1809 Two Folio Engravings - LINCOLN CASTLE - Camden's Britannia - Richard Gough

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Seller: mogger (4,784) 99.6%, Location: Los Angeles, California, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 392294795122 Two folio pages of engravings published in Volume II to William Camden's "Britannia", enlarged by the Latest Discoveries by Richard Gough - see below. The volume was published by John Stockdale in 1809 although the maps were dated 1805. The images are illustrations of Lincoln Castle, a major Norman castle constructed by William the Conqueror - see below Good condition with vertical folds to the double page as required by the publisher to match the standard page size. Beautiful paper stock watermarked 1808. Overall page size 20 x 17 inches and 10 x 17 inches William CamdenFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaWilliam CamdenWilliam CamdenBorn2 May 1551 London, EnglandDied9 November 1623 Chislehurst, EnglandOccupationAntiquarian, historian, topographerNationalityEnglishWilliam Camden (2 May 1551, London – 9 November 1623,Chislehurst) was an English antiquarian, historian, topographer, and herald, best known as author of Britannia, the first chorographical survey of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Annales, the first detailed historical account of the reign of Elizabeth I of England.Contents [hide] 1Early years2Britannia3Annales4Remaines Concerning Britain5Reges, reginae6Other writings7Final years8Legacy9Notes10References11External linksEarly years[edit]Camden was born in London. His father Sampson Camden was a member of The Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers. He attended Christ's Hospital and St Paul's School, and in 1566 entered Oxford (Magdalen College, Broadgates Hall, and finally Christ Church). At Christ Church, he became acquainted with Philip Sidney, who encouraged Camden's antiquarian interests. He returned to London in 1571 without a degree. In 1575, he became Usher of Westminster School, a position that gave him the freedom to travel and pursue his antiquarian researches during school vacations.Britannia[edit]In 1577, with the encouragement of Abraham Ortelius, Camden began his great work Britannia, a topographical and historical survey of all of Great Britain and Ireland. His stated intention was "to restore antiquity to Britaine, and Britaine to its antiquity". The first edition, written in Latin, was published in 1586. It proved very popular, and ran through five further editions, of 1587, 1590, 1594, 1600 and 1607, each greatly enlarged from its predecessor in both textual content and illustrations. The 1607 edition included for the first time a full set of English county maps, based on the surveys of Christopher Saxton and John Norden, and engraved by William Kip and William Hole (who also engraved the fine title page). The first English language edition, translated by Philemon Holland, appeared in 1610, again with some additional content supplied by Camden.[1]Britannia is a county-by-county description of Great Britain and Ireland. It is a work of chorography: a study that relates landscape, geography, antiquarianism, and history. Rather than write a history, Camden wanted to describe in detail the Great Britain of the present, and to show how the traces of the past could be discerned in the existing landscape. By this method, he produced the first coherent picture of Roman Britain.Camden as Clarenceux King of Arms in the funeral procession of Elizabeth I, 1603.He continued to collect materials and to revise and expand Britannia throughout his life. He drew on the published and unpublished work of John Leland and William Lambarde, among others, and received the assistance of a large network of correspondents with similar interests. He also travelled throughout Great Britain to view documents, sites, and artefacts for himself: he is known to have visited East Anglia in 1578, Yorkshire and Lancashire in 1582, Devon in 1589, Wales in 1590, Salisbury, Wells and Oxford in 1596, and Carlisle and Hadrian's Wall in 1599.[2] His fieldwork and firsthand research set new standards for the time. He even learned Welsh and Old English for the task: his tutor in Old English was Laurence Nowell.In 1593 Camden became headmaster of Westminster School. He held the post for four years, but left when he was appointed Clarenceux King of Arms. By this time, largely because of the Britannia's reputation, he was a well-known and revered figure, and the appointment was meant to free him from the labour of teaching and to facilitate his research. The College of Arms at that time was not only a centre of genealogical and heraldic study, but also a centre of antiquarian study. The appointment, however, roused the jealousy of Ralph Brooke, York Herald, who, in retaliation, published an attack on Britannia, charging Camden with inaccuracy and plagiarism. Camden successfully defended himself against the charges in subsequent editions of the work.Britannia was recognised as an important work of Renaissance scholarship, not only in England, but across the European "Republic of Letters". Camden considered having the 1586 Britannia printed in the Low Countries, and although that did not happen, the third edition of 1590, in addition to its London printing, was also published the same year in Frankfurt, and reprinted there in 1616. In 1612 parts were condemned by the Spanish Inquisition. An abridgement was published in Amsterdam in 1617 and reprinted in 1639; and versions of the text were also included in Joan Blaeu's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (published in Amsterdam in 1645) and in Jan Janssonius's Novus Atlas (again published in Amsterdam, in 1646).