice, May 24, 1895 La bohème by Giacomo Puccini – Turin, February 1, 1896 Forza d'Amore by Arturo Buzzi-Peccia – Turin, March 6, 1897 La Camargo by Enrico De Leva – Turin, March 2, 1898 Anton by Cesare Galeotii – Milan, December 17, 1900 Zaza by Leoncavallo – Milan, November 10, 1900 Le Maschere by Pietro Mascagni – Milan, January 17, 1901 Mosè by Don Lorenzo Perosi – Milan, November 16, 1901 Germania by Alberto Franchetti – Milan, March 11, 1902 Oceana by Antonio Smareglia – Milan, January 22, 1903 Cassandra by Vittorio Gnecchi – Bologna, December 5, 1905 Gloria by Francesco Cilea – Milan, April 15, 1907 La fanciulla del West by Puccini – New York, December 10, 1910 Madame Sans-Gène by Umberto Giordano – New York, January 25, 1915 Debora e Jaele by Ildebrando Pizzetti – Milan, December 16, 1922 Nerone by Arrigo Boito (completed by Toscanini and Vincenzo Tommasini) – Milan, May 1, 1924 La Cena delle Beffe by Giordano – Milan, December 20, 1924 I Cavalieri di Ekebu by Riccardo Zandonai – Milan, March 7, 1925 Turandot by Puccini – Milan, April 25, 1926 Fra Gherado by Pizzetti – Milan, May 16, 1928 Il Re by Giordano – Milan, January 12, 1929 Orchestral premieres Adagio for Strings and First Essay for Orchestra by Samuel Barber – NBC Symphony Orchestra, New York, November 5, 1938 Western Suite by Elie Siegmeister – NBC Symphony Orchestra, New York, November 1945. Recorded legacy See also: Arturo Toscanini discography Overview Toscanini made his first recordings in December 1920 with the La Scala Orchestra in the Trinity Church studio of the Victor Talking Machine Company in Camden, New Jersey and his last with the NBC Symphony Orchestra in June 1954 in Carnegie Hall. His entire catalog of commercial recordings was issued by RCA Victor, save for two single-sided recordings for Brunswick in 1926 (his first by the electrical process) with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and a series of excellent recordings with the BBC Symphony Orchestra from 1937 to 1939 for EMI's HMV label (which was RCA Victor's European affiliate). Toscanini also recorded with the New York Philharmonic in Carnegie Hall for RCA Victor in 1929 and 1936. He made a series of long unissued recordings with the Philadelphia Orchestra for RCA Victor in Philadelphia's Academy of Music in 1941 and 1942. All of the commercially issued RCA Victor and HMV recordings have been digitally re-mastered and released on compact disc. There are also recorded concerts with various European orchestras, especially with La Scala Orchestra and the Philharmonia Orchestra. In April 2012, RCA Red Seal released a new 84 CD boxed set reissue of Toscanini's complete RCA Victor recordings and original HMV recordings with the BBC Symphony.[25] Hearing Toscanini In some of his recordings, Toscanini can be heard singing or humming. This is especially audible in RCA's recording of La Bohème, recorded during broadcast concerts in NBC Studio 8-H in 1946. Tenor Jan Peerce later said that Toscanini's deep involvement in the performances helped him to achieve the necessary emotions, especially in the final moments of the opera when the beloved Mimi (played by Licia Albanese) is dying. During the "Tuba mirum" section of the January 1951 live recording of Verdi's Requiem, Toscanini can be heard on the disc shouting as the brass blares. In his recording of Richard Strauss' Death and Transfiguration, Toscanini sighed loudly near the end of the music; RCA Victor left this in the released recording. Specialties He was especially famous for his performances of Beethoven, Brahms, Wagner, Richard Strauss, Debussy and his own compatriots Rossini, Verdi, Boito and Puccini. He made many recordings, especially towards the end of his career, which are still in print. In addition, there are many recordings available of his broadcast performances, as well as his remarkable rehearsals with the NBC Symphony. Charles O'Connell on Toscanini Charles O'Connell, who produced many of Toscanini's RCA Victor recordings in the 1930s and early 1940s, said that RCA quickly decided to record the NBC Symphony Orchestra in Carnegie Hall, whenever possible, after being disappointed with the dull-sounding early recordings in Studio 8-H in 1938 and 1939. (Nevertheless, there were a few recording sessions in Studio 8-H as late as June 1950, probably because of improvements to the acoustics in 1939, including installation of an acoustical shell.) O'Connell, and others, often complained that Toscanini was little interested in recording and, as Harvey Sachs wrote, Toscanini was frequently disappointed that the microphones failed to pick up everything he heard during the recording sessions. O'Connell even complained of Toscanini's failure to cooperate with RCA during the sessions. Toscanini himself was often disappointed that the 78-rpm discs failed to fully capture all of the instruments in the orchestra; those fortunate to attend Toscanini's concerts later said the NBC string section was especially outstanding.