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1554 DE PISCIBUS Rondelet RENAISSANCE ICHTHYOLOGY FISH Marine ZOOLOGY * Cooking 1ST EDITION *FOLIO ca. 260 WOODCUTS: FISH, SEA-MONSTERS

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Seller: lux-et-umbra (1,620) 100%, Location: Salt Lake City, Utah, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 292334184464 [Early Printing - France - Lyons] [Early Book Illustration] [History of Science and Medicine - Renaissance] [Ichthyology and Marine Zoology] [Fishing] [Gastronomy and Cookery - Renaissance] Printed in Lyons by Macé Bonhomme, 1554. FIRST EDITION. Text in the original Latin, with numerous and extensive passages in Greek (quotations from Greek classics). PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED WITH AROUND 260 SUPERB WOODCUTS, mainly of fish and other marine animals (after Georges Reverdy, according to Baudrier), and a fine portrait of the author after a drawing by Pierre Vase. SCARCE FIRST EDITION of the most important treatise on fish and aquatic animals and published up to the time of its appearance. The author of this monumental work, Guillaume Rondelet (1507 - 1566), Regius Professor of Medicine at the University of Montpellier, is widely considered "THE GRANDFATHER OF MODERN ICHTHYOLOGY" and "perhaps the most important ichthyologist of the sixteenth century [...] who described with great care and accuracy more varieties of fishes than either Belon or Salviani." (Wood, Introduction to the Literature of Vertebrate Zoology, (Vol.II, p.104) Rondelet was a contemporary of Rabelais, who may have based his character "Rondibilis" in La vie de Gargantua et Pantagruel on him Rondelet's Libri de Piscibus Marinis was cited by Walton in his famous "Compleat Angler" (chap. 1, 11, 13 and 14). Complete in itself; this volume was followed by Rondelet's Universae aquatilium Historiae pars altera, published next year (1555), which is not included here. Please note that the 1554 Libri de piscibus martinis offered here is treated by Adams (Adams R-746) and by USTC (USTC 151588) as self-contained, bibliographically independent entity! Rondelet's encyclopedic treatise "cover[s] far more species than any earlier work in the field. It influenced the development of ichthyological research, and remained the standard reference for over a century ... The work is especially valuable for its accurate treatment of Mediterranean species, and for providing what are apparently the first zoological accounts of the manatee and the sperm whale." (Norman). Rondelet was a very popular and inspiring teacher (both of anatomy and zoology), who, while lecturing at Montpellier, counted among his students some famous and influential zoologists as Charles de l'Écluse, Matthias de l'Obel, Aldrovandi, etc. Rondelet was also the personal physician of the French cardinal and diplomat François de Tournon, whom he accompanied on many trips to towns along the coast, where he was able to make observations for his research in natural history. The book is divided into eighteen books: the first four treat of generalities; the fifth through the fifteenth describe the different fishes; the sixteenth, cetaceans, turtles, and seals; the seventeenth, mollusks; the eighteenth, crustaceans. Although based largely on classical authorities, in particular Aristotle, Libri de Piscibus Marinis also includes results of Rondelet's own observations through experiments and anatomical investigations. He believed that the ancient authors have not treated the subject in sufficient detail. In his Preface Rondelet relates his method by saying, "I, on the other hand, at great expense have sought various kinds of fish, in our sea in the Languedoc, in France, in Italy, and other places. Some of them were sent to me by my friends. I opened them and dissected them. I diligently contemplated all of their interior and exterior parts." "Although he was active in several branches of biology, Rondelet's reputation effectively depends on his massive compendium on aquatic life, which covered far more species than any earlier work in that field. Despite its theoretical limitations, it laid the foundations for later ichthyological research and was the standard reference work for over a century. Rondelet's great work covers the whole of freshwater as well as marine zoology, and it is not restricted to fish. All aquatic animals are