[3]Annales[edit]Frontispiece from a 1675 edition of the AnnalesIn 1597, Lord Burghley suggested that Camden write a history of Queen Elizabeth's reign. The degree of Burghley's subsequent influence on the work is unclear: Camden only specifically mentions Sir John Fortescue, Elizabeth's last Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Henry Cuffe, the Earl of Essex's secretary, as sources.[4] Camden began his work in 1607. The first part of the Annales Rerum Gestarum Angliae et Hiberniae Regnate Elizabetha, covering the reign up to 1597, appeared in 1615. The second part was completed in 1617, but was not published until 1625 (Leiden), and 1627 (London), following Camden's death. The first translation into English appeared in 1625.[5]The Annales were not written in a continuous narrative, but in the style of earlier annals, giving the events of each year in a separate entry. Sometimes criticised as being too favourably disposed towards Elizabeth and James I, the Annales are one of the great works of English historiography and had a great impact on the later image of the Elizabethan age. Hugh Trevor-Roper said about them: "It is thanks to Camden that we ascribe to Queen Elizabeth a consistent policy of via media rather than an inconsequent series of unresolved conflicts and paralysed indecisions."[5]Remaines Concerning Britain[edit]Camden's Remaines of a Greater Worke, Concerning Britaine was a collection of themed historical essays, conceived as a more popular companion to Britannia. This was the only book Camden wrote in English, and, contrary to his own misleading description of it in the first edition (1605) as being merely the "rude rubble and out-cast rubbish" of a greater and more serious work (i.e. Britannia), manuscript evidence clearly indicates that he planned this book early on and as a quite separate project. Remaines subsequently ran into many editions. The standard modern edition, edited by R. D. Dunn, is based on the surviving manuscript material and the three editions published in Camden's lifetime (1605, 1614, and 1623).[6] Editions published after 1623 are unreliable and contain unauthentic material, especially the bowdlerized edition of 1636 by John Philipot. Thomas Moule's edition of 1870, of which many copies survive, is based on Philipot's 1674 edition.Camden's Remaines is often the earliest or sole usage cited for a word in the Oxford English Dictionary; and further significant early usages (including new words and antedatings) have since been identified.[7] Remaines also contains the first-ever alphabetical list of English proverbs, since heavily exploited by the editors of the principal modern dictionaries of proverbs (including those of Burton Stevenson (1949), M. P. Tilley (1950) and the third edition of the Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs, edited by F. P. Wilson(1970)). Scattered through the book are a number of additional proverbs not recorded elsewhere.[8]Reges, reginae[edit]In 1600 Camden published, anonymously, Reges, reginae, nobiles et alii in ecclesia collegiata B. Petri Westmonasterii sepulti, a guidebook to the many tomb monuments and epitaphs of Westminster Abbey. Although slight, this was a highly innovative work, predating John Weever's Ancient Funerall Monuments by over thirty years. It proved popular with the public, and two expanded editions appeared in 1603 and in 1606.Other writings[edit]Among Camden's other works were the Institutio Graecae grammatices compendiaria in usum regiae scholae Westmonasteriensis (1595), a Greek grammar which remained a standard school textbook for over a century; Actio in Henricum Garnetum, Societatis Jesuiticae in Anglia superiorem (1607), a Latin translation of the trial of the Gunpowder Plotters, aimed at an international readership; an unpublished essay on printing;[9] and a number of Latin poems.[10]Final years[edit]Camden (by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, 1609)In 1609 Camden moved to Chislehurst in Kent, now south-east London. Though often in ill health, he continued to work diligently. In 1622 he founded an endowed lectureship in History at Oxford – the first in the world – which continues to this day as the Camden Chair in Ancient History. That same year he was struck with paralysis. He died in Chislehurst on 9 November 1623, and was buried at Westminster Abbey, where his monument, incorporating a demi-figure of Camden holding a copy of the Britannia, can still be seen in the south transept.Camden left his books to his former pupil and friend, Sir Robert Cotton, the creator of the Cotton library. His circle of friends and acquaintances included Lord Burghley, Fulke Greville, Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, John Stow, John Dee, Jacques de Thou and Ben Jonson, who was Camden's student at Westminster and who dedicated an early edition of Every Man in His Humour to him.Legacy[edit]Camden's Britannia remained a standard and highly regarded authority for many years after his death. A lightly revised edition of Holland's 1610 translation was published in 1637. A new and greatly expanded translation, edited by Edmund Gibson, was published in 1695, and was reissued in revised editions in 1722, 1753 and 1772. Yet another new and expanded translation by Richard Gough was published in 1789, followed by a second edition in 1806.