[26] Philadelphia Orchestra recordings O'Connell also extensively documented RCA's technical problems with the Philadelphia Orchestra recordings of 1941/42, which required extensive electronic editing before they could be released (well after Toscanini's death, beginning in 1963, with the rest following in the 1970s). Harvey Sachs also recounts that the masters were damaged, possibly due to the use of somewhat inferior materials imposed by wartime restrictions. Unfortunately, a Musicians Union recording ban from 1942 to 1944 prevented immediate retakes; by the time the ban ended, the Philadelphia Orchestra had left RCA Victor for Columbia Records and RCA apparently was hesitant to promote the orchestra any further. Eventually, Toscanini recorded all of the same music with the NBC Symphony. In 1968, the Philadelphia Orchestra returned to RCA and the company was more favorable toward issuing all of the discs. As for the historic recordings, even on the CD versions, first released in 1991, some of the sides have considerable surface noise and some distortion, especially during the louder passages. The best sounding of the recordings is the Schubert Symphony No. 9 (The "Great"), which had been restored by RCA first (in 1963) and issued on LP. RCA finally released the rest of the recordings in 1977 and, as Sachs noted, by that time some of the masters may have deteriorated further. Nevertheless, despite the occasional problems, the entire set is an impressive document of Toscanini's collaboration with the Philadelphia musicians. A 2006 RCA reissue, makes more effective use of digital processing in an attempt to produce better sound. Longtime Philadelphia director Eugene Ormandy expressed his appreciation for what Toscanini achieved with the orchestra. High fidelity and stereo In the late 1940s when magnetic tape replaced direct wax disc recording and high fidelity long playing records were introduced, the conductor said he was much happier making recordings. Sachs wrote that an Italian journalist, Raffaele Calzini, said Toscanini told him, "My son Walter sent me the test pressing of the [Beethoven] Ninth from America; I want to hear and check how it came out, and possibly to correct it. These long-playing records often make me happy."[27] NBC had recorded all of Toscanini's broadcast performances on transcription discs from the start of the broadcasts in 1937. The use of high fidelity sound film was common for recording sessions, as early as 1941. By 1948, when RCA began using magnetic tape on a regular basis, high fidelity became the norm for Toscanini's, and all other commercial recordings. With RCA's experiments in stereo in early 1954, stereo tapes were made of Toscanini's final two broadcast concerts, as well as the rehearsals, as documented by Samuel Antek in This Was Toscanini. The microphones were placed relatively close to the orchestra and with limited separation, so the stereo effects were not as dramatic as the commercial "Living Stereo" recordings which RCA Victor began to make about the same time with the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. The two Toscanini concerts recorded in stereo have been issued on LP and CD and have also been offered for download in digitally enhanced sound by Pristine Classical, a company which produces digitally enhanced versions of older classical recordings. One more example of Toscanini and the NBC Symphony in stereo now also exists. It is of the January 27, 1951 concert devoted to the Verdi Requiem, previously recorded and released in high-fidelity monophonic sound by RCA Victor. Recently a separate recording of the same performance, using a different microphone in a different location, was acquired by Pristine Audio. Using modern digital technology the company constructed a stereophonic version of the performance from the two recordings which it made available in 2009. The company calls this an example of "accidental stereo". Notable recordings Among his most critically acclaimed recordings are the following (with the NBC Symphony unless otherwise shown): (Many of these were never released officially during Toscanini's lifetime) Beethoven, Symphony No. 3 "Eroica" (1953; also 1939 and 1949 recordings) Beethoven, Symphony No. 6 "Pastoral" (1952) Beethoven, Symphony No. 7 (1936, Philharmonic-Symphony of New York) Beethoven, Symphony No. 9 (1952 and 1938) (only the 1952 recording was released officially) Beethoven, Missa Solemnis, (1953 and 1940 NBC broadcast) (Only the 1953 version was released officially.) Berlioz, Roméo et Juliette (1947 NBC broadcast) (only excerpts released during Toscanini's lifetime) Brahms, Symphony No. 1 (1941) Brahms, Symphony No. 2 (1952 and February 1948 broadcast) Brahms, Symphony No. 4 (1951 and 1948 broadcast) Brahms, Four Symphonies, Tragic Overture and Haydn Variations, 1952, Philharmonia Orchestra, London (his only appearances with that orchestra, produced by Walter Legge). Debussy, La mer (1950 and 1940 broadcast; only the 1950 version was released officially) Dvořák, Symphony No. 9 "From the New World" (1953) Mendelssohn, Incidental Music from A Midsummer Night's Dream, (NBC 1947, studio and broadcast versions; Philadelphia 1941); Scherzo, New York Philharmonic, (1929) Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 "Italian", (1954, exists in two versions: one as approved by Toscanini with excerpts from the rehearsals, and the unedited broadcast) Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 5 "Reformation", (1942 broadcast, 1953 studio recording. The 1953 version is the one officially released.) Puccini, La bohème (1946 broadcast) Mozart, Die Zauberflöte (1937, Salzburg Festival; poor sound) Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition (1938, 1948 and 1953 broadcast, studio recording 1953, all of them in the version orchestrated by Maurice Ravel. The studio recording from January 1953 is the only one to have been officially released.) Schubert, Symphony No. 9 (Philadelphia, 1941; NBC 1947 and 1953) Tchaikovsky, Piano concerto No. 1 in B flat minor, Op. 23, Vladimir Horowitz and NBC Symphony, (live recording of April 25, 1943 War Bonds benefit concert at Carnegie Hall, first issued in 1959 on LP by RCA Victor) Verdi, Requiem (1940 NBC broadcast; and 1951 studio recording) Verdi, Un ballo in maschera (1954 NBC broadcast)Verdi, Falstaff (1937, Salzburg Festival with restored sound on the Andante label; 1950 NBC broadcast) Verdi, Rigoletto (Act IV only, 1944; from World War II Red Cross benefit concert held in Madison Square Garden, with the combined forces of the New York Philharmonic and the NBC Symphony; the entire concert, complete with an auctioning of one of Toscanini's batons, was released on an