☆Rare Leather%bound 22K Gold-Edge Book:the Complete Works Of William Shakespeare

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Seller: telemosaic (2,494) 99%, Location: Canton, Massachusetts, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 233030116454 Good Condition. BEAUTIFUL÷RARE LEATHER÷BOUND 22K GOLD-EDGE BOOK:THE COMPLETE WORKS OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE William Shakespeare The Complete Works of William Shakespeare Unstated Printing Edition ISBN-13: 9780760703328, ISBN-10: 0760703329 ------ Rare copy - 22kt gold leaf edged, and bound in leatherette! Good Condition. Some Edge and Page Wear. Bonded Leatherette with gold accents, gilded page edges, and a Ribbon Marker Dimensions are approx: 9.25" x 6.25" x 4" Printed by Barnes and Noble in 1994 as part of its Premier Series. Features: - Distinctive Leatherette Cover Design - Permanent Satin Ribbon Page Marker - Classic Hubbed Spine, Accented in Real 22KT Gold - Elegant Gilt Edged Pages - Sewn Pages for Strength and Durability Description This BEAUTIFUL volume of the complete works is leather bound with 22kt gold leaf pages and accents!! This is a fantastic hardcover book with a leatherette cover, raised bands on the spine with gold gilt lettering. The page edges as well as the cover are in gold gilt and it has a sewn-in page marker. It is 1263 pages long and is in pretty good condition!!! ----- About this item Product Details Publisher: Barnes and Noble Publication date: January 1, 1994 ------- REVIEW : A set of all the classics in 1 volume, Beautifully bound! A great addition to any library!!! By Jonathan D. - January 6 ----- Description About the Author William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His surviving works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Product Description This is an attractive genuine bonded leather edition, with gilt-edged pages and gold ribbon marker that will make an elegant addition to any home library. This is a beautiful collection of Shakespeare's works that will be treasured forever; a wonderful gift idea. William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied, performed and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world. This edition of "The Complete Works of William Shakespeare" is part of "Barnes & Noble's" series of quality leather bound volumes. Each title in the series presents a classic work in an attractively designed edition bound in genuine bonded leather. These books make elegant additions to any home library. ------ About this item Product Information PublisherSterling Publication dateJanuary 1, 1994 LanguageEnglish Product Dimensions6.3 x 2.5 x 9.4 inches Shipping Weight 5 pounds Book length1263 ISBN-10 0760703329 ISBN-13 9780760703328 SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT William ShakespeareFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the poet and playwright, For other persons of the same name, see William Shakespeare (disambiguation), For other uses of "Shakespeare", see Shakespeare (disambiguation),William ShakespeareShakespeare,jpgThe Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed, Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, London,BornStratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, EnglandBaptised26 April 1564Died23 April 1616 (aged 52)Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, EnglandResting placeChurch of the Holy Trinity, Stratford-upon-AvonOccupationPlaywright, poet, actorEraElizabethan eraMovementEnglish RenaissanceSpouse(s)Anne Hathaway (m, 1582–1616)ChildrenSusanna HallHamnet ShakespeareJudith QuineySignatureWilliam Shakespeare Signature,svgWilliam Shakespeare (/ˈʃeɪkspɪər/;[1] 26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616)[nb 1] was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist,[2] He is often called England's national poet, and the "Bard of Avon",[3][nb 2] His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays,[nb 3] 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship, His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright,[4] Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith, Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men, He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, at age 49, where he died three years later, Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, which has stimulated considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, and religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others,[5] Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613,[6][nb 4] His early plays were primarily comedies and histories, and these are regarded as some of the best work ever produced in these genres, He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language,[2] In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights, Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime, In 1623, however, John Heminges and Henry Condell, two friends and fellow actors of Shakespeare, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeare's,[7] It was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Shakespeare is hailed, presciently, as "not of an age, but for all time",[7] In the 20th and 21st centuries, his works have been repeatedly adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance, His plays remain highly popular, and are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world, Contents [hide] 1Life1,1Early life1,2London and theatrical career1,3Later years and death2Plays2,1Performances2,2Textual sources3Poems3,1Sonnets4Style5Influence6Critical reputation7Works7,1Classification of the plays8Speculation about Shakespeare8,1Authorship8,2Religion8,3Sexuality8,4Portraiture9See also10Notes10,1Footnotes10,2Citations11References12External linksLife[edit]Main article: Shakespeare's lifeEarly life[edit]William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer,[8] He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564, His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day,[9] This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholar's mistake, has proved appealing to biographers, because Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616,[10] He was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son,[11] Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was probably educated at the King's New School in Stratford,[12] a free school chartered in 1553,[13] about a quarter-mile (400 m) from his home, Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were largely similar: the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree,[14] and the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors,[15] John Shakespeare's house, believed to be Shakespeare's birthplace, in Stratford-upon-AvonAt the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582, The next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage,[16] The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste, since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times,[17] and six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, Susanna, baptised 26 May 1583,[18] Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years later and were baptised 2 February 1585,[19] Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596,[20] Shakespeare's coat of arms, as it appears on the rough draft of the application to grant a coat-of-arms to John Shakespeare, It features a spear as a pun on the family name,[nb 5]After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592, The exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589,[21] Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years",[22] Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories, Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy, Shakespeare is also supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him,[23] Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare st*rting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London,[24] John Aubrey reported that Shakespeare had been a country schoolmaster,[25] Some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will,[26] Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, and Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area,[27] London and theatrical career[edit]"All the world's a stage,and all the men and women merely players:they have their exits and their entrances;and one man in his time plays many parts ,,," —As You Like It, Act II, Scene 7, 139–42[28]It is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of his plays were on the London stage by 1592,[29] By then, he was sufficiently known in London to be attacked in print by the playwright Robert Greene in his Groats-Worth of Wit: ,,, there is an upst*rt Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tiger's heart wrapped in a Player's hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country,[30] Scholars differ on the exact meaning of Greene's words,[31] but most agree that Greene was accusing Shakespeare of reaching above his rank in trying to match such university-educated writers as Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Nashe and Greene himself (the so-called "university wits"),[32] The italicised phrase parodying the line "Oh, tiger's heart wrapped in a woman's hide" from Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 3, along with the pun "Shake-scene", clearly identify Shakespeare as Greene's target, As used here, Johannes Factotum ("Jack of all trades") refers to a second-rate tinkerer with the work of others, rather than the more common "universal genius",[31][33] Greene's attack is the earliest surviving mention of Shakespeare's work in the theatre, Biographers suggest that his career may have begun any time from the mid-1580s to just before Greene's remarks,[34] After 1594, Shakespeare's plays were performed only by the Lord Chamberlain's Men, a company owned by a group of players, including Shakespeare, that soon became the leading playing company in London,[35] After the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, the company was awarded a royal patent by the new King James I, and changed its name to the King's Men,[36] In 1599, a partnership of members of the company built their own theatre on the south bank of the River Thames, which they named the Globe, In 1608, the partnership also took over the Blackfriars indoor theatre, Extant records of Shakespeare's property purchases and investments indicate that his association with the company made him a wealthy man,[37] and in 1597 he bought the second-largest house in Stratford, New Place, and in 1605, invested in a share of the parish tithes in Stratford,[38] Some of Shakespeare's plays were published in quarto editions, beginning in 1594, and by 1598, his name had become a selling point and began to appear on the title pages,[39] Shakespeare continued to act in his own and other plays after his success as a playwright, The 1616 edition of Ben Jonson's Works names him on the cast lists for Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Sejanus His Fall (1603),[40] The absence of his name from the 1605 cast list for Jonson's Volpone is taken by some scholars as a sign that his acting career was nearing its end,[41] The First Folio of 1623, however, lists Shakespeare as one of "the Principal Actors in all these Plays", some of which were first staged after Volpone, although we cannot know for certain which roles he played,[42] In 1610, John Davies of Hereford wrote that "good Will" played "kingly" roles,[43] In 1709, Rowe passed down a tradition that Shakespeare played the ghost of Hamlet's father,[44] Later traditions maintain that he also played Adam in As You Like It, and the Chorus in Henry V,[45] though scholars doubt the sources of that information,[46] Throughout his career, Shakespeare divided his time between London and Stratford, In 1596, the year before he bought New Place as his family home in Stratford, Shakespeare was living in the parish of St, Helen's, Bishopsgate, north of the River Thames,[47][48] He moved across the river to Southwark by 1599, the same year his company constructed the Globe Theatre there,[47][49] By 1604, he had moved north of the river again, to an area north of St Paul's Cathedral with many fine houses, There he rented rooms from a French Huguenot named Christopher Mountjoy, a maker of ladies' wigs and other headgear,[50] Later years and death[edit]Rowe was the first biographer to record the tradition, repeated by Johnson, that Shakespeare retired to Stratford "some years before