included: marine mammals, arthropods, and mollusks, riverine amphibians, and even beavers. The first four books are devoted to general considerations: how fish can be distinguished by their ways of life, parts, actions, manners and complexions; they constitute, in effect, a treatise on comparative anatomy and physiology. The rest of the work is an encyclopedia of ever 300 aquatic animals, almost all of which are illustrated. Each section opens with the subject's names in several languages, including local variants, and then outlines its way of life, feeding habits, and characteristic anatomical features, both external and internal (gastronomic notes are sometimes added)." (A.G. Keller in DSB, XI, pp. 527-28). The book features SUPERB AND NUMEROUS WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS DESIGNED BY GEORGES REVERDY, which are considered THE MOST ADVANCED EXAMPLES OF RENAISSANCE ICHTHYOLOGICAL ICONOGRAPHY, and praised for their boldness and accuracy. "This early specimen of ichthyology has great and even extraordinary merit in the excellency of the woodcuts copiously introduced in its pages. They are bold and accurate, and in general so characteristic that nearly all the species may be at once identified." (W. Swainson, A Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural History, p.13) Some researchers note a certain similarity between Rondelet's woodcuts and the cuts used by Belon, whom Rondelet met in Rome in 1550. Countless species of fish are illustrated (including several woodcuts of stingrays and sharks), as well as crabs, tortoises, whales, and seals, etc. The volume also contains depictions of several FANTASTIC OR MONSTROUS MARINE CREATURES, such as the famous 'monk' and 'bishop' sea monsters, of which, according to Rondelet, the former was seen in Norway and the letter found in Poland in 1531. Rondelet's book is also noteworthy for discussing gastronomical and dietetic properties of various species of fish, including cooking tips and recipes for fish-based meals, making it an IMPORTANT SOURCE FOR THE CULINARY USE OF FISH AND SEAFOOD IN RENAISSANCE CUISINE! "Rondelet's history of fish is clearly a precious record of Renaissance ichthyology, but like Belon's history of birds, it often appends gastronomic advice to discussion of anatomy. [For instance,] Rabelais lists 'perches' among his fish dishes. In his anatomical discussion of the same fish, Rondelet adds both a dietetic comment and a recipe for it. He writes, [...] 'The stew of this one softens the stomach; it is good covered with flour and fried in a pan, or roasted on the grill, not boiled.' Rondelet is actually much more verbose about the bream which Rabelais includes on his list as well. For Rondelet, it is good [...] boiled in water and wine as is done in France', but it is equally good in a variety of other ways. It can be grilled after placing fennel and rosemary in its belly; it can be roasted or served cold; or can even be baked in a crust, [etc.]. [...] Not only has Rondelet given us a series of potential recipes for this fish but he has also revealed some regional culinary preferences." (Joan Fitzpatrick, Renaissance Food from Rabelais to Shakespeare, p.33) Bibliographic references: Adams R-746; USTC 151588; Garrison-Morton 282; Nissen, Die zoologische Buchillustration, I, 3474; Norman 1848; Bibliotheca Piscatoria, no. 274; Osler, Bib. Osleriana 3831; British Museum (Natural History) IV, p. 1727; Dean, Bibliography of Fishes, III, p.309; Brun, Le livre Français illustré de la Renaissance, p. 284; Baudrier, Bibliographie Lyonnaise, X, pp. 239-40; Fitzpatrick, Renaissance Food from Rabelais to Shakespeare, 33 Physical description: Folio; textblock measures 33 cm x 21 cm (very wide-margined, and probably untrimmed). Bound in 17th- or early 18th-century half-calf over patterned paper-covered boards; spine with raised bands, gilt-tooled in compartments and gilt-lettered black morocco label; gilt armorial supra-libros to bottom compartment (see Provenance below). Pagination: [16]. 