unofficial recording in 1995) Verdi, Otello (1947 NBC broadcast) Wagner, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (1937, Salzburg Festival; original Selenophone sound-on-film recording restored on Andante.) Rarities There are many pieces which Toscanini never recorded in the studio; among these, some of the most interesting surviving recordings (off-the-air) include: Meyerbeer Overture to Dinorah (1938, on Testament)[28] Stravinsky, Suite from Petrushka (1940, on RCA Victor) Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 3 "Scottish" (1941, on Testament) Franz Schubert, Symphony No. 2 (1940, on Testament) Dmitri Shostakovich, Symphony No. 7 "Leningrad" (1942, on RCA Victor) Vasily Kalinnikov, Symphony No. 1 (1943, on Testament) Schumann, Symphony No. 2 (1946, on Testament) Boito, scenes from Mefistofele and Nerone, La Scala, Milan, 1948 – Boito Memorial Concert. Mussorgsky, Prelude to Khovanshchina (1953) Rehearsals and broadcasts Many hundreds of hours of Toscanini's rehearsals were recorded. Some of these have circulated in limited edition recordings. Many broadcast recordings with orchestras other than the NBC have also survived, including: The New York Philharmonic from 1933–36, 1942, and 1945; The BBC Symphony Orchestra from 1935–1939; The Lucerne Festival Orchestra; and broadcasts from the Salzburg Festival in the late 1930s. Documents of Toscanini's guest appearances with the La Scala Orchestra from 1946 until 1952 include a live recording of Verdi's Requiem with the young Renata Tebaldi. Toscanini's ten NBC Symphony telecasts from 1948 until 1952 were preserved in kinescope films of the live broadcasts. These films, issued by RCA on VHS tape and laser disc and on DVD by Testament, provide unique video documentation of the passionate yet restrained podium technique for which he was well known. Recording guide A guide to Toscanini's recording career can be found in Mortimer H. Frank's "From the Pit to the Podium: Toscanini in America" in International Classical Record Collector (1998, 15 8–21) and Christopher Dyment's "Toscanini's European Inheritance" in International Classical Record Collector (1998, 15 22–8). Frank and Dyment also discuss Maestro Toscanini's performance history in the 50th anniversary issue of Classic Record Collector (2006, 47) Frank with 'Toscanini – Myth and Reality' (10–14) and Dyment 'A Whirlwind in London' (15–21) This issue also contains interviews with people who performed with Toscanini – Jon Tolansky 'Licia Albanese – Maestro and Me' (22–6) and 'A Mesmerising Beat: John Tolansky talks to some of those who worked with Arturo Toscanini, to discover some of the secrets of his hold over singers, orchestras and audiences.' (34–7). There is also a feature article on Toscanini's interpretation of Brahms's First Symphony – Norman C. Nelson, 'First Among Equals [...] Toscanini's interpretation of Brahms's First Symphony in the context of others' (28–33) The Arturo Toscanini Society In 1969, Clyde J. Key acted on a dream he had of meeting Toscanini by starting the Arturo Toscanini Society to release a number of "unapproved" live performances by Toscanini. As Time Magazine reported, Key scoured the U.S. and Europe for off-the-air transcriptions of Toscanini broadcasts, acquiring almost 5,000 transcriptions (all transferred to tape) of previously unreleased material—a complete catalogue of broadcasts by the Maestro between 1933 and 1954. It included about 50 concerts that were never broadcast, but which were recorded surreptitiously by engineers supposedly testing their equipment. A private, nonprofit club based in Dumas, Texas, it offered members five or six LPs annually for a $25-a-year membership fee. Key's first package offering included Brahms' German Requiem, Haydn's Symphonies Nos. 88 and 104, and Richard Strauss' Ein Heldenleben, all NBC Symphony broadcasts dating from the late 1930s or early 1940s. In 1970, the Society releases included Sibelius' Symphony No. 4, Mendelssohn's "Scottish" Symphony, dating from the same NBC period; and a Rossini-Verdi-Puccini LP emanating from the post-War reopening of La Scala on May 11, 1946 with the Maestro conducting. That same year it released a Beethoven bicentennial set that included the 1935 Missa Solemnis with the Philharmonic and LPs of the 1948 televised concert of the ninth symphony taken from an FM radio transcription, complete with Ben Grauer's comments. (In the early 1990s, the kinescopes of these and the other televised concerts were released by RCA with soundtracks dubbed in from the NBC radio transcriptions; in 2006, they were re-released by Testament on DVD.) Additional releases included a number of Beethoven symphonies recorded with the New York Philharmonic during the 1930s, a performance of Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 27 on February 20, 1936, at which Rudolf Serkin made his New York debut, and one of the most celebrated underground Toscanini recordings of all, the legendary 1940 broadcast version of Beethoven's Missa Solemnis, which has better soloists (Zinka Milanov, Jussi Bjoerling, both in their prime) and a more powerful style than the 1953 RCA studio recording, although the microphone placement was kinder to the soloists in 1953. Because the Arturo Toscanini Society was nonprofit, Key said he believed he had successfully bypassed both copyright restrictions and the maze of contractual ties between RCA and the Maestro's family. However, RCA's attorneys were soon looking into the matter to see if they agreed. As long as it stayed small, the Society appeared to offer little real competition to RCA. But classical-LP profits were low enough even in 1970, and piracy by fly-by-night firms so prevalent within the industry (an estimated $100 million in tape sales for 1969 alone), that even a benevolent buccaneer outfit like the Arturo Toscanini Society had to be looked at twice before it could be tolerated.