his death",[51][52] He was still working as an actor in London in 1608; in an answer to the sharers' petition in 1635 Cuthbert Burbage stated that after purchasing the lease of the Blackfriars Theatre in 1608 from Henry Evans, the King's Men "placed men players" there, "which were Heminges, Condell, Shakespeare, etc,",[53] However, it is perhaps relevant that the bubonic plague raged in London throughout 1609,[54][55] The London public playhouses were repeatedly closed during extended outbreaks of the plague (a total of over 60 months closure between May 1603 and February 1610),[56] which meant there was often no acting work, Retirement from all work was uncommon at that time,[57] Shakespeare continued to visit London during the years 1611–1614,[51] In 1612, he was called as a witness in Bellott v, Mountjoy, a court case concerning the marriage settlement of Mountjoy's daughter, Mary,[58] In March 1613 he bought a gatehouse in the former Blackfriars priory;[59] and from November 1614 he was in London for several weeks with his son-in-law, John Hall,[60] After 1610, Shakespeare wrote fewer plays, and none are attributed to him after 1613,[61] His last three plays were collaborations, probably with John Fletcher,[62] who succeeded him as the house playwright of the King's Men,[63] Shakespeare's funerary monument in Stratford-upon-Avon,Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616, at the age of 52,[64] He died within a month of signing his will, a document which he begins by describing himself as being in "perfect health", No extant contemporary source explains how or why he died, Half a century later, John Ward, the vicar of Stratford, wrote in his notebook: "Shakespeare, Drayton and Ben Jonson had a merry meeting and, it seems, drank too hard, for Shakespeare died of a fever there contracted",[65][66] not an impossible scenario, since Shakespeare knew Jonson and Drayton, Of the tributes from fellow authors, one refers to his relatively sudden death: "We wondered, Shakespeare, that thou went'st so soon/From the world's stage to the grave's tiring room,"[67] He was survived by his wife and two daughters, Susanna had married a physician, John Hall, in 1607,[68] and Judith had married Thomas Quiney, a vintner, two months before Shakespeare's death,[69] Shakespeare signed his last will and testament on 25 March 1616; the following day his new son-in-law, Thomas Quiney was found guilty of fathering an illegitimate son by Margaret Wheeler, who had died during childbirth, Thomas was ordered by the church court to do public penance, which would have caused much shame and embarrassment for the Shakespeare family,[70] Shakespeare bequeathed the bulk of his large estate to his elder daughter Susanna[71] under stipulations that she pass it down intact to "the first son of her body",[72] The Quineys had three children, all of whom died without marrying,[73] The Halls had one child, Elizabeth, who married twice but died without children in 1670, ending Shakespeare's direct line,[74] Shakespeare's will scarcely mentions his wife, Anne, who was probably entitled to one third of his estate automatically,[75] He did make a point, however, of leaving her "my second best bed", a bequest that has led to much speculation,[76] Some scholars see the bequest as an insult to Anne, whereas others believe that the second-best bed would have been the matrimonial bed and therefore rich in significance,[77] Shakespeare was buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church two days after his death,[78] The epitaph carved into the stone slab covering his grave includes a curse against moving his bones, which was carefully avoided during restoration of the church in 2008:[79] Shakespeare's grave, next to those of Anne Shakespeare, his wife, and Thomas Nash, the husband of his granddaughter,Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare,To digg the dvst encloased heare,Bleste be Middle English the,svg man Middle English that,svg spares thes stones,And cvrst be he Middle English that,svg moves my bones,[80][nb 6] (Modern spelling: Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear, / To dig the dust enclosed here, / Blessed be the man that spares these stones, / And cursed be he that moves my bones,) Sometime before 1623, a funerary monument was erected in his memory on the north wall, with a half-effigy of him in the act of writing, Its plaque compares him to Nestor, Socrates, and Virgil,[81] In 1623, in conjunction with the publication of the First Folio, the Droeshout engraving was published,[82] Shakespeare has been commemorated in many statues and memorials around the world, including funeral monuments in Southwark Cathedral and Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey,[83][84] Plays[edit] Procession of Characters from Shakespeare's Plays by an unknown 19th-century artistMain articles: Shakespeare's plays and William Shakespeare's collaborationsMost playwrights of the period typically collaborated with others at some point, and critics agree that Shakespeare did the same, mostly early and late in his career,[85] Some attributions, such as Titus Andronicus and the early history plays, remain controversial, while The Two Noble Kinsmen and the lost Cardenio have well-attested contemporary documentation, Textual evidence also supports the view that several of the plays were revised by other writers after their original composition, The first recorded works of Shakespeare are Richard III and the three parts of Henry VI, written in the early 1590s during a vogue for historical drama, Shakespeare's plays are difficult to date, however,[86] and studies of the texts suggest that Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew and The Two Gentlemen of Verona may also belong to Shakespeare's earliest period,[87] His first histories, which draw heavily on the 1587 edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland,[88] dramatise the destructive results of weak or corrupt rule and have been interpreted as a justification for the origins of the Tudor dynasty,[89] The early plays were influenced by the works of other Elizabethan dramatists, especially Thomas Kyd and Christopher Marlowe, by the traditions of medieval drama, and by the plays of Seneca,[90] The Comedy of Errors was also based on classical models, but no source for The Taming of the Shrew has been found, though it is related to a separate play of the same name and may have derived from a folk story,[91] Like The Two Gentlemen of Verona, in which two friends appear to approve of rape,[92] the Shrew's story of the taming of a woman's independent spirit by a man sometimes troubles modern critics and directors,[93] Oberon, Titania and Puck with Fairies Dancing, By William Blake, c, 1786, Tate Britain,Shakespeare's early classical and Italianate comedies, containing tight double plots and precise comic sequences, give way in the mid-1590s to the romantic atmosphere of his most acclaimed comedies,[94] A Midsummer Night's Dream is a witty mixture of romance, fairy magic, and comic lowlife scenes,[95] Shakespeare's next comedy, the equally romantic Merchant of Venice, contains a portrayal of the vengeful Jewish moneylender Shylock, which reflects Elizabethan views but may appear derogatory to modern audiences,[96] The wit and wordplay of Much Ado About Nothing,[97] the charming rural setting of As You Like It, and the lively merrymaking of Twelfth Night complete Shakespeare's sequence of great comedies,[98] After the lyrical Richard II, written almost entirely in verse, Shakespeare introduced prose comedy into the histories of the late 1590s, Henry IV, parts 1 and 2, and Henry V, His characters become more complex and tender as he switches deftly between comic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, and achieves the narrative variety of his mature work,[99] This period begins and ends with two tragedies: Romeo and Juliet, the famous romantic tragedy of sexually charged adolescence, love, and death;[100] and Julius Caesar—based on Sir Thomas North's 1579 translation of Plutarch's Parallel Lives—which introduced a new kind of drama,[101] According to Shakespearean scholar James Shapiro, in Julius Caesar "the various strands of politics, character, inwardness, contemporary events, even Shakespeare's own reflections on the act of writing, began to infuse each other",[102] Hamlet, Horatio, Marcellus, and the Ghost of Hamlet's Father, Henry Fuseli, 1780–5, Kunsthaus Zürich,In the early 17th century, Shakespeare wrote the so-called "problem plays" Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida, and All's Well That Ends Well and a number of his best known tragedies,[103] Many critics believe that Shakespeare's greatest tragedies represent the peak of his art, The titular hero of one of Shakespeare's most famous tragedies, Hamlet, has probably been discussed more than any other Shakespearean character, especially for his famous soliloquy which begins "To be or not to be; that is the question",[104] Unlike the introverted Hamlet, whose fatal flaw is hesitation, the heroes of the tragedies that followed, Othello and King Lear, are undone by hasty errors of judgement,[105] The plots of Shakespeare's tragedies often hinge on such fatal errors or flaws, which overturn order and destroy the hero and those he loves,[106] In Othello, the villain Iago stokes Othello's sexual jealousy to the point where he murders the innocent wife who loves him,[107] In King Lear, the old king commits the tragic error of giving up his powers, initiating the events which lead to the torture and blinding of the Earl of Gloucester and the murder of Lear's youngest daughter Cordelia, According to the critic Frank Kermode, "the play-offers neither its good characters nor its audience any relief from its cruelty",[108] In Macbeth, the shortest and most compressed of Shakespeare's tragedies,[109] uncontrollable ambition incites Macbeth and his wife, Lady Macbeth, to murder the rightful king and usurp the throne, until their own guilt destroys them in turn,[110] In this play, Shakespeare adds a supernatural element to the tragic structure, His last major tragedies, Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus, contain some of Shakespeare's finest poetry and were considered his most successful tragedies by the poet and critic T, S, Eliot,[111] In his final period, Shakespeare turned to romance or tragicomedy and completed three more major plays: Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest, as well as the collaboration, Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Less bleak than the tragedies, these four plays are graver in tone than the comedies of the 1590s, but they end with reconciliation and the forgiveness of potentially tragic errors,[112] Some commentators have seen this change in mood as evidence of a more serene view of life on Shakespeare's part, but it may merely reflect the theatrical fashion of the day,[113] Shakespeare collaborated on two further surviving plays, Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen, probably with John Fletcher,[114] Performances[edit]Main article: Shakespeare in performanceIt is not clear for which companies Shakespeare wrote his early plays, The title page of the 1594 edition of Titus Andronicus reveals that the play had been acted by three different troupes,[115] After the plagues of 1592–3, Shakespeare's plays were performed by his own company at The Theatre and the Curtain in Shoreditch, north of the Thames,[116] Londoners flocked there to see the first part of Henry IV, Leonard Digges recording, "Let but Falstaff come, Hal, Poins, the rest ,,, and you scarce shall have a room",[117] When the company found themselves in dispute with their landlord, they pulled The Theatre down and used the timbers to construct the Globe Theatre, the first playhouse built by actors for actors, on the south bank of the Thames at Southwark,[118] The Globe opened in autumn 1599, with Julius Caesar one of the first plays staged, Most of Shakespeare's greatest post-1599 plays were written for the Globe, including Hamlet, Othello and King Lear,[119] The reconstructed Globe Theatre, London,After the Lord Chamberlain's Men were renamed the King's Men in 1603, they entered a special relationship with the new King James, Although the performance records are patchy, the King's Men performed seven of Shakespeare's plays at court between 1 November 1604 and 31 October 1605, including two performances of The Merchant of Venice,[120] After 1608, they performed at the indoor