583, [25] pp. Signatures: α8 A-H6 I-K4 L-Z6 Aa-Zz6 AA-BB6 CC-DD4 2Ee-2Ff6 (leaves (α2-4 mis-signed α1-3, respectively). Collated and COMPLETE, although the follow-up volume Universae aquatilium Historiae pars altera, published next year (1555) is not included. Title-page with Bonhomme's woodcut device showing Perseus in winged sandals holding Medusa’s severed head with Greek motto: 'ΕΚ ΠΟΝΟΥ ΚΛΕΟΣ' ("From Labor - Glory"). Illustrated with circa 260 superb woodcuts, mainly of fish and other marine animals (after Georges Reverdy), and a fine portrait of Rondelet after Pierre Vase, set within an oval frame in an elaborate Renaissance cartouche on the final preliminary page (leaf α8v). Numerous fine decorative and historiated woodcut initials of various sizes, and woodcut decorative and grotesque head- and tail-pieces. Text in roman and Greek letter; marginal notes, Latin verses and indexes printed in italic. Title-page verso is blank. Preliminaries include Privilege du Roy in French (dated 28 June 1554); Dedication to cardinal François de Tournon (1489 - 1562), Archbishop and diplomat, and a prominent opponent of Lutheranism); Preface to the Reader; Table of Contents; as well as several laudatory poems honoring Rondelet by Pierre Coustau, Charles l'Ecluse, et al. Indexes (including an alphabetical index of species of fish) at the end of the volume (leaves 2Ee1r -2Ff6v). Provenance: The book belonged to cardinal Francisco Xavier (Francesco Saverio) de Zelada (1717 - 1801), Secretary of State to pope Pius VI, Vatican Librarian and a noted bibliophile, with his armorial bookplate (pasted on blank verso of title-page) and his gilt supra-libros to foot of spine. Born of a Spanish family, Xavier de Zelada served in the Papal Curia and in the diplomatic service of the Holy See. As Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals (1783 - 84), his career culminated in his appointment by Pope Pius VI as Cardinal Secretary of State, 1789 - 1796, in which post he was entrusted with difficult negotiations with the French Revolutionary state. Librarian of the Roman Church from 1779 until his death, Cardinal Zelada was known as a great collector of books, coins, medals, works of art, and scientific machines. He had a telescope installed in his house near Il Gesù, and transferred it to his residence as Cardinal-Librarian. He installed an observatory at the Collegio Romano. After his death his books went to join the Vatican Library. Unidentified early owner's initials 'B B' on title and the final page. Condition: Very Good antiquarian condition. Complete. Binding rubbed with some edge-wear; spine with a few worm-holes and small tears and chips; short harmless cracks to head of joints. Text-block with some occasional light to moderate browning (a bit heavier on a few leaves (but without ever affecting legibility, or impression of woodcuts); occasional light marginal water-staining (in top margin). Several minor ink-spots; several pages with faint traces of minor pencil marginal notes. Else, a nice, genuine, wide-margined (apparently untrimmed) example with excellent provenance. Please click on thumbnails below to see larger images. More about the author: Guillaume Rondelet (1507 - 1566), was Professor of Medicine at the University of Montpellier in southern France and Chancellor of the University from 1556 to his death in 1566. He achieved renown as an anatomist and a naturalist with a particular interest in botany and zoology. His major work was the large treatise on marine animals, which took him two years to write and became a standard reference work for over a century afterwards. His lasting impact also lay in educating a number of star pupils who became leading figures in the world of late-16th century science. Rondelet was born in Montpellier in 1507. His father was an 'aromatius', a combination of pharmacist, grocer and druggist. Both parents died while he was a child and he was brought up in the care of his elder brother and sister, who was the wealthy widow of a merchant from Florence. He was educated in Montpellier and was enrolled at the city's university before being sent to Paris in 1525, where he studied at the Collège de Sorbonne. He matriculated in 1529 and returned to Montpellier; having developed an interest in medicine, he joined the Faculty of Medicine at his home town's university. He became procurator (Student Registrar) within a year. He became friends around this time with a fellow physician, François Rabelais, who later satirised Rondelet in his Gargantua et Pantagruel under the thinly disguised alias of "Rondibilis". In October 1529, while serving as procurator, Rondelet expelled the newly enrolled Nostradamus from the university for being an apothecary and slandering doctors. Rondelet