[29] Magazine and newspaper reports subsequently detailed legal action taken against Key and the Society, presumably after some of the LPs began to appear in retail stores. Toscanini fans and record collectors were dismayed because, although Toscanini had not approved the release of these performances in every case, many of them were found to be further proof of the greatness of the Maestro's musical talents. One outstanding example of a remarkable performance not approved by the Maestro was his December 1948 NBC broadcast of Dvořák's Symphonic Variations, released on an LP by the Society. (A kinescope of the same performance, from the television simulcast, has been released on VHS and laser disc by RCA/BMG and on DVD by Testament.) There was speculation that, the Toscanini family itself, prodded by his daughter Wanda, sought to defend the Maestro's original decisions, made mostly during his last years, on what should be released. Walter Toscanini later admitted that his father likely rejected performances that were satisfactory. Whatever the real reasons, the Arturo Toscanini Society was forced to disband and cease releasing any further recordings. Television Arturo Toscanini was one of the first conductors to make extended appearances on live television. Between 1948 and 1952, he conducted ten concerts telecast on NBC, including a two-part concert performance of Verdi's complete opera Aida starring Herva Nelli and Richard Tucker, and the first complete telecast of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. All of these were simulcast on radio. These concerts were all shown only once during that four-year span, but they were preserved on kinescopes.[30] The telecasts began on March 20, 1948, with an all-Wagner program, including the Prelude to Act III of Lohengrin; the overture and bacchanale from Tannhäuser; "Forest Murmurs" from Siegfried; "Dawn and Siegfried's Rhine Journey" from Götterdämmerung; and "The Ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre. On the very same day that this concert was telecast live, conductor Eugene Ormandy also made his live television concert debut with the Philadelphia Orchestra. [31] They performed Weber's overture to Der Freischutz and Rachmaninoff's Symphony no. 1, which had been recently rediscovered. [32] The Ormandy concert was telecast by rival network CBS, but the schedules were arranged so that the two programs would not interfere with one another. [33] Less than a month after the first Toscanini televised concert, a performance by the conductor of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony was telecast on April 3, 1948. On November 13, 1948, there was an all-Brahms program, including the Concerto for Violin, Cello, and Orchestra in A minor (Mischa Mischakoff, violin; Frank Miller, cello); Liebeslieder-Walzer, Op. 52 (with two pianists and a small chorus); and Hungarian Dance No. 1 in G minor. On December 3, 1948, Toscanini conducted Mozart's Symphony No. 40 in G minor; Dvořák's Symphonic Variations; and Wagner's original overture to Tannhäuser. There were two Toscanini telecasts in 1949, both devoted to the concert performance of Verdi's Aida from studio 8H. Acts I and II were telecast on March 26 and III and IV on April 2. Portions of the audio were rerecorded in June 1954 for the commercial release on LP records. As the video shows, the soloists were placed close to Toscanini, in front of the orchestra, while the robed members of the Robert Shaw Chorale were on risers behind the orchestra. There were no Toscanini telecasts in 1950, but they resumed from Carnegie Hall on November 3, 1951, with Weber's overture to Euryanthe and Brahms' Symphony No. 1. On December 29, 1951, there was another all-Wagner program that included the two excerpts from Siegfried and Die Walküre featured on the March 1948 telecast, plus the Prelude to Act II of Lohengrin; the Prelude and Liebestod from Tristan und Isolde; and "Siegfried's Death and Funeral Music" from Götterdämmerung. On March 15, 1952, Toscanini conducted the Symphonic Interlude from Franck's Rédemption; Sibelius's En Saga; Debussy's "Nuages" and "Fetes" from Nocturnes; and the overture of Rossini's William Tell. The final live Toscanini telecast, on March 22, 1952, included Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, and Respighi's The Pines of Rome. The NBC cameras were often left on Toscanini for extended periods, documenting not only his baton techniques but his deep involvement in the music. At the end of a piece, Toscanini generally nodded rather than bowed and exited the stage quickly. Although NBC continued to broadcast the orchestra on radio until April 1954, telecasts were abandoned after March 1952. As part of a restoration project initiated by the Toscanini family in the late 1980s, the kinescopes were fully restored and issued by RCA on VHS and laser disc beginning in 1989. The audio portion of the sound was taken, not from the noisy kinescopes, but from 33-1/3 rpm 16-inch transcription disc and high fidelity audio tape recordings made simultaneously by RCA technicians during the televised concerts. The hi-fi audio was synchronized with the kinescope video for the home video release. Original introductions by NBC's longtime announcer Ben Grauer were replaced with new commentary by Martin Bookspan. The entire group of Toscanini videos has since been reissued by Testament on DVD, with further improvements to the sound. Film In December 1943, Toscanini made a 31-minute film for the United States Office of War Information called Hymn of the Nations, directed by Alexander Hammid. It was mostly filmed in NBC's Studio 8-H and consists of Toscanini conducting the NBC Symphony in a performance of Verdi's Overture to La Forza del Destino and Verdi's "Hymn of the Nations" (Inno delle nazioni), which contains national anthems of England, France, and Italy (the World War I allied nations), to which Toscanini added the Soviet "Internationale" and "The Star Spangled Banner". Tenor Jan Peerce and the Westminster Choir performed in the latter work and the film was narrated by Burgess Meredith.