Blackfriars Theatre during the winter and the Globe during the summer,[121] The indoor setting, combined with the Jacobean fashion for lavishly staged masques, allowed Shakespeare to introduce more elaborate stage devices, In Cymbeline, for example, Jupiter descends "in thunder and lightning, sitting upon an eagle: he throws a thunderbolt, The ghosts fall on their knees,"[122] The actors in Shakespeare's company included the famous Richard Burbage, William Kempe, Henry Condell and John Heminges, Burbage played the leading role in the first performances of many of Shakespeare's plays, including Richard III, Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear,[123] The popular comic actor Will Kempe played the servant Peter in Romeo and Juliet and Dogberry in Much Ado About Nothing, among other characters,[124] He was replaced around 1600 by Robert Armin, who played roles such as Touchstone in As You Like It and the fool in King Lear,[125] In 1613, Sir Henry Wotton recorded that Henry VIII "was set forth with many extraordinary circumstances of pomp and ceremony",[126] On 29 June, however, a cannon set fire to the thatch of the Globe and burned the theatre to the ground, an event which pinpoints the date of a Shakespeare play with rare precision,[126] Textual sources[edit] Title page of the First Folio, 1623, Copper engraving of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout,In 1623, John Heminges and Henry Condell, two of Shakespeare's friends from the King's Men, published the First Folio, a collected edition of Shakespeare's plays, It contained 36 texts, including 18 printed for the first time,[127] Many of the plays had already appeared in quarto versions—flimsy books made from sheets of paper folded twice to make four leaves,[128] No evidence suggests that Shakespeare approved these editions, which the First Folio describes as "stol'n and surreptitious copies",[129] Nor did Shakespeare plan or expect his works to survive in any form at all; those works likely would have faded into oblivion but for his friends' spontaneous idea, after his death, to create and publish the First Folio,[130] Alfred Pollard termed some of the pre-1623 versions as "bad quartos" because of their adapted, paraphrased or garbled texts, which may in places have been reconstructed from memory,[131] Where several versions of a play survive, each differs from the other, The differences may stem from copying or printing errors, from notes by actors or audience members, or from Shakespeare's own papers,[132] In some cases, for example Hamlet, Troilus and Cressida and Othello, Shakespeare could have revised the texts between the quarto and folio editions, In the case of King Lear, however, while most modern editions do conflate them, the 1623 folio version is so different from the 1608 quarto that the Oxford Shakespeare prints them both, arguing that they cannot be conflated without confusion,[133] Poems[edit]In 1593 and 1594, when the theatres were closed because of plague, Shakespeare published two narrative poems on erotic themes, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece, He dedicated them to Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, In Venus and Adonis, an innocent Adonis rejects the sexual advances of Venus; while in The Rape of Lucrece, the virtuous wife Lucrece is raped by the lustful Tarquin,[134] Influenced by Ovid's Metamorphoses,[135] the poems show the guilt and moral confusion that result from uncontrolled lust,[136] Both proved popular and were often reprinted during Shakespeare's lifetime, A third narrative poem, A Lover's Complaint, in which a young woman laments her seduction by a persuasive suitor, was printed in the first edition of the Sonnets in 1609, Most scholars now accept that Shakespeare wrote A Lover's Complaint, Critics consider that its fine qualities are marred by leaden effects,[137] The Phoenix and the Turtle, printed in Robert Chester's 1601 Love's Martyr, mourns the deaths of the legendary phoenix and his lover, the faithful turtle dove, In 1599, two early drafts of sonnets 138 and 144 appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim, published under Shakespeare's name but without his permission,[138] Sonnets[edit]Main article: Shakespeare's sonnets Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets,Published in 1609, the Sonnets were the last of Shakespeare's non-dramatic works to be printed, Scholars are not certain when each of the 154 sonnets was composed, but evidence suggests that Shakespeare wrote sonnets throughout his career for a private readership,[139] Even before the two unauthorised sonnets appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim in 1599, Francis Meres had referred in 1598 to Shakespeare's "sugred Sonnets among his private friends",[140] Few analysts believe that the published collection follows Shakespeare's intended sequence,[141] He seems to have planned two contrasting series: one about uncontrollable lust for a married woman of dark complexion (the "dark lady"), and one about conflicted love for a fair young man (the "fair youth"), It remains unclear if these figures represent real individuals, or if the authorial "I" who addresses them represents Shakespeare himself, though Wordsworth believed that with the sonnets "Shakespeare unlocked his heart",[142] "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?Thou art more lovely and more temperate ,,," —Lines from Shakespeare's Sonnet 18,[143]The 1609 edition was dedicated to a "Mr, W,H,", credited as "the only begetter" of the poems, It is not known whether this was written by Shakespeare himself or by the publisher, Thomas Thorpe, whose initials appear at the foot of the dedication page; nor is it known who Mr, W,H, was, despite numerous theories, or whether Shakespeare even authorised the publication,[144] Critics praise the Sonnets as a profound meditation on the nature of love, sexual passion, procreation, death, and time,[145] Style[edit]Main article: Shakespeare's styleShakespeare's first plays were written in the conventional style of the day, He wrote them in a stylised language that does not always spring naturally from the needs of the characters or the drama,[146] The poetry depends on extended, sometimes elaborate metaphors and conceits, and the language is often rhetorical—written for actors to declaim rather than speak, The grand speeches in Titus Andronicus, in the view of some critics, often hold up the action, for example; and the verse in The Two Gentlemen of Verona has been described as stilted,[147] Soon, however, Shakespeare began to adapt the traditional styles to his own purposes, The opening soliloquy of Richard III has its roots in the self-declaration of Vice in medieval drama, At the same time, Richard's vivid self-awareness looks forward to the soliloquies of Shakespeare's mature plays,[148] No single play marks a change from the traditional to the freer style, Shakespeare combined the two throughout his career, with Romeo and Juliet perhaps the best example of the mixing of the styles,[149] By the time of Romeo and Juliet, Richard II, and A Midsummer Night's Dream in the mid-1590s, Shakespeare had begun to write a more natural poetry, He increasingly tuned his metaphors and images to the needs of the drama itself, Pity by William Blake, 1795, Tate Britain, is an illustration of two similes in Macbeth:"And pity, like a naked new-born babe,Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, hors'dUpon the sightless couriers of the air,"[150] Shakespeare's standard poetic form was blank verse, composed in iambic pentameter, In practice, this meant that his verse was usually unrhymed and consisted of ten syllables to a line, spoken with a stress on every second syllable, The blank verse of his early plays is quite different from that of his later ones, It is often beautiful, but its sentences tend to st*rt, pause, and finish at the end of lines, with the risk of monotony,[151] Once Shakespeare mastered traditional blank verse, he began to interrupt and vary its flow, This technique releases the new power and flexibility of the poetry in plays such as Julius Caesar and Hamlet, Shakespeare uses it, for example, to convey the turmoil in Hamlet's mind:[152] Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fightingThat would not let me sleep, Methought I layWorse than the mutines in the bilboes, Rashly—And prais'd be rashness for it—let us knowOur indiscretion sometimes serves us well ,,, — Hamlet, Act 5, Scene 2, 4–8[152]After Hamlet, Shakespeare varied his poetic style further, particularly in the more emotional passages of the late tragedies, The literary critic A, C, Bradley described this style as "more concentrated, rapid, varied, and, in construction, less regular, not seldom twisted or elliptical",[153] In the last phase of his career, Shakespeare adopted many techniques to achieve these effects, These included run-on lines, irregular pauses and stops, and extreme variations in sentence structure and length,[154] In Macbeth, for example, the language darts from one unrelated metaphor or simile to another: "was the hope drunk/ Wherein you dressed yourself?" (1,7,35–38); ",,, pity, like a naked new-born babe/ Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, hors'd/ Upon the sightless couriers of the air ,,," (1,7,21–25), The listener is challenged to complete the sense,[154] The late romances, with their shifts in time and surprising turns of plot, inspired a last poetic style in which long and short sentences are set against one another, clauses are piled up, subject and object are reversed, and words are omitted, creating an effect of spontaneity,[155] Shakespeare combined poetic genius with a practical sense of the theatre,[156] Like all playwrights of the time, he dramatised stories from sources such as Plutarch and Holinshed,[157] He reshaped each plot to create several centres of interest and to show as many sides of a narrative to the audience as possible, This strength of design ensures that a Shakespeare play can survive translation, cutting and wide interpretation without loss to its core drama,[158] As Shakespeare's mastery grew, he gave his characters clearer and more varied motivations and distinctive patterns of speech, He preserved aspects of his earlier style in the later plays, however, In Shakespeare's late romances, he deliberately returned to a more artificial style, which emphasised the illusion of theatre,[159] Influence[edit]Main article: Shakespeare's influence Macbeth Consulting the Vision of the Armed Head, By Henry Fuseli, 1793–94, Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington,Shakespeare's work has made a lasting impression on later theatre and literature, In particular, he expanded the dramatic potential of characterisation, plot, language, and genre,[160] Until Romeo and Juliet, for example, romance had not been viewed as a worthy topic for tragedy,[161] Soliloquies had been used mainly to convey information about characters or events; but Shakespeare used them to explore characters' minds,[162] His work heavily influenced later poetry, The Romantic poets attempted to revive Shakespearean verse drama, though with little success, Critic George Steiner described all English verse dramas from Coleridge to Tennyson as "feeble variations on Shakespearean themes,"[163] Shakespeare influenced novelists such as Thomas Hardy, William Faulkner, and Charles Dickens, The American novelist Herman Melville's soliloquies owe much to Shakespeare; his Captain Ahab in Moby-Dick is a classic tragic hero, inspired by King Lear,[164] Scholars have identified 20,000 pieces of music linked to Shakespeare's works, These include two operas by Giuseppe Verdi, Otello and Falstaff, whose critical standing compares with that of the source plays,[165] Shakespeare has also inspired many painters, including the Romantics and the Pre-Raphaelites, The Swiss Romantic artist Henry Fuseli, a friend of William Blake, even translated Macbeth into German,[166] The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud drew on Shakespearean psychology, in particular that of Hamlet, for his theories of human nature,[167] In Shakespeare's day, English grammar, spelling and pronunciation were less standardised than they are now,[168] and his use of language helped shape modern English,[169] Samuel Johnson quoted him more often than any other author in his A Dictionary of the English Language, the first serious work of its type,[170] Expressions such as "with bated breath" (Merchant of Venice) and "a foregone conclusion" (Othello) have found their way into everyday English speech,[171] Critical reputation[edit]Main articles: Shakespeare's reputation and Timeline of Shakespeare criticism"He was not of an age, but for all time," —Ben Jonson[172]Shakespeare was not revered in his lifetime, but he received a large amount of praise,[173] In 1598, the cleric and author Francis Meres singled him out from a group of English writers as "the most excellent" in both comedy and tragedy,[174] The authors of the Parnassus plays at St John's College, Cambridge numbered him with Chaucer, Gower and Spenser,[175] In the First Folio, Ben Jonson called Shakespeare the "Soul of the age, the applause, delight, the wonder of our stage", though he had remarked elsewhere that "Shakespeare wanted art",[176] A recently garlanded statue of William Shakespeare in Lincoln Park, Chicago, typical of many created in the 19th and early 20th century,Between the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the end of the 17th century, classical ideas were in vogue, As a result, critics of the time mostly rated Shakespeare below John Fletcher and Ben Jonson,[177] Thomas Rymer, for example, condemned Shakespeare for mixing the comic with the tragic, Nevertheless, poet and critic John Dryden rated Shakespeare highly, saying of Jonson, "I admire him, but I love Shakespeare",[178] For several decades, Rymer's view held sway; but during the 18th century, critics began to respond to Shakespeare on his own terms and acclaim what they termed his natural genius, A series of scholarly editions of his work, notably those of Samuel Johnson in 1765 and Edmond Malone in 1790, added to his growing reputation,[179] By 1800, he was firmly enshrined as the national poet,[180] In the 18th and 19th centuries, his reputation also spread abroad, Among those who championed him were the writers Voltaire, Goethe, Stendhal and Victor Hugo,[181] During the Romantic era, Shakespeare was praised by the poet and literary philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge; and the critic August Wilhelm Schlegel translated his plays in the spirit of German Romanticism,[182] In the 19th century, critical admiration for Shakespeare's genius often bordered on adulation,[183] "That King Shakespeare," the essayist Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1840, "does not he shine, in crowned sovereignty, over us all, as the noblest, gentlest, yet strongest of rallying signs; indestructible",[184] The Victorians produced his plays as lavish spectacles on a grand scale,[185] The playwright and critic George Bernard Shaw mocked the cult of Shakespeare worship as "bardolatry", claiming that the new naturalism of Ibsen's plays had made Shakespeare obsolete,[186] The modernist revolution in the arts during the early 20th century, far from discarding Shakespeare, eagerly enlisted his work in the service of the avant-garde, The Expressionists in Germany and the Futurists in Moscow mounted productions of his plays, Marxist playwright and director Bertolt Brecht devised an epic theatre under the influence of Shakespeare, The poet and critic T,S, Eliot argued against Shaw that Shakespeare's "primitiveness" in fact made him truly modern,[187] Eliot, along with G, Wilson Knight and the school of New Criticism, led a movement towards a closer reading of Shakespeare's imagery, In the 1950s, a wave of new critical approaches replaced modernism and paved the way for "post-modern" studies of Shakespeare,[188] By the 1980s, Shakespeare studies were open to movements such as structuralism, feminism, New Historicism, African-American studies, and queer studies,[189][190] In a comprehensive reading of Shakespeare's works and comparing Shakespeare literary accomplishments to accomplishments among leading figures in philosophy and theology as well, Harold Bloom has commented that, "Shakespeare was larger than Plato and than St, Augustine, He encloses us, because we see with his fundamental perceptions,"[191] Works[edit]Further information: Shakespeare bibliography and Chronology of Shakespeare's playsClassification of the plays[edit] The Plays of William Shakespeare, By Sir John Gilbert, 1849,Shakespeare's works include the 36 plays printed in the First Folio of 1623, listed according to their folio classification as comedies, histories and tragedies,[192] Two plays not included in the First Folio, The Two Noble Kinsmen and Pericles, Prince of Tyre, are now accepted as part of the canon, with today's scholars agreeing that Shakespeare made major contributions to the writing of both,[193] No Shakespearean poems were included in the First Folio, In the late 19th century, Edward Dowden classified four of the late comedies as romances, and though many scholars prefer to call them tragicomedies, Dowden's term is often used,[194] In 1896, Frederick S, Boas coined the term "problem plays" to describe four plays: All's Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida and Hamlet,[195] "Dramas as singular in theme and temper cannot be strictly called comedies or tragedies", he wrote, "We may therefore borrow a convenient phrase from the theatre of today and class them together as Shakespeare's problem plays,"[196] The term, much debated and sometimes applied to other plays, remains in use, though Hamlet is definitively classed as a tragedy,[197] Speculation about Shakespeare[edit]Authorship[edit]Main article: Shakespeare authorship questionAround 230 years after Shakespeare's death, doubts began to be expressed about the authorship of the works attributed to him,[198] Proposed alternative candidates include Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlowe, and Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford,[199] Several "group theories" have also been proposed,[200] Only a small minority of academics believe there is reason to question the traditional attribution,[201] but interest in the subject, particularly the Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship, continues into the 21st century,[202] Religion[edit]Main article: Religious views of William ShakespeareSome scholars claim that members of Shakespeare's family were Catholics, at a time when practicing Catholicism in England was against the law,[203] Shakespeare's mother, Mary Arden, certainly came from a pious Catholic family, The strongest evidence might be a Catholic statement of faith signed by his father, John Shakespeare, found in 1757 in the rafters of his former house in Henley Street, The document is now lost, however, and scholars differ as to its authenticity,[204] In 1591 the authorities reported that John Shakespeare had missed church "for fear of process for debt", a common Catholic excuse,[205] In 1606, the name of William's daughter Susanna appears on a list of those who failed to attend Easter communion in Stratford,[205] As several scholars have noted, whatever his private views, Shakespeare "conformed to the official state religion", as Park Honan put it,[206][207] Also, Shakespeare's will uses a Protestant formula, and he was a confirmed member of the Church of England, where he was married, his children were baptized, and where he is buried, Other authors argue that there is a lack of evidence about Shakespeare's religious beliefs, Scholars find evidence both for and against Shakespeare's Catholicism, Protestantism, or lack of belief in his plays, but the truth may be impossible to prove,[208] Sexuality[edit]Main article: Sexuality of William ShakespeareFew details of Shakespeare's sexuality are known, At 18, he married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, who was pregnant, Susanna, the first of their three children, was born six months later on 26 May 1583, Over the centuries, some readers have posited that Shakespeare's sonnets are autobiographical,[209] and point to them as evidence of his love for a young man, Others read the same passages as the expression of intense friendship rather than romantic love,[210] The 26 so-called "Dark Lady" sonnets, addressed to a married woman, are taken as evidence of heterosexual liaisons,[211] Portraiture[edit]Main article: Portraits of ShakespeareNo written contemporary description of Shakespeare's physical appearance survives, and no evidence suggests that he ever commissioned a portrait, so the Droeshout engraving, which Ben Jonson approved of as a good likeness,[212] and his Stratford monument provide perhaps the best evidence of his appearance, From the 18th century, the desire for authentic Shakespeare portraits fuelled claims that various surviving pictures depicted Shakespeare, That demand also led to the production of several fake portraits, as well as mis-attributions, repaintings and relabelling of portraits of other people,[213] See also[edit]Outline of William ShakespeareEnglish Renaissance theatreSpelling of Shakespeare's nameWorld Shakespeare BibliographyNotes[edit]Footnotes[edit]Jump up ^ Dates follow the Julian calendar, used in England throughout Shakespeare's lifespan, but with the st*rt of the year adjusted to 1 January (see Old Style and New Style dates), Under the Gregorian calendar, adopted in Catholic countries in 1582, Shakespeare died on 3 May (Schoenbaum 1987, xv),Jump up ^ The "national cult" of Shakespeare, and the "bard" identification, dates from September 1769, when the actor David Garrick organised a week-long carnival at Stratford to mark the town council awarding him the freedom of the town, In addition to presenting the town with a statue of Shakespeare, Garrick composed a doggerel verse, lampooned in the London newspapers, naming the banks of the Avon as the birthplace of the "matchless Bard" (McIntyre 1999, 412–432),Jump up ^ The exact figures are unknown, See Shakespeare's collaborations and Shakespeare Apocrypha for further details,Jump up ^ Individual play dates and precise writing span are unknown, See Chronology of Shakespeare's plays for further details,Jump up ^ The crest is a silver falcon supporting a spear, while the motto is Non Sanz Droict (French for "not without right"), This motto is still used by Warwickshire County Council, in reference to Shakespeare,Jump up ^ In the scribal abbreviations ye for the (3rd line) and yt for that (3rd and 4th lines) the letter y represents in fact th: see article thorn,Citations[edit]Jump up ^ "Shakespeare" entry in Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins Publishers, 1998,^ Jump up to: a b Greenblatt 2005, 11; Bevington 2002, 1–3; Wells 1997, 399,Jump up ^ Dobson 1992, 185–186Jump up ^ Craig 2003, 3,Jump up ^ Shapiro 2005, xvii–xviii; Schoenbaum 1991, 41, 66, 397–98, 402, 409; Taylor 1990, 145, 210–23, 261–5Jump up ^ Chambers 1930, Vol, 1: 270–71; Taylor 1987, 109–134,^ Jump up to: a b The Norton Anthology of English Literature: Sixteenth/Early Seventeenth Century, Volume B, 2012, pg, 1168Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 14–22,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 24–6,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 24, 296; Honan 1998, 15–16,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 23–24,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 62–63; Ackroyd 2006, 53; Wells et al, 2005, xv–xviJump up ^ Baldwin 1944, 464,Jump up ^ Baldwin 1944, 179–80, 183; Cressy 1975, 28, 29,Jump up ^ Baldwin 1944, 117,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 77–78,Jump up ^ Wood 2003, 84; Schoenbaum 1987, 78–79,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 93,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 94,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 224,Jump up ^ Bate 2008, 314,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 95,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 97–108; Rowe 1709,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 144–45,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 110–11,Jump up ^ Honigmann 1999, 1; Wells et al, 2005, xviiJump up ^ Honigmann 1999, 95–117; Wood 2003, 97–109,Jump up ^ Wells et al, 2005, 666Jump up ^ Chambers 1930, Vol, 1: 287, 292Jump up ^ Greenblatt 2005, 213,^ Jump up to: a b Greenblatt 2005, 213; Schoenbaum 1987, 153,Jump up ^ Ackroyd 2006, 176,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 151–52Jump up ^ Wells 2006, 28; Schoenbaum 1987, 144–46; Chambers 1930, Vol, 1: 59,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 184,Jump up ^ Chambers 1923, 208–209,Jump up ^ Chambers 1930, Vol, 2: 67–71,Jump up ^ Bentley 1961, 36,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 188; Kastan 1999, 37; Knutson 2001, 17Jump up ^ Adams 1923, 275Jump up ^ Wells 2006, 28,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 200,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 200–201,Jump up ^ Rowe 1709,Jump up ^ Ackroyd 2006, 357; Wells et al, 2005, xxiiJump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 202–3,^ Jump up to: a b Hales 1904, pp, 401–2,Jump up ^ Honan 1998, 121,Jump up ^ Shapiro 2005, 122,Jump up ^ Honan 1998, 325; Greenblatt 2005, 405,^ Jump up to: a b Ackroyd 2006, 476,Jump up ^ Wood 1806, pp, ix–x, lxxii,Jump up ^ Smith 1964, p, 558,Jump up ^ Ackroyd 2006, p, 477,Jump up ^ Barroll 1991, pp, 179–82,Jump up ^ Bate 2008, 354–355,Jump up ^ Honan 1998, 382–83,Jump up ^ Honan 1998, 326; Ackroyd 2006, 462–464,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 272–274,Jump up ^ Honan 1998, 387,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 279,Jump up ^ Honan 1998, 375–78,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 276,Jump up ^ Inscribed in Latin on his funerary monument: AETATIS 53 DIE 23 APR (In his 53rd year he died 23 April),Jump up ^ Schoenbaum, Samuel, Shakespeare's Lives, Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0-19-818618-2, Page 78,Jump up ^ Rowse, A, L, William Shakespeare; A Biography, Harper & Row, 1963, Page 453,Jump up ^ Kinney, Arthur F,, editor, The Oxford Handbook of Shakespeare, Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-19-956610-5, Page 11, Verse by James Mabbe printed in the First Folio,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 287,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 292, 294,Jump up ^ "William Shakespeare Featured Article", Thegenealogist,co,uk, Retrieved 19 March 2014,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 304,Jump up ^ Honan 1998, 395–96,Jump up ^ Chambers 1930, Vol, 2: 8, 11, 104; Schoenbaum 1987, 296,Jump up ^ Chambers 1930, Vol, 2: 7, 9, 13; Schoenbaum 1987, 289, 318–19,Jump up ^ Charles Knight, 1842, in his notes on Twelfth Night, quoted in Schoenbaum 1991, 275,Jump up ^ Ackroyd 2006, 483; Frye 2005, 16; Greenblatt 2005, 145–6,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 301–3,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 306–07; Wells et al, 2005, xviiiJump up ^ BBC News 2008,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 306,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 308–10,Jump up ^ Cooper 2006, 48,Jump up ^ "VISITING THE ABBEY", westminster-abbey,org/, Retrieved 2 April 2016, Shakespeare, buried at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1616, had to wait until 1740 before a monument, designed by William Kent, appeared in Poets' Corner,Jump up ^ "Shakespeare Memorial", southwark,anglican,org/, Retrieved 2 April 2016,Jump up ^ Thomson, Peter, "Conventions of Playwriting", in Wells & Orlin 2003, 49,Jump up ^ Frye 2005, 9; Honan 1998, 166,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 159–61; Frye 2005, 9,Jump up ^ Dutton & Howard 2003, 147,Jump up ^ Ribner 2005, 154–155,Jump up ^ Frye 2005, 105; Ribner 2005, 67; Cheney 2004, 100,Jump up ^ Honan 1998, 136; Schoenbaum 1987, 166,Jump up ^ Frye 2005, 91; Honan 1998, 116–117; Werner 2001, 96–100,Jump up ^ Friedman 2006, 159,Jump up ^ Ackroyd 2006, 235,Jump up ^ Wood 2003, 161–162,Jump up ^ Wood 2003, 205–206; Honan 1998, 258,Jump up ^ Ackroyd 2006, 359,Jump up ^ Ackroyd 2006, 362–383,Jump up ^ Shapiro 2005, 150; Gibbons 1993, 1; Ackroyd 2006, 356,Jump up ^ Wood 2003, 161; Honan 1998, 206,Jump up ^ Ackroyd 2006, 353, 358; Shapiro 2005, 151–153,Jump up ^ Shapiro 2005, 151,Jump up ^ Bradley 1991, 85; Muir 2005, 12–16,Jump up ^ Bradley 1991, 94,Jump up ^ Bradley 1991, 86,Jump up ^ Bradley 1991, 40, 48,Jump up ^ Bradley 1991, 42, 169, 195; Greenblatt 2005, 304,Jump up ^ Bradley 1991, 226; Ackroyd 2006, 423; Kermode 2004, 141–2,Jump up ^ McDonald 2006, 43–46,Jump up ^ Bradley 1991, 306,Jump up ^ Ackroyd 2006, 444; McDonald 2006, 69–70; Eliot 1934, 59,Jump up ^ Dowden 1881, 57,Jump up ^ Dowden 1881, 60; Frye 2005, 123; McDonald 2006, 15,Jump up ^ Wells et al, 2005, 1247, 1279Jump up ^ Wells et al, 2005, xxJump up ^ Wells et al, 2005, xxiJump up ^ Shapiro 2005, 16,Jump up ^ Foakes 1990, 6; Shapiro 2005, 125–31,Jump up ^ Foakes 1990, 6; Nagler 1958, 7; Shapiro 2005, 131–2,Jump up ^ Wells et al, 2005, xxiiJump up ^ Foakes 1990, 33,Jump up ^ Ackroyd 2006, 454; Holland 2000, xli,Jump up ^ Ringler 1997, 127,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 210; Chambers 1930, Vol, 1: 341,Jump up ^ Shapiro 2005, 247–9,^ Jump up to: a b Wells et al, 2005, 1247Jump up ^ Wells et al, 2005, xxxviiJump up ^ Wells et al, 2005, xxxivJump up ^ Pollard 1909, xi,Jump up ^ Mays, Andrea and Swanson, James, "Shakespeare Died a Nobody, and then Got Famous by Accident", New York Post (April 20, 2016),Jump up ^ Wells et al, 2005, xxxiv; Pollard 1909, xi; Maguire 1996, 28,Jump up ^ Bowers 1955, 8–10; Wells et al, 2005, xxxiv–xxxvJump up ^ Wells et al, 2005, 909, 1153Jump up ^ Rowe 2006, 21,Jump up ^ Frye 2005, 288,Jump up ^ Rowe 2006, 3, 21,Jump up ^ Rowe 2006, 1; Jackson 2004, 267–294; Honan 1998, 289,Jump up ^ Rowe 2006, 1; Honan 1998, 289; Schoenbaum 1987, 327,Jump up ^ Wood 2003, 178; Schoenbaum 1987, 180,Jump up ^ Honan 1998, 180,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 268,Jump up ^ Honan 1998, 180; Schoenbaum 1987, 180,Jump up ^ Shakespeare 1914,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 268–269,Jump up ^ Wood 2003, 177,Jump up ^ Clemen 2005a, 150,Jump up ^ Frye 2005, 105, 177; Clemen 2005b, 29,Jump up ^ Brooke 2004, 69; Bradbrook 2004, 195,Jump up ^ Clemen 2005b, 63,Jump up ^ de Sélincourt 1909, 174Jump up ^ Frye 2005, 185,^ Jump up to: a b Wright 2004, 868,Jump up ^ Bradley 1991, 91,^ Jump up to: a b McDonald 2006, 42–6,Jump up ^ McDonald 2006, 36, 39, 75,Jump up ^ Gibbons 1993, 4,Jump up ^ Gibbons 1993, 1–4,Jump up ^ Gibbons 1993, 1–7, 15,Jump up ^ McDonald 2006, 13; Meagher 2003, 358,Jump up ^ Chambers 1944, 35,Jump up ^ Levenson 2000, 49–50,Jump up ^ Clemen 1987, 179,Jump up ^ Steiner 1996, 145,Jump up ^ Bryant 1998, 82,Jump up ^ Gross, John, "Shakespeare's Influence" in Wells & Orlin 2003, 641–2,Jump up ^ Paraisz 2006, 130,Jump up ^ Bloom, Harold, The Western Canon, New York, Riverhead Books, p,346Jump up ^ Cercignani 1981,Jump up ^ Crystal 2001, 55–65, 74,Jump up ^ Wain 1975, 194,Jump up ^ Johnson 2002, 12; Crystal 2001, 63,Jump up ^ Jonson 1996, 10,Jump up ^ Dominik 1988, 9; Grady 2001b, 267,Jump up ^ Grady 2001b, 265; Greer 1986, 9,Jump up ^ Grady 2001b, 266,Jump up ^ Jonson, Ben, "To the Memory of My Beloved the Author, Mr, William Shakespeare", poetryfoundation,org, poetryfoundation,org, Retrieved 1 April 2016,Jump up ^ Grady 2001b, 269,Jump up ^ Dryden 1889, 71,Jump up ^ Grady 2001b, 270–27; Levin 1986, 217,Jump up ^ Dobson 1992 Cited by Grady 2001b, 270,Jump up ^ Grady 2001b, 272–274, Grady cites Voltaire's Philosophical Letters (1733); Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship (1795); Stendhal's two-part pamphlet Racine et Shakespeare (1823–25); and Victor Hugo's prefaces to Cromwell (1827) and William Shakespeare (1864),Jump up ^ Levin 1986, 223,Jump up ^ Sawyer 2003, 113,Jump up ^ Carlyle 1907, 161,Jump up ^ Schoch 2002, 58–59,Jump up ^ Grady 2001b, 276,Jump up ^ Grady 2001a, 22–6,Jump up ^ Grady 2001a, 24,Jump up ^ Grady 2001a, 29,Jump up ^ Drakakis 1985, 16–17, 23–25Jump up ^ Harold Bloom (2006), Shakespeare Through the Ages: King Lear, p, xii,Jump up ^ Boyce 1996, 91, 193, 513,,Jump up ^ Kathman 2003, 629; Boyce 1996, 91,Jump up ^ Edwards 1958, 1–10; Snyder & Curren-Aquino 2007,Jump up ^ Schanzer 1963, 1–10,Jump up ^ Boas 1896, 345,Jump up ^ Schanzer 1963, 1; Bloom 1999, 325–380; Berry 2005, 37,Jump up ^ Shapiro 2010, 77–8,Jump up ^ Gibson 2005, 48, 72, 124,Jump up ^ McMichael & Glenn 1962, p, 56,Jump up ^ Did He or Didn't He? That Is the Question, The New York Times, 22 April 2007Jump up ^ Kathman 2003, 620, 625–626; Love 2002, 194–209; Schoenbaum 1991, 430–40,Jump up ^ Pritchard 1979, 3,Jump up ^ Wood 2003, 75–8; Ackroyd 2006, 22–3,^ Jump up to: a b Wood 2003, 78; Ackroyd 2006, 416; Schoenbaum 1987, 41–2, 286,Jump up ^ Rowse, A, L, (1963), William Shakespeare: A Biography, London: Macmillan, ISBN 0-06-013710-X,Jump up ^ A, L, Rowse, as quoted in The Portsmouth Institute (2013), "Newman and the Intellectual Tradition: Portsmouth Review", Sheed & Ward, p, 127: "He died, as he had lived, a conforming member of the Church of England, His will made that perfectly clear – in facts, puts it beyond dispute, for it uses the Protestant formula,"Jump up ^ Wilson 2004, 34; Shapiro 2005, 167,Jump up ^ Lee 1900, 55Jump up ^ Casey 1998; Pequigney 1985; Evans 1996, 132,Jump up ^ Fort 1927, 406–414,Jump up ^ Cooper 2006, 48, 57,Jump up ^ Schoenbaum 1981, 190,References[edit]Ackroyd, Peter (2006), Shakespeare: The Biography, London: Vintage, ISBN 978-0-7493-8655-9,Adams, Joseph Quincy (1923), A Life of William Shakespeare, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, OCLC 1935264,Baldwin, T, W, (1944), William Shakspere's Small Latine & Lesse Greek, 1, Urbana, Ill: University of Illinois Press, OCLC 359037,Barroll, Leeds (1991), Politics, Plague, and Shakespeare's Theater: The Stuart Years, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-2479-8,Bate, Jonathan (2008), The Soul of the Age, London: Penguin, ISBN 978-0-670-91482-1,BBC News (28 May 2008), "Bard's 'cursed' tomb is revamped", British Broadcasting Corporation, Retrieved 23 April 2010,,Bentley, G, E, (1961), Shakespeare: A Biographical Handbook, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-313-25042-1, OCLC 356416,Berry, Ralph (2005), Changing Styles in Shakespeare, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-35316-5,Bertolini, John Anthony (1993), Shaw and Other Playwrights, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, ISBN 0-271-00908-X,Bevington, David (2002), Shakespeare, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-22719-9,Bloom, Harold (1999), Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human, New York: Riverhead Books, ISBN 1-57322-751-X,Boas, F, S, (1896), Shakspere and His Predecessors, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,Bowers, Fredson (1955), On Editing Shakespeare and the Elizabethan Dramatists, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, OCLC 2993883,Boyce, Charles (1996), Dictionary of Shakespeare, Ware, Herts, UK: Wordsworth, ISBN 1-85326-372-9,Bradbrook, M, C, (2004), "Shakespeare's Recollection of Marlowe", in Edwards, Philip; Ewbank, Inga-Stina; Hunter, G, K,, Shakespeare's Styles: Essays in Honour of Kenneth Muir, Cambridge University Press, pp, 191–204, ISBN 0-521-61694-8,Bradley, A, C, (1991), Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear and Macbeth, London: Penguin, ISBN 0-14-053019-3,Brooke, Nicholas (2004), "Language and Speaker in Macbeth", in Edwards, Philip; Ewbank, Inga-Stina; Hunter, G, K,, Shakespeare's Styles: Essays in Honour of Kenneth Muir, Cambridge University Press, pp, 67–78, ISBN 0-521-61694-8Bryant, John (1998), "Moby Dick as Revolution", in Levine, Robert Steven, The Cambridge Companion to Herman Melville, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55571-X,Carlyle, Thomas (1907), Adams, John Chester, ed,, On Heroes, Hero-worship, and the Heroic in History, Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, ISBN 1-4069-4419-X, OCLC 643782,Casey, Charles (1998), "Was Shakespeare gay? Sonnet 20 and the politics of pedagogy", College Literature, 25 (3): 35–51, doi:10,2307/25112402, JSTOR 25112402,,Cercignani, Fausto (1981), Shakespeare's Works and Elizabethan Pronunciation, Oxford: University Press (Clarendon Press),Chambers, E, K, (1923), The Elizabethan Stage, 2, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-811511-3, OCLC 336379, ——— (1930), William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems, 2 vols,, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-811774-4, OCLC 353406, ——— (1944), Shakespearean Gleanings, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-8492-0506-9, OCLC 2364570,Cheney, Patrick Gerard (2004), The Cambridge Companion to Christopher Marlowe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-52734-1,Clemen, Wolfgang (1987), Shakespeare's Soliloquies, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-35277-0, ——— (2005a), Shakespeare's Dramatic Art: Collected Essays, New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-35278-9, ——— (2005b), Shakespeare's Imagery, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-35280-0,Cooper, Tarnya 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by William