[11][12] In an address given in 1986, marking the original publication's 400th anniversary, George Boon commented that the work "still fundamentally colours the way in which we, as antiquaries, look at our country".[13]The lectureship in History at Oxford endowed by Camden survives as the Camden Chair in Ancient History. Since 1877 it has been attached to Brasenose College, and since 1910 has been limited to Roman history.The Camden Society, a text publication society founded in 1838 to publish early historical and literary materials, took its name from Camden. In 1897 it was absorbed into the Royal Historical Society, which continues to publish texts in what are now known as the Camden Series.The Cambridge Camden Society, which also took its name from Camden, was a learned society founded in 1839 by undergraduates at Cambridge University to promote the study of Gothic architecture. In 1845 it moved to London, where it became known as the Ecclesiological Society, and was highly influential in the development of the 19th-century Gothic revival.After Camden's death, his former home at Chislehurst became known as Camden Place. In the 18th century, it was owned by Sir Charles Pratt, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas and later Lord Chancellor, who in 1765 was elevated to the peerage as Baron Camden, of Camden Place. In 1786 he was created Earl Camden, and in 1812 his son became Marquess Camden. The family owned and developed land to the north of London, and so, by this circuitous route, William Camden is commemorated in the names of Camden Town and the London Borough of Camden.Lincoln CastleFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchFor the paddle steamer which served as a Humber ferry, see PS Lincoln Castle.Lincoln CastleLincolnshireView over of Lincoln Castle from the cathedral to the eastLincoln CastleCoordinates53.23529°N 0.54095°WCoordinates: 53.23529°N 0.54095°WTypeNormanSite informationOpen to the publiceverydaySite historyBuilt11th centuryBuilt byWilliam the ConquerorIn usePrison and law courtMaterialsstoneBattles/warsFirst Battle of Lincoln (1141) Second Battle of Lincoln (1217)Scheduled monumentOfficial nameLincoln Castle (except modern buildings)Reference no.1005049Listed Building – Grade IOfficial nameLincoln CastleDesignated15 August 1973Reference no.1388491Listed Building – Grade IIReference no.1388492 - Bath House 1388493 - Statue of George IIIWebsitehttp://www.lincolncastle.com/Lincoln Castle is a major Norman castle constructed in Lincoln, England during the late 11th century by William the Conqueror on the site of a pre-existing Roman fortress. The castle is unusual in that it has two mottes.[1] It is only one of two such castles in the country, the other being at Lewes in Sussex. Lincoln Castle remained in use as a prison and law courtinto modern times, and is one of the better preserved castles in England; the Crown Courts continue to this day. It is open to the public most days of the week, and possible to walk around the walls from which there are views of the castle complex, cathedral, the city, and surrounding countryside.Contents1Medieval history2Other defences3Old Prison4Present day5Layout and architecture6See also7References8Further reading9External linksSee also: Battle of Lincoln (1141) and Battle of Lincoln (1217)The exterior of the east gateThe exterior of the west gate, which was rebuilt in the 1230s. Blocked for centuries, it was re-opened as recently as 1992The Lucy Tower in 2013, at which point the castle was undergoing a programme of renovation.After William the Conqueror defeated Harold Godwinson and the English at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, he continued to face resistance to his rule in the north of England. For a number of years, William's position was very insecure. In order to project his influence northwards to control the people of the Danelaw (an area that had for a time been under the control of Scandinavian settlers), he constructed a number of major castles in the North and Midlands of England: including those at Warwick, Nottingham and York. After gaining control of York, the Conqueror turned southwards and arrived at the Roman and Viking city of Lincoln.When William reached Lincoln (one of the country's major settlements), he found a Viking commercial and trading centre with a population of 6,000 to 8,000. The remains of the old Roman walled fortress, located 60 metres (200 ft) above the countryside to the south and west, proved an ideal strategic