[34] The film was released by RCA/BMG on DVD in 2004. By this time the "Internationale" had been cut from the 1943 film, but the complete "Hymn of the Nations" can still be heard in all releases of the audio recording of the film issued by RCA.[35] Hymn of the Nations was nominated for a 1944 Academy Award for Best Documentary Short.[36] Toscanini: The Maestro is a 1985 documentary made for cable television. The film features archival footage of the conductor and interviews with musicians who worked with him. This film was released on VHS and in 2004 on the same DVD with Hymn of the Nations. Toscanini is the subject of the 1988 fictionalized biography Il giovane Toscanini (Young Toscanini), starring C. Thomas Howell and Dame Elizabeth Taylor, and directed by Franco Zeffirelli.[37] It received scathing reviews and was never officially released in the United States. The film is a fictional recounting of the events that led up to Toscanini making his conducting debut in Rio de Janeiro in 1886. Although nearly all of the plot is embellished, the events surrounding the sudden and unexpected conducting debut are based on fact. Acclaim and criticism Throughout his career, Toscanini was virtually idolized by the critics (a notable exception being Virgil Thomson), as well as by most fellow musicians and the public alike. He enjoyed the kind of consistent critical acclaim during his life that few other musicians have had. He was featured three times on the cover of Time magazine, in 1926, 1934, and again in 1948. In the magazine's history, he is the only conductor to have been so honored.[38][39][40] On March 25, 1989, the United States Postal Service issued a 25 cent postage stamp in his honor.[41] While online critics such as Peter Gutmann have dismissed much of what was written about Toscanini during his lifetime as "adoring puffery",[42] it neverthleless remains a fact that composers and others who worked with the Maestro readily acknowledged what they felt was his greatness, and audio interviews containing the praise of such luminaries as Aaron Copland still exist. [43] Over the past thirty years or so, however, as a new generation has appeared, there has been an increasing amount of revisionist criticism directed at Toscanini. These critics contend that Toscanini was ultimately a detriment to American music rather than an asset because of the tremendous marketing of him by RCA as the greatest conductor of all time and his preference to perform mostly older European music. According to Harvey Sachs, Mortimer Frank, and B. H. Haggin, this criticism can be traced to the lack of focus on Toscanini as a conductor rather than his legacy. Frank, in his recent book Toscanini: The NBC Years, rejects this revisionism quite strongly,[44] and cites the author Joseph Horowitz (author of Understanding Toscanini) as perhaps the most extreme of these critics. Frank writes that this revisionism has unfairly influenced younger listeners and critics, who may have not heard as many of Toscanini's performances as older listeners, and as a result, Toscanini's reputation, extraordinarily high in the years that he was active, has suffered a decline. Conversely, Joseph Horowitz contends that those who keep the Toscanini legend alive are members of a "Toscanini cult", an idea not altogether refuted by Frank, but not embraced by him, either. Some contemporary critics, particularly Virgil Thomson, also took Toscanini to task for not paying enough attention to the "modern repertoire" (i.e., 20th-century composers, of which Thomson was one). It may be speculated, knowing Toscanini's antipathy toward much 20th-century music, that perhaps Thomson had a feeling that the conductor would never have played any of his (Thomson's) music, and that perhaps because of this, Thomson bore a resentment against him. During Toscanini's middle years, however, such now widely accepted composers as Richard Strauss and Claude Debussy, whose music the conductor held in very high regard, were considered to be radical and modern. Toscanini also performed excerpts from Igor Stravinsky's Petrouchka, and three of George Gershwin's most famous works, Rhapsody in Blue, An American in Paris, and the Piano Concerto in F, though his performances of these last three works have been criticized as not being "jazzy" enough. Another criticism leveled at Toscanini stems from the constricted sound quality that comes from many of his recordings, notably those made in NBC's Studio 8-H. Studio 8-H was foremost a radio and later a television studio, not a true concert hall. Its dry acoustics lacking in much reverberation, while ideal for broadcasting, were unsuited for symphonic concerts and opera. However, it is widely believed that Toscanini favored it because its close miking enabled listeners to hear every instrumental strand in the orchestra clearly, something that the conductor strongly believed in.[45] Toscanini has also been criticized for lack of nuance and metronomic (rhythmically too rigid) performances: "Others attacked the conductor on the ground that he was a slave to the metronome. They said that his beat was inexorable, that his rhythms were rigid, that he was an enemy of Italian song and a wrecker of the art of bel canto."[46] "When he was young as a conductor, it was complained of Toscanini that he held the tempo and rhythm of the music firmly to its course and that it had the mechanical exactitude of a metronome. [...]"