Shakespeare set to music: free scores in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)The Shakespeare Birthplace TrustWilliam Shakespeare at the Internet Movie DatabaseWorks by William Shakespeare at Project GutenbergWorks by or about William Shakespeare at Internet ArchiveWorks by William Shakespeare at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) Discovering Literature: Shakespeare at the British LibraryWilliam Shakespeare at the British Library[show] v t eWilliam Shakespeare[show] Links to related articlesBooksView or order collections of articlesWilliam ShakespearePortalsAccess related topicsShakespeare portalFind out more on Wikipedia'sSister projectsMediafrom CommonsDefinitionsfrom WiktionaryTextbooksfrom WikibooksQuotationsfrom WikiquoteSource textsfrom WikisourceAuthority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 96994048 LCCN: n78095332 ISNI: 0000 0001 2103 2683 GND: 118613723 SELIBR: 198702 SUDOC: 027136086 BNF: cb119246079 (data) BIBSYS: 90052737 ULAN: 500272240 MusicBrainz: a4ba11db-ae2b-4ec3-9084-2136db11acfa NLA: 35491939 NDL: 00456207 NKC: jn19981002129 ICCU: IT\ICCU\CFIV\000356 RLS: 000080803 BNE: XX1020842Categories: William Shakespeare1564 births1616 deaths16th-century English male actorsEnglish male stage actors16th-century English writers17th-century English writers16th-century dramatists and playwrights17th-century English dramatists and playwrights16th-century English poetsBurials in WarwickshireEnglish dramatists and playwrights17th-century English poetsEnglish Renaissance dramatistsPeople educated at King Edward VI School, Stratford-upon-AvonPeople from Stratford-upon-AvonPeople of the Elizabethan eraPeople of the Stuart periodShakespeare familySonneteersKing's Men (playing company)English male dramatists and playwrightsEnglish male poets-------------------------SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT HamletFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the play by William Shakespeare, For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation), The American actor Edwin Booth as Hamlet, ca, 1870The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet (/ˈhæmlᵻt/), is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602, Set in the Kingdom of Denmark, the play dramatises the revenge Prince Hamlet is called to wreak upon his uncle, Claudius, by the ghost of Hamlet's father, King Hamlet, Claudius had murdered his own brother and seized the throne, also marrying his deceased brother's widow, Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play, and is ranked among the most powerful and influential tragedies in English literature, with a story capable of "seemingly endless retelling and adaptation by others",[1] The play likely was one of Shakespeare's most popular works during his lifetime,[2] and still ranks among his most performed, topping the performance list of the Royal Shakespeare Company and its predecessors in Stratford-upon-Avon since 1879,[3] It has inspired many other writers – from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Charles Dickens to James Joyce and Iris Murdoch – and has been described as "the world's most filmed story after Cinderella",[4] The story of Shakespeare's Hamlet was derived from the legend of Amleth, preserved by 13th-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum, as subsequently retold by 16th-century scholar François de Belleforest, Shakespeare may also have drawn on an earlier (hypothetical) Elizabethan play known today as the Ur-Hamlet, though some scholars believe he himself wrote the Ur-Hamlet, later revising it to create the version of Hamlet we now have, He almost certainly wrote his version of the title role for his fellow actor, Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeare's time, In the 400 years since its inception, the role has been performed by numerous highly acclaimed actors in each successive century, Three different early versions of the play are extant: the First Quarto (Q1, 1603); the Second Quarto (Q2, 1604); and the First Folio (F1, 1623), Each version includes lines and entire scenes missing from the others, The play's structure and depth of characterisation have inspired much critical scrutiny, One such example is the centuries-old debate about Hamlet's hesitation to kill his uncle, which some see as merely a plot device to prolong the action, but which others argue is a dramatisation of the complex philosophical and ethical issues that surround cold-blooded murder, calculated revenge, and thwarted desire, More recently, psychoanalytic critics have examined Hamlet's unconscious desires, while feminist critics have re-evaluated and attempted to rehabilitate the often maligned characters of Ophelia and Gertrude, Contents [hide] 1Characters2Plot2,1Act I2,2Act II2,3Act III2,4Act IV2,5Act V3Sources4Date5Texts6Analysis and criticism6,1Critical history6,2Dramatic structure6,3Language7Context and interpretation7,1Religious7,2Philosophical7,3Psychoanalytic7,4Feminist8Influence9Performance history9,1Shakespeare's day to the Interregnum9,2Restoration and 18th century9,319th century9,420th century9,521st century9,6Film and TV performances9,7Stage pastiches10Notes and references10,1Notes10,2References11Sources11,1Editions of Hamlet11,2Secondary sources12External linksCharacters[edit]Hamlet – Son of the late King and nephew of the present kingClaudius – King of Denmark and Hamlet's uncleGertrude – Queen of Denmark and mother to HamletPolonius – Chief counsellor to the kingOphelia – Daughter to PoloniusHoratio – True friend to HamletLaertes – Son to PoloniusVoltimand and Cornelius – CourtiersRosencrantz and Guildenstern – Courtiers, friends to HamletOsric – a CourtierMarcellus – an OfficerBernardo (or Barnardo) – an OfficerFrancisco – a SoldierReynaldo – Servant to PoloniusGhost of Hamlet's FatherFortinbras – Prince of NorwayGravediggers – a SextonPlayer King, Player Queen, Lucianus etc, – PlayersA PriestA Captain in Fortinbras' armyEnglish AmbassadorsMessengers, Sailors, Lords, Ladies, Guards, Danes (supporters of Laertes)Plot[edit]For cast overview, see Characters in Hamlet,Act I[edit]The protagonist of Hamlet is Prince Hamlet of Denmark, son of the recently deceased King Hamlet, and nephew of King Claudius, his father's brother and successor, Claudius hastily married King Hamlet's widow, Gertrude, Hamlet's mother, and took the throne for himself, Denmark has a long-standing feud with neighboring Norway, which culminated when King Hamlet slew King Fortinbras of Norway in a battle years ago, Although Denmark defeated Norway, and the Norwegian throne fell to King Fortinbras's infirm brother, Denmark fears that an invasion led by the dead Norwegian king's son, Prince Fortinbras, is imminent, On a cold night on the ramparts of Elsinore, the Danish royal castle, the sentries Bernardo and Marcellus and Hamlet's friend Horatio encounter a ghost that looks like the late King Hamlet, They vow to tell Prince Hamlet what they have witnessed, As the Court gathers the next day, while King Claudius and Queen Gertrude discuss affairs of state with their elderly adviser Polonius, Hamlet looks on glumly, After the Court exits, Hamlet despairs of his father's death and his mother's hasty remarriage, Learning of the Ghost from Horatio, Hamlet resolves to see it himself, Horatio, Hamlet, and the Ghost (Artist: Henry Fuseli, 1789)[5]As Polonius's son Laertes prepares to depart for a visit to France, Polonius gives him contradictory advice that culminates in the ironic maxim "to thine own self be true", Polonius's daughter, Ophelia, admits her interest in Hamlet, but both Polonius and Laertes warn her against seeking the prince's attention, That night on the rampart, the Ghost appears to Hamlet, telling the prince that he was murdered by Claudius and demanding that Hamlet avenge him, Hamlet agrees and the Ghost vanishes, The prince confides to Horatio and the sentries that from now on he plans to "put an antic disposition on" and forces them to swear to keep his plans for revenge secret, Privately, however, he remains uncertain of the Ghost's reliability, Act II[edit]Soon thereafter, Ophelia rushes to her father, telling him that Hamlet arrived at her door the prior night half-undressed and behaving crazily, Polonius blames love for Hamlet's madness and resolves to inform Claudius and Gertrude, As he enters to do so, the king and queen finish welcoming Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two student acquaintances of Hamlet, to Elsinore, The royal couple has requested that the students investigate the cause of Hamlet's mood and behavior, Additional news requires that Polonius wait to be heard: messengers from Norway inform Claudius that the King of Norway has rebuked Prince Fortinbras for attempting to re-fight his father's battles, The forces that Fortinbras conscripted to march against Denmark will instead be sent against Poland, though they will pass through a portion of Denmark to get there, Polonius tells Claudius and Gertrude his theory regarding Hamlet's behavior, and speaks to Hamlet in a hall of the castle to try to uncover more information, Hamlet feigns madness but subtly insults Polonius all the while, When Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive, Hamlet greets his friends warmly, but quickly discerns that they are spies, Hamlet becomes bitter, admitting that he is upset at his situation but refusing to give the true reason why, instead commenting on "what a piece of work" humanity is, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern tell Hamlet that they have brought along a troupe of actors that they met while traveling to Elsinore, Hamlet, after welcoming the actors and dismissing his friends-turned-spies, plots to stage a play featuring a death in the style of his father's murder, thereby determining the truth of the Ghost's story, as well as Claudius's guilt or innocence, by studying Claudius's reaction, Act III[edit]Polonius forces Ophelia to return Hamlet's love letters and tokens of affection to the prince while he and Claudius watch from afar to evaluate Hamlet's reaction, Hamlet is walking alone in the hall as the King and Polonius await Ophelia's entrance, musing whether "to be or not to be", When Ophelia enters and tries to return Hamlet's things, Hamlet accuses her of immodesty and cries "get thee to a nunnery," though it is unclear whether this, too, is a show of madness or genuine distress, His reaction convinces Claudius that Hamlet is not mad for love, Shortly thereafter, the court assembles to watch the play Hamlet has commissioned, After seeing the Player King murdered by his rival pouring poison in his ear, Claudius abruptly rises and runs from the room: proof positive for Hamlet of his uncle's guilt, Hamlet mistakenly stabs Polonius (Artist: Coke Smyth, 19th century),Gertrude summons Hamlet to her room to demand an explanation, Meanwhile, Claudius talks to himself about the impossibility of repenting, since he still has possession of his ill-gotten goods: his brother's crown and wife, He sinks to his knees, Hamlet, on his way to visit his mother, sneaks up behind him, but does not kill him, reasoning that killing Claudius while he is praying will send him straight to heaven while the Ghost is stuck in purgatory, In the queen's bedchamber, Hamlet and Gertrude fight bitterly, Polonius, spying on the conversation from behind a tapestry, makes a noise, Hamlet, believing it is Claudius, stabs wildly, killing Polonius, but pulls aside the curtain and sees his mistake, In a rage, Hamlet brutally insults his mother for her apparent ignorance of Claudius's villainy, but the Ghost enters and reprimands Hamlet for his inaction and harsh words, Unable to see or hear the Ghost herself, Gertrude takes Hamlet's conversation with it as further evidence of madness, After begging the queen to stop sleeping with Claudius, Hamlet leaves, dragging Polonius's corpse away, Hamlet jokes with Claudius about where he has hidden Polonius's body, and the king, fearing for his life, sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to accompany Hamlet to England with a sealed letter to the English king requesting that Hamlet be executed immediately, Act IV[edit]Demented by grief at Polonius's death, Ophelia wanders Elsinore, Laertes arrives back from France, enraged by his father's death and his sister's madness, Claudius convinces Laertes that Hamlet is solely responsible, but a letter soon arrives indicating that Hamlet has returned to Denmark, foiling Claudius's plan, Claudius switches tactics, proposing