position to construct a new castle. Lincoln was also a vital strategic crossroads of the following routes (largely the same routes which influenced the siting of the Roman fort):Ermine Street - a major Roman road and England's main north-south route, connecting London and York.Fosse Way - another important Roman route connecting Lincoln with the city of Leicester and the south-west of England.The valley of the River Trent (to the west and southwest) - a major river affording access to the River Ouse, and thus the major city of York.The River Witham - a waterway connected to the River Trent (via the Fossdyke Roman canal at Torksey) and to the North Sea via The Wash.The Lincolnshire Wolds - an upland area to the northeast of Lincoln, which overlooks the Lincolnshire Marsh beyond.A castle here could guard several of the main strategic routes and form part of a network of strongholds of the Norman kingdom, in the former Danish Mercia, roughly the area today referred to as the East Midlands, to control the country internally. Also it was a centre from which troops could be sent to repel Scandinavian landings anywhere on the coast from the Trent to the Welland, to a large extent, by using the roads which the Romans had constructed for the same purpose.The Domesday Survey of 1086 directly records 48 castles in England, with two in Lincolnshire including one in Lincoln. Building a castle within an existing settlement sometimes meant existing structures had to be removed: of the castles noted in the Domesday Book, thirteen included references to property being destroyed to make way for the castle. In Lincoln's case 166 "unoccupied residences" were pulled down to clear the area on which the castle would be built.[2]Work on the new fortification was completed in 1068. Probably at first a wooden keep was constructed, which was later replaced with a much stronger stone one. Lincoln Castle is very unusual in having two mottes, the only other surviving example of such a design being at Lewes. To the south, where the Roman wall stands on the edge of a steep slope, it was retained partially as a curtain wall and partially as a revetment retaining the mottes. In the west, where the ground is more level, the Roman wall was buried within an earth rampart and extended upward to form the Norman castle wall. The Roman west gate (on the same site as the castle's west gate) was excavated in the 19th century but began to collapse on exposure, and so was re-buried.The castle was the focus of attention during the First Battle of Lincoln on 2 February 1141, during the struggle between King Stephen and Empress Matilda over who should be monarch in England.[3] It was held[according to whom?] but damaged, and a new tower, called the Lucy Tower, was built.[1][4][5]Lincoln Castle (left), shown during the Second Battle of LincolnLincoln Castle was again besieged before the Second Battle of Lincoln, on 20 May 1217, during the reign of Henry III of England during the course of the First Barons' War. This was the period of political struggle that followed the sealing of Magna Carta on 15 June 1215. After this, a new barbican was built onto the west and east gates.[4][6]Other medieval defensive works in Lincoln have been recorded, but are no longer extant.A set of earth banks, associated with one or other of the sieges, once stood where the Lawns stand, to the west of the castle.[7]Thorngate Castle once stood near the river, forming the South-East corner of the city walls. It existed in 1141 but was demolished in 1151.[8][9][10]As in Norwich and other places, the castle was used as a secure site in which to establish a gaol (prison; jail). At Lincoln, the gaol was built in 1787 and extended in 1847 – the 1787 Governor's House and the 1847 Prison are now Grade II* heritage listed buildings.[11] The old prison is a three storey stone building with 15 bays and is connected to the 18th-century Governor's House via a single storey prison chapel.[11]Imprisoned debtors were allowed some social contact, but the regime for criminals was designed to be one of isolation, according to the separate system. Consequently, the seating in the prison chapel is designed to enclose each prisoner individually so that the preacher could see everyone but each could see only him. By 1878 the system was discredited and the inmates were transferred to the new gaol in the eastern outskirts of Lincoln.[12][13] The prison in the castle was left without a use until the Lincolnshire Archives were housed in its cells.William Marwood, the 19th century hangman, carried out his first execution at Lincoln. He used the long drop, designed to break the victim's neck rather than to strangle him, to execute Fred Horry in 1872. Until 1868, prisoners were publicly hanged on the mural tower at the north-east corner of the curtain wall, overlooking the upper town.Parts of the prison are open as a museum, including the 19th-century chapel which is claimed to be the only one remaining in the world designed for the separate system (each seat enclosed).[14] The prison has been used as a filming location, for example for the ITVtelevision series Downton Abbey.[14]

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