[47] —The Maestro: The Life Of Arturo Toscanini (1951) by Howard Taubman Others state (and there is some evidence from the recordings) that Toscanini's tempos, quite flowing in his earlier recordings, became stricter as he got older, although this is not to be taken as a literally true statement. His 1953 recording of Pictures at an Exhibition, for instance, and his 1950 La Mer, are considered masterpieces by many. The Toscanini Legacy Beginning in 1963, NBC Radio broadcast a weekly series of programs entitled Toscanini: The Man Behind The Legend, commemorating Toscanini's years with the NBC Symphony Orchestra. The show, hosted by NBC announcer Ben Grauer, who had also hosted many of the original Toscanini broadcasts, featured interviews with members of the conductor's family, as well as musicians of the NBC Symphony, David Sarnoff, and noted classical musicians who had worked with the conductor, such as Giovanni Martinelli. It spotlighted partial or complete rebroadcasts of many of Toscanini's recordings. The program ran for at least three years, and did not feature any of the revisionist commentary about the conductor one finds so often today in magazines such as American Record Guide.[48] The series was rebroadcast by PBS radio in the late 1970s. In 1986, The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts purchased the bulk of Toscanini's papers, scores and sound recordings from his heirs. Named The Toscanini Legacy, this vast collection contains thousands of letters, programs and various documents, over 1,800 scores and more than 400 hours of sound recordings. A finding aids for the scores and sound recordings is available on the library's website. In house finding aids are available for other parts of the collection. The Library also has many other collections that have Toscanini materials in them, such as the Bruno Walter papers, the Fiorello H. La Guardia papers, and a collection of material from Rose Bampton. ****** The Palestine Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1936 under the leadership of Bronislaw Huberman. Huberman, a violinist, at first envisioned an international center for the arts, but instead focused on developing a critically acclaimed symphony orchestra. Conditions in Europe had become such that the orchestra could serve as a haven for persecuted Jewish musicians. Many immigration certificates became available, as the orchestra could provide employment for the refugees. The new immigrants themselves provided fresh talent and energy for cultural pursuits in the yishuv. While Huberman continued to work on behalf of the orchestra, Arturo Toscanini agreed to become its first conductor. He was quick to help establish the orchestra's reputation. In addition to drawing talented musicians to the orchestra itself, many other chamber orchestras and groups formed throughout the yishuv. In 1948, the orchestra changed its name to the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.****** The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra The internationally renowned musicians who began their careers with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (IPO) loyally returned home for its 60th anniversary celebrations in December 1996. The artists included Yitzhak Perlman, Daniel Barenboim, Pinchas Zuckerman, Yefim Bronfman, Shlomo Mintz and the young virtuoso Gil Shaham. Coincidentally, or perhaps not so because their fates have been so intertwined, the ]PO celebrated its 60th birthday together with conductor and Music Director for life, Zubin Mehta, the Indian-born maestro who took charge of the IPO in 1968, and who also turned 60 last year. It was Arturo Toscanini, the greatest conductor of his time, who presided over the orchestra's first performance in 1936. Italian-born Toscanini, who was not Jewish, despised Nazism and saw the formation of a Jewish orchestra as an act of defiance against Hitler. Most of the original members of the orchestra, then called the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra, were assembled by the Polish Jewish violinist Bronislaw Huberman, and were fortunate enough to get out of Europe before the Holocaust began. Re-named the IPO after the establishment of Israel in 1948, the orchestra has always acted as the country's foremost cultural ambassador, carrying the joy of music and the message of peace from Israel to music lovers around the world. Zubin Mehta recalls that one of his most moving moments was when the IPO agreed to play in Germany in 1971 and he was able to conduct "Hatikvah," Israel's national anthem, in the country that had unintentionally caused the establishment of the IPO through its persecution of Jews. In the late 1980s, the IPO visited Auschwitz on a concert tour of Poland, Hungary and the former Soviet Union. And in 1994 Mehta was able to lead the IPO to China and his native India, shortly after Israel established diplomatic relations with the two Asian powers. The sell-out success of the 12 celebration concerts around Israel characterizes the local popularity of the IPO, which has the largest subscription public per capita in the world. In its 60th year the IPO recruited 6,200 new subscribers, a world record for a symphony orchestra. In fact, the IPO has always managed to break even without the need for government subsidies. With plentiful local talent, the IPO has never needed to offer fabulous salaries to entice musicians from overseas. About half of the orchestra's 110 musicians are native-born Israelis, 35% were born in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, and 15% hail from North America. In addition, the IPO's many worldwide friends, such as the late Leonard Bernstein, conductors Kurt Masur and Lorin Maazel, and violinists Isaac Stern and Yehudi Menuhin, have been frequent guest players. The IPO also regularly records for leading companies such as Sony Classical, Teldec, EMI and Deutsche Grammophon. Recent recordings include the