a fencing match between Laertes and Hamlet to settle their differences, Laertes will be given a poison-tipped foil, and Claudius will offer Hamlet poisoned wine as a congratulation if that fails, Gertrude interrupts to report that Ophelia has drowned, though it is unclear whether it was suicide or an accident exacerbated by her madness, The "gravedigger scene"[a] (Artist: Eugène Delacroix, 1839)Act V[edit]Horatio has received a letter from Hamlet, explaining that the prince escaped by negotiating with pirates who attempted to attack his England-bound ship, and the friends reunite offstage, Two gravediggers discuss Ophelia's apparent suicide while digging her grave, Hamlet arrives with Horatio and banters with one of the gravediggers, who unearths the skull of a jester from Hamlet's childhood, Yorick, Hamlet picks up the skull, saying "alas, poor Yorick" as he contemplates mortality, Ophelia's funeral procession approaches, led by Laertes, Hamlet and Horatio initially hide, but when Hamlet realizes that Ophelia is the one being buried, he reveals himself, proclaiming his love for her, Laertes and Hamlet fight by Ophelia's graveside, but the brawl is broken up, Back at Elsinore, Hamlet explains to Horatio that he had discovered Claudius's letter with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern's belongings and replaced it with a forged copy indicating that his former friends should be killed instead, A foppish courtier, Osric, interrupts the conversation to deliver the fencing challenge to Hamlet, Hamlet, despite Horatio's advice, accepts it, Hamlet does well at first, leading the match by two hits to none, and Gertrude raises a toast to him using the poisoned glass of wine Claudius had set aside for Hamlet, Claudius tries to stop her, but is too late: she drinks, and Laertes realizes the plot will be revealed, Laertes slashes Hamlet with his poisoned blade, In the ensuing scuffle, they switch weapons and Hamlet wounds Laertes with his own poisoned sword, Gertrude collapses and, claiming she has been poisoned, dies, In his dying moments, Laertes reconciles with Hamlet and reveals Claudius's plan, Hamlet rushes at Claudius and kills him, As the poison takes effect, Hamlet, hearing that Fortinbras is marching through the area, names the Norwegian prince as his successor, Horatio, distraught at the thought of being the last survivor, says he will commit suicide by drinking the dregs of Gertrude's poisoned wine, but Hamlet begs him to live on and tell his story, Hamlet dies, proclaiming "the rest is silence", Fortinbras, who was ostensibly marching towards Poland with his army, arrives at the palace, along with an English ambassador bringing news of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern's deaths, Horatio promises to recount the full story of what happened, and Fortinbras, seeing the entire Danish royal family dead, takes the crown for himself, Sources[edit]Main article: Sources of Hamlet A facsimile of Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus, which contains the legend of AmlethHamlet-like legends are so widely found (for example in Italy, Spain, Scandinavia, Byzantium, and Arabia) that the core "hero-as-fool" theme is possibly Indo-European in origin,[7] Several ancient written precursors to Hamlet can be identified, The first is the anonymous Scandinavian Saga of Hrolf Kraki, In this, the murdered king has two sons—Hroar and Helgi—who spend most of the story in disguise, under false names, rather than feigning madness, in a sequence of events that differs from Shakespeare's,[8] The second is the Roman legend of Brutus, recorded in two separate Latin works, Its hero, Lucius ("shining, light"), changes his name and persona to Brutus ("dull, stupid"), playing the role of a fool to avoid the fate of his father and brothers, and eventually slaying his family's killer, King Tarquinius, A 17th-century Nordic scholar, Torfaeus, compared the Icelandic hero Amlodi and the Spanish hero Prince Ambales (from the Ambales Saga) to Shakespeare's Hamlet, Similarities include the prince's feigned madness, his accidental killing of the king's counsellor in his mother's bedroom, and the eventual slaying of his uncle,[9] Many of the earlier legendary elements are interwoven in the 13th-century "Life of Amleth" (Latin: Vita Amlethi) by Saxo Grammaticus, part of Gesta Danorum,[10] Written in Latin, it reflects classical Roman concepts of virtue and heroism, and was widely available in Shakespeare's day,[11] Significant parallels include the prince feigning madness, his mother's hasty marriage to the usurper, the prince killing a hidden spy, and the prince substituting the execution of two retainers for his own, A reasonably faithful version of Saxo's story was translated into French in 1570 by François de Belleforest, in his Histoires tragiques,[12] Belleforest embellished Saxo's text substantially, almost doubling its length, and introduced the hero's melancholy,[13] Title page of The Spanish Tragedy by Thomas KydAccording to one theory, Shakespeare's main source is an earlier play—now lost—known today as the Ur-Hamlet, Possibly written by Thomas Kyd or even William Shakespeare, the Ur-Hamlet would have existed by 1589, and would have incorporated a ghost,[14] Shakespeare's company, the Chamberlain's Men, may have purchased that play and performed a version for some time, which Shakespeare reworked,[15] However, since no copy of the Ur-Hamlet has survived, it is impossible to compare its language and style with the known works of any of its putative authors, Consequently, there is no direct evidence that Kyd wrote it, nor any evidence that the play was not an early version of Hamlet by Shakespeare himself, This latter idea—placing Hamlet far earlier than the generally accepted date, with a much longer period of development—has attracted some support,[b] The upshot is that scholars cannot assert with any confidence how much material Shakespeare took from the Ur-Hamlet (if it even existed), how much from Belleforest or Saxo, and how much from other contemporary sources (such as Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy), No clear evidence exists that Shakespeare made any direct references to Saxo's version, However, elements of Belleforest's version which are not in Saxo's story do appear in Shakespeare's play, Whether Shakespeare took these from Belleforest directly or through the Ur-Hamlet remains unclear,[22] Most scholars reject the idea that Hamlet is in any way connected with Shakespeare's only son, Hamnet Shakespeare, who died in 1596 at age eleven, Conventional wisdom holds that Hamlet is too obviously connected to legend, and the name Hamnet was quite popular at the time,[23] However, Stephen Greenblatt has argued that the coincidence of the names and Shakespeare's grief for the loss of his son may lie at the heart of the tragedy, He notes that the name of Hamnet Sadler, the Stratford neighbour after whom Hamnet was named, was often written as Hamlet Sadler and that, in the loose orthography of the time, the names were virtually interchangeable,[24][25] Scholars have often speculated that Hamlet's Polonius might have been inspired by William Cecil (Lord Burghley)—Lord High Treasurer and chief counsellor to Queen Elizabeth I, E, K, Chambers suggested Polonius's advice to Laertes may have echoed Burghley's to his son Robert Cecil,[26] John Dover Wilson thought it almost certain that the figure of Polonius caricatured Burghley,[27] A, L, Rowse speculated that Polonius's tedious verbosity might have resembled Burghley's,[28] Lilian Winstanley thought the name Corambis (in the First Quarto) did suggest Cecil and Burghley,[29] Harold Jenkins considers the idea that Polonius might be a caricature of Burghley is a conjecture, and may be based on the similar role they each played at court, and also on the fact that Burghley addressed his Ten Precepts to his son, as in the play Polonius offers "precepts" to Laertes, his son,[30] Jenkins suggests that any personal satire may be found in the name "Polonius", which might point to a Polish or Polonian connection,[31] G, R, Hibbard hypothesised that differences in names (Corambis/Polonius:Montano/Raynoldo) between the First Quarto and other editions might reflect a desire not to offend scholars at Oxford University,[c] Date[edit] John Barrymore as Hamlet (1922)"Any dating of Hamlet must be tentative", cautions the New Cambridge editor, Phillip Edwards,[d] The earliest date estimate relies on Hamlet's frequent allusions to Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, itself dated to mid-1599,[39][40] The latest date estimate is based on an entry, of 26 July 1602, in the Register of the Stationers' Company, indicating that Hamlet was "latelie Acted by the Lo: Chamberleyne his servantes", In 1598, Francis Meres published his Palladis Tamia, a survey of English literature from Chaucer to its present day, within which twelve of Shakespeare's plays are named, Hamlet is not among them, suggesting that it had not yet been written, As Hamlet was very popular, Bernard Lott, the series editor of New Swan, believes it "unlikely that he [Meres] would have overlooked ,,, so significant a piece",[37] The phrase "little eyases"[41] in the First Folio (F1) may allude to the Children of the Chapel, whose popularity in London forced the Globe company into provincial touring,[e] This became known as the War of the Theatres, and supports a 1601 dating,[37] Katherine Duncan-Jones accepts a 1600–1 attribution for the date Hamlet was written, but notes that the Lord Chamberlain's Men, playing Hamlet in the 3000-capacity Globe, were unlikely to be put to any disadvantage by an audience of "barely one hundred" for the Children of the Chapel's equivalent play, Antonio's Revenge; she believes that Shakespeare, confident in the superiority of his own work, was making a playful and charitable allusion to his friend John Marston's very similar piece,[43] A contemporary of Shakespeare's, Gabriel Harvey, wrote a marginal note in his copy of the 1598 edition of Chaucer's works, which some scholars use as dating evidence, Harvey's note says that "the wiser sort" enjoy Hamlet, and implies that the Earl of Essex—executed in February 1601 for rebellion—was still alive, Other scholars consider this inconclusive, Edwards, for example, concludes that the "sense of time is so confused in Harvey's note that it is really of little use in trying to date Hamlet", This is because the same note also refers to Spenser and Watson as if they were still alive ("our flourishing metricians"), but also mentions "Owen's new epigrams", published in 1607,[44] Texts[edit] Title page of the 1605 printing (Q2) of HamletThree early editions of the text have survived, making attempts to establish a single "authentic" text problematic,[45] Each is different from the others:[46][47] First Quarto (Q1): In 1603 the booksellers Nicholas Ling and John Trundell published, and Valentine Simmes printed, the so-called "bad" first quarto, Q1 contains just over half of the text of the later second quarto,Second Quarto (Q2): In 1604 Nicholas Ling published, and James Roberts printed, the second quarto, Some copies are dated 1605, which may indicate a second impression; consequently, Q2 is often dated "1604/5", Q2 is the longest early edition, although it omits about 77 lines found in F1[48] (most likely to avoid offending James I's queen, Anne of Denmark),[49]First Folio (F1): In 1623 Edward Blount and William and Isaac Jaggard published the First Folio, the first edition of Shakespeare's Complete Works,[50]Other folios and quartos were subsequently published—including John Smethwick's Q3, Q4, and Q5 (1611–37)—but these are regarded as derivatives of the first three editions,[50] The first page of the First Folio printing of Hamlet, 1623Early editors of Shakespeare's works, beginning with Nicholas Rowe (1709) and Lewis Theobald (1733), combined material from the two earliest sources of Hamlet available at the time, Q2 and F1, Each text contains material that the other lacks, with many minor differences in wording: scarcely 200 lines are identical in the two, Editors have combined them in an effort to create one "inclusive" text that reflects an imagined "ideal" of Shakespeare's original, Theobald's version became standard for a long time,[51] and his "full text" approach continues to influence editorial practice to the present day, Some contemporary scholarship, however, discounts this approach, instead considering "an authentic Hamlet an unrealisable ideal, ,,, there