moved to Pertuis in the Vaucluse after gaining his medical degree from Montpellier and tried to supplement his income by teaching local children, but met with little success. He went back to Paris to learn Greek and to study anatomy, again supporting himself through teaching. He practised for a while as a medical doctor at Maringues in the Auvergne before returning to Montpellier in 1537. There he finished his doctorate and married Jeanne Sandre the following year. The couple lived with Jeanne's family for the next seven years. His medical practice was not a success. He managed his finances badly and he outraged the citizens of Montpellier when he publicly dissected his infant son in an attempt to determine the cause of death. He became a teacher with the medical faculty in 1539 but the arrival of plague in Montpellier a few years later meant that he found himself with almost nobody to teach; only three students were left by 1543. Rondelet's fortunes revived when he gained a powerful patron, Cardinal François de Tournon, whom he attended as his personal physician. De Tournon and the Bishop of Montpellier, Guillaume Pellicier, had both stood as sponsors for Rondelet's twin children on their birth in 1538. Rondelet left Montpellier and travelled with de Tournon in the Cardinal's entourage, journeying widely around France, what is now Belgium and Italy[5] and stayed in Rome for three months in 1549. His trip to Italy enabled him to meet many of the Italian scholars whom he knew through his correspondence, among them Luca Ghini at Pisa, Antonio Musa Brasavola at Ferrara, Ulysse Aldrovandi at Padua and Cesare Odo at Bologna. While in Italy he was able to indulge his interest in natural history by visiting the coast. His rising status was confirmed in 1545 by his appointment to the post of Regius Professor of Medicine at Montpellier. He returned to his home town in 1551 on leaving the service of the cardinal and devoted two years to the writing of a great treatise on marine animals, titled De piscibus marinis (1554-5). It took him two years to write and, despite the title's reference to piscibus (fish), it covered all aquatic animals; like others of his time, he made no distinction between fish, marine mammals such as seals and whales, crustaceans and other invertebrates. Rondelet was a popular and effective teacher and lecturer and was elected chancellor of Montpellier University in 1556. Among his pupils were Charles de l'Écluse (Carolus Clusius), Matthias de l'Obel, Pierre Pena and Jacques Daleschamps. Rondelet also taught Jean Bauhin and Felix Platter, the latter arriving at Montpellier aged only 15 after riding a pony all the way from Basel in Switzerland. Under Rondelet's chancellorship, the university attracted students from across France and abroad and received sponsorship from the French crown; he persuaded King Henry II to fund the construction of an anatomy theatre in Montpellier. However, the university suffered the effects of France's growing division between Catholics and Protestants that broke out into the French Wars of Religion in 1562. Many students came from Protestant areas of France, reflecting the Protestant sympathies of Rondelet's home region of Languedoc. They had been unable to study elsewhere in France where Catholics controlled the universities. Rondelet himself was drawn into the religious dispute when his friend Bishop Pellicier was imprisoned, prompting Rondelet to make a public protest by burning his own theology books. It is unclear whether Rondelet himself was a Protestant but he seems to have either converted to Protestantism late in his life or to have been generally interested in Protestant thought. In 1566 Rondelet retired to Réalmont in the Tarn. He died there a few months later. A genus of fish and a plant genus are both named Rondeletia after Rondelet. Condition: Very Good antiquarian condition., Subject: Science & Medicine, Binding: Fine Binding, Original/Facsimile: Original, Year Printed: 1554, Region: Europe, Place of Publication: Lyons, Publisher: Macé Bonhomme, Country/Region of Manufacture: France, Language: Latin; Greek, Format: Folio, Topic: Biological Science, Author: Guillaume Rondelet, Special Attributes: With ca.260 large woodcuts after Georges Reverdy, Illustrator: Georges Reverdy, Provenance: Cardinal Francisco Xavier Zelada

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