best of the IPO's concert repertoire such as Brahms' four symphonies, Prokofiev's Piano Concertos and Mahler's symphonies. Based in Tel Aviv at the Mann Auditorium, the challenge facing the IPO over the next 60 years is to maintain and enhance the high standards that have been established. The Young Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, supported by scholarship funds, should ensure that the next generation of musicians is no less talented than the present. ******* The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (abbreviation IPO; Hebrew: התזמורת הפילהרמונית הישראלית, ha-Tizmoret ha-Filharmonit ha-Yisre'elit) is the leading symphony orchestra in Israel. History The IPO was founded by violinist Bronisław Huberman in 1936, at a time when many Jewish musicians were being fired from European orchestras. Its inaugural concert took place in Tel Aviv on December 26, 1936, and was conducted by Arturo Toscanini. In 1958, the IPO was awarded the Israel Prize, in music, being the first year in which the Prize was awarded to an organization.[1] The IPO enjoys frequent international tours, and has performed under some of the world's greatest conductors, including Leonard Bernstein and Zubin Mehta, both of whom are prominent in the orchestra's history. Bernstein maintained close ties with the orchestra from 1947, and in 1988, the IPO bestowed on him the title of Laureate Conductor, which he retained until his death in 1990. Mehta has served as the IPO's Music Advisor since 1968. The IPO did not have a formal music director, but instead "music advisors", until 1977, when Mehta was appointed the IPO's first Music Director. In 1981, his title was elevated to Music Director for Life.[2] Kurt Masur is the IPO's Honorary Guest Conductor, a title granted to him in 1992. Gianandrea Noseda is Principal Guest Conductor, a role previously occupied by Yoel Levi. With Mehta, the IPO has made a number of recordings for Decca. Under the baton of Bernstein, the IPO also recorded his works and those of Igor Stravinsky. The IPO has also collaborated with Japanese composer Yoko Kanno in the soundtrack of the anime Macross Plus. As of 2006, the composers whose works have been most frequently performed by the IPO were Beethoven, Mozart, Brahms, Mendelssohn and Dvořák. The initial concerts of the Palestine Orchestra in December 1936, conducted by Toscanini, featured the music of Richard Wagner.[3] However, after the Kristallnacht pogroms in November 1938, the orchestra has maintained a de facto ban on Wagner's work, due to that composer's antisemitism and the association of his music with Nazi Germany.[4] The Secretary-General of the orchestra is Avi Shoshani. The IPO has a subscriber base numbering 26,000.[5] Commentators have noted the musically conservative tastes of the subscriber base.[6] Musical Advisors/Music Directors Zubin Mehta (1968–) (Musical Advisor 1968–77; Music Director thereafter) Jean Martinon (1957–59)Bernardino Molinari Paul Paray (1949–51) Leonard Bernstein (1947–49; Laureate Conductor 1947–90) William Steinberg (1936–38) ***** Bronisław Huberman (19 December 1882 – 16 June 1947) was a Jewish Polish violinist. He was known for his individualistic and personal interpretations and was praised for his tone color, expressiveness, and flexibility. The Gibson ex-Huberman Stradivarius violin which bears his name was stolen and recovered twice during the period in which he owned the instrumen Biography Huberman was born in Częstochowa, Poland. In his youth he was a pupil of Mieczyslaw Michalowicz and Maurycy Rosen at the Warsaw Conservatory, and of Isidor Lotto in Paris. In 1892 he studied under Joseph Joachim in Berlin. Despite being only ten years old, he dazzled Joachim with performances of Louis Spohr, Henri Vieuxtemps, and the transcription of a Frederic Chopin nocturne. However, the two did not get along well, and after Huberman's fourteenth birthday he took no more lessons. In 1893 he toured Holland and Belgium as a virtuoso performer. Around this time, the six year old Arthur Rubinstein attended one of Huberman's concerts. Rubinstein's parents invited Huberman back to their house and the two boys struck up what would become a lifetime friendship. In 1894 Adelina Patti invited Huberman to participate in her farewell gala in London, which he did, and in the following year he actually eclipsed her in appearances in Vienna. In 1896 he performed the violin concerto of Johannes Brahms in the presence of the composer, who was stunned by the quality of his playing. In the twenties and early thirties, Huberman toured around Europe and North America with the pianist Siegfried Schultze and performed on the most famous stage (Carnegie in New York, Scala in Milan, Musikverein in Vienna, Konzerthaus in Berlin....). During many years, the duet Huberman-Schultze were regularly invited in private by European Royal Families. Countless recordings of these artists were done during that period at the "Berliner Rundfunk" and unfortunately destroyed during the second war. In 1937, a year before the Anschluss, Huberman left Vienna and took refuge in Switzerland. The following year, his career nearly ended as a result of an airplane accident in Sumatra in which his wrist and two fingers of his left hand were broken. After intensive and painful retraining he was able to resume performing. At the onset of the Second World War, Huberman was touring South Africa and was unable to return to his home in Switzerland until after the war. Shortly thereafter he fell ill from exhaustion and never regained his strength. He died in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland, on June 16, 1947, at age 64. Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra In 1929 Huberman first visited Palestine and developed his vision of establishing classical music in the Promised Land. In 1933, during the Nazis' rise to power, Huberman declined invitations from Wilhelm Furtwängler to return to preach a "musical peace", but wrote instead an open letter to German intellectuals inviting them to remember their essential values. In 1936 he founded the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra, which gave its first performance on 26 December with Arturo Toscanini conducting. Upon the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 the orchesra was renamed as the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. Stradivarius theft Before 1936, Huberman's principal instrument for his concerts was the 1713-vintage Stradivarius "Gibson", which was named after one of its early owners, the English violinist George Alfred Gibson. It was stolen twice. In 1919, it was stolen from Huberman's Vienna hotel room, but recovered by the police within 3 days. The second time was in New York City. On February 28, 1936, while giving a concert at Carnegie Hall, Huberman switched the Stradivarius "Gibson" with his newly acquired Guarnerius violin, leaving the Stradivarius in his dressing room during intermission. It was stolen by a New York nightclub musician, Julian Altman, who kept it for the next half century. Huberman's insurance company, Lloyd's of London, paid him $US30,000 for the loss in 1936. Altman went on to become a violinist with the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, D.C. and performed with the stolen Stradivarius for many years. In 1985, Altman made a deathbed confession to his wife, Marcelle Hall, that he had stolen the violin. Two years later, she returned it to Lloyd's and collected a finder's fee of $US263,000. The instrument underwent a 9-month restoration by J & A Beare Ltd., in London. In 1988, Lloyd's sold it for $USD 1.2 million to British violinist Norbert Brainin. In October 2001, the American violinist, Joshua Bell, purchased it for just under $4,000,000. The price, or the value, had more than tripled in 13 years - a 340% appreciation. Recordings Huberman made several commercial recordings of large-scale works, among which are: Beethoven: Violin Concerto (w. Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, cond. George Szell) (Columbia Records, LX 509-13) (18–20 June 1934). Beethoven: Kreutzer Sonata (no 9) (w. Ignaz Friedman, pno) (Columbia Records, C-67954/7D) Lalo: Symphonie Espagnole (omits 3rd movt.) (w. Vienna Philharmonic, cond. George Szell) (Columbia Records, C-68288/90D) Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto (w. Berlin State Opera Orchestra, cond William Steinberg) (Columbia Records, C-67726/9D) (December 1928; originally for Odeon) Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto (2nd & 3rd movts) (w. Siegfried Schulze, pno) (Brunswick Records, PD-27242: acoustic) Also Bach Concerti 1 & 2, and Mozart Concerto 3. Several other large works exist in off-air broadcast recordings, including the Brahms concerto. ******* (1882–1947), violinist. Bronisław Huberman was born in Częstochowa, Poland and was a child prodigy who began to take violin lessons at the age of six. He appeared in public for the first time a year later, playing at a benefit concert for the poor. Huberman studied violin in Warsaw, with, among others, Isidor Lotto at the Warsaw Conservatory. He began to study with Joseph Joachim in Berlin in 1892, and also took lessons briefly with Hugo Heermann in Frankfurt and Martin Marsick in Paris. As a youth, Huberman combined study with frequent public appearances throughout Germany, Austria, Holland, and Belgium. At his concerts in Vienna in 1896, the audience included Antonin Dvorak, Gustav Mahler, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss, and Johannes Brahms. In 1896, he made his debut at Carnegie Hall in New York City. After returning to Europe, he produced his first recordings in 1900. In 1903 and again in 1908, he was invited to play Paganini’s violin in Genoa. In 1912, Huberman published Aus der Werkstatt des Virtuosen (In the Workshop of the Virtuoso), in which he discussed the role of a performer of his caliber. The bloodshed of World War I triggered Huberman’s interest in politics. Convinced that peace could only be achieved through European unification (modeled on the economic and political integration of the United States), he became involved in the Pan-European movement. He toured the United States repeatedly in the 1920s, explaining his political ideas in Mein Weg zu Paneuropa (My Road to Pan-Europa; 1924). In 1929, Huberman visited Palestine for the first time, where he was enthusiastically received. With Hitler’s rise to power, Huberman decided not to return to Germany and rejected an offer of employment by conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler. In September 1933, Huberman published a letter in German, French, and English, explaining his motives in defense of universal European culture and freedom. In 1936, he also published an “Open Letter to German Intellectuals” denouncing Nazism. In the early 1930s, Huberman took on the responsibilty of creating a symphony orchestra in Palestine. To that end, he organized the American Association of Friends of the Palestine Orchestra, with Albert Einstein as its chair, and in 1936 founded the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra in Tel Aviv with refugees from Europe. The orchestra made its debut under Huberman’s leadership. Huberman left for America in 1940. He returned to tour Europe after the war and died at Nant-sur-Corsier in Switzerland. His archives were placed in the Central Music Library in Tel Aviv steinberg photo 2.jpg Condition: Excellent condition . Clean. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ), Size: Around 9.5 x 6.0 ", Country/Region of Manufacture: Israel, Original/Reproduction: Original

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