are texts of this play but no text",[52] The 2006 publication by Arden Shakespeare of different Hamlet texts in different volumes is perhaps evidence of this shifting focus and emphasis,[f] Other editors have continued to argue the need for well-edited editions taking material from all versions of the play, Colin Burrow has argued that "most of us should read a text that is made up by conflating all three versions,,,it's about as likely that Shakespeare wrote: "To be or not to be, ay, there's the point" [in Q1], as that he wrote the works of Francis Bacon, I suspect most people just won't want to read a three-text play,,,[multi-text editions are] a version of the play that is out of touch with the needs of a wider public,"[57] Traditionally, editors of Shakespeare's plays have divided them into five acts, None of the early texts of Hamlet, however, were arranged this way, and the play's division into acts and scenes derives from a 1676 quarto, Modern editors generally follow this traditional division, but consider it unsatisfactory; for example, after Hamlet drags Polonius's body out of Gertrude's bedchamber, there is an act-break[58] after which the action appears to continue uninterrupted,[59] Comparison of the 'To be, or not to be' soliloquy in the first three editions of Hamlet, showing the varying quality of the text in the Bad Quarto, the Good Quarto and the First FolioThe discovery in 1823 of Q1—whose existence had been quite unsuspected—caused considerable interest and excitement, raising many questions of editorial practice and interpretation, Scholars immediately identified apparent deficiencies in Q1, which was instrumental in the development of the concept of a Shakespearean "bad quarto",[60] Yet Q1 has value: it contains stage directions (such as Ophelia entering with a lute and her hair down) that reveal actual stage practices in a way that Q2 and F1 do not; it contains an entire scene (usually labelled 4,6)[61] that does not appear in either Q2 or F1; and it is useful for comparison with the later editions, The major deficiency of Q1 is in the language: particularly noticeable in the opening lines of the famous "To be, or not to be" soliloquy: "To be, or not to be, aye there's the point, / To die, to sleep, is that all? Aye all: / No, to sleep, to dream, aye marry there it goes," However, the scene order is more coherent, without the problems of Q2 and F1 of Hamlet seeming to resolve something in one scene and enter the next drowning in indecision, New Cambridge editor Kathleen Irace has noted that "Q1's more linear plot design is certainly easier […] to follow […] but the simplicity of the Q1 plot arrangement eliminates the alternating plot elements that correspond to Hamlet's shifts in mood,"[62] Q1 is considerably shorter than Q2 or F1 and may be a memorial reconstruction of the play as Shakespeare's company performed it, by an actor who played a minor role (most likely Marcellus),[63] Scholars disagree whether the reconstruction was pirated or authorised, It is suggested by Irace that Q1 is an abridged version intended especially for travelling productions, thus the question of length may be considered as separate from issues of poor textual quality,[56][64] Editing Q1 thus poses problems in whether or not to "correct" differences from Q2 and F, Irace, in her introduction to Q1, wrote that "I have avoided as many other alterations as possible, because the differences,,,are especially intriguing,,,I have recorded a selection of Q2/F readings in the collation," The idea that Q1 is not riddled with error but is instead eminently fit for the stage has led to at least 28 different Q1 productions since 1881,[65] Other productions have used the probably superior Q2 and Folio texts, but used Q1's running order, in particular moving the to be or not to be soliloquy earlier,[66] Developing this, some editors such as Jonathan Bate have argued that Q2 may represent "a 'reading' text as opposed to a 'performance' one" of Hamlet, analogous to how modern films released on disc may include deleted scenes: an edition containing all of Shakespeare's material for the play for the pleasure of readers, so not representing the play as it would have been staged,[67][68] Analysis and criticism[edit]Main article: Critical approaches to HamletCritical history[edit]From the early 17th century, the play was famous for its ghost and vivid dramatisation of melancholy and insanity, leading to a procession of mad courtiers and ladies in Jacobean and Caroline drama,[69][70] Though it remained popular with mass audiences, late 17th-century Restoration critics saw Hamlet as primitive and disapproved of its lack of unity and decorum,[71][72] This view changed drastically in the 18th century, when critics regarded Hamlet as a hero—a pure, brilliant young man thrust into unfortunate circumstances,[73] By the mid-18th century, however, the advent of Gothic literature brought psychological and mystical readings, returning madness and the Ghost to the forefront,[74] Not until the late 18th century did critics and performers begin to view Hamlet as confusing and inconsistent, Before then, he was either mad, or not; either a hero, or not; with no in-betweens,[75] These developments represented a fundamental change in literary criticism, which came to focus more on character and less on plot,[76] By the 19th century, Romantic critics valued Hamlet for its internal, individual conflict reflecting the strong contemporary emphasis on internal struggles and inner character in general,[77] Then too, critics st*rted to focus on Hamlet's delay as a character trait, rather than a plot device,[76] This focus on character and internal struggle continued into the 20th century, when criticism branched in several directions, discussed in context and interpretation below, Dramatic structure[edit]Hamlet departed from contemporary dramatic convention in several ways, For example, in Shakespeare's day, plays were usually expected to follow the advice of Aristotle in his Poetics: that a drama should focus on action, not character, In Hamlet, Shakespeare reverses this so that it is through the soliloquies, not the action, that the audience learns Hamlet's motives and thoughts, The play is full of seeming discontinuities and irregularities of action, except in the "bad" quarto, At one point, as in the Gravedigger scene,[a] Hamlet seems resolved to kill Claudius: in the next scene, however, when Claudius appears, he is suddenly tame, Scholars still debate whether these twists are mistakes or intentional additions to add to the play's themes of confusion and duality,[78] Finally, in a period when most plays ran for two hours or so, the full text of Hamlet—Shakespeare's longest play, with 4,042 lines, totalling 29,551 words—often takes over four hours to deliver,[g] Even today the play is rarely performed in its entirety, and has only once been dramatised on film completely, in Kenneth Branagh's 1996 version, Hamlet also contains a favourite Shakespearean device, a play within the play, a literary device or conceit in which one story is told during the action of another story,[h] Language[edit] Hamlet's statement that his dark clothes are the outer sign of his inner grief demonstrates strong rhetorical skill (artist: Eugène Delacroix 1834),Much of Hamlet's language is courtly: elaborate, witty discourse, as recommended by Baldassare Castiglione's 1528 etiquette guide, The Courtier, This work specifically advises royal retainers to amuse their masters with inventive language, Osric and Polonius, especially, seem to respect this injunction, Claudius's speech is rich with rhetorical figures—as is Hamlet's and, at times, Ophelia's—while the language of Horatio, the guards, and the gravediggers is simpler, Claudius's high status is reinforced by using the royal first person plural ("we" or "us"), and anaphora mixed with metaphor to resonate with Greek political speeches,[81] Hamlet is the most skilled of all at rhetoric, He uses highly developed metaphors, stichomythia, and in nine memorable words deploys both anaphora and asyndeton: "to die: to sleep— / To sleep, perchance to dream",[82] In contrast, when occasion demands, he is precise and straightforward, as when he explains his inward emotion to his mother: "But I have that within which passes show, / These but the trappings and the suits of woe",[83] At times, he relies heavily on puns to express his true thoughts while simultaneously concealing them,[84] His "nunnery" remarks[i] to Ophelia are an example of a cruel double meaning as nunnery was Elizabethan slang for brothel,[86][j] His very first words in the play are a pun; when Claudius addresses him as "my cousin Hamlet, and my son", Hamlet says as an aside: "A little more than kin, and less than kind,"[89] An unusual rhetorical device, hendiadys, appears in several places in the play, Examples are found in Ophelia's speech at the end of the nunnery scene: "Th'expectancy and rose of the fair state"[90] and "And I, of ladies most deject and wretched",[91] Many scholars have found it odd that Shakespeare would, seemingly arbitrarily, use this rhetorical form throughout the play, One explanation may be that Hamlet was written later in Shakespeare's life, when he was adept at matching rhetorical devices to characters and the plot, Linguist George T, Wright suggests that hendiadys had been used deliberately to heighten the play's sense of duality and dislocation,[92] Pauline Kiernan argues that Shakespeare changed English drama forever in Hamlet because he "showed how a character's language can often be saying several things at once, and contradictory meanings at that, to reflect fragmented thoughts and disturbed feelings", She gives the example of Hamlet's advice to Ophelia, "get thee to a nunnery", which is simultaneously a reference to a place of chastity and a slang term for a brothel, reflecting Hamlet's confused feelings about female sexuality,[87] Hamlet's soliloquies have also captured the attention of scholars, Hamlet interrupts himself, vocalising either disgust or agreement with himself, and embellishing his own words, He has difficulty expressing himself directly and instead blunts the thrust of his thought with wordplay, It is not until late in the play, after his experience with the pirates, that Hamlet is able to articulate his feelings freely,[93] Context and interpretation[edit]Religious[edit] Ophelia depicts Lady Ophelia's mysterious death by drowning, In the play, the gravediggers discuss whether Ophelia's death was a suicide and whether or not she merits a Christian burial (artist: John Everett Millais 1852),Written at a time of religious upheaval, and in the wake of the English Reformation, the play is alternately Catholic (or piously medieval) and Protestant (or consciously modern), The Ghost describes himself as being in purgatory, and as dying without last rites, This and Ophelia's burial ceremony, which is characteristically Catholic, make up most of the play's Catholic connections, Some scholars have observed that revenge tragedies come from traditionally Catholic countries, such as Spain and Italy; and they present a contradiction, since according to Catholic doctrine the strongest duty is to God and family, Hamlet's conundrum, then, is whether to avenge his father and kill Claudius, or to leave the vengeance to God, as his religion requires,[94][k] Much of the play's Protestantism derives from its location in Denmark—both then and now a predominantly Protestant country,[l] though it is unclear whether the fictional Denmark of the play is intended to mirror this fact, The play does mention Wittenberg, where Hamlet, Horatio, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern attend university, and where Martin Luther first proposed his 95 theses in 1517, effectively ushering in the Protestant Reformation,[95] Philosophical[edit] Philosophical ideas in Hamlet are similar to those of the French writer Michel de Montaigne, a contemporary of Shakespeare's (artist: Thomas de Leu, fl, 1560–1612),Hamlet is often perceived as a philosophical character, expounding ideas that are now described as relativist, existentialist, and sceptical, For example, he expresses a subjectivistic idea when he says to Rosencrantz: "there is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so",[96] The idea that nothing is real except in the mind of the individual finds its roots in the Greek Sophists, who argued that since nothing can be perceived except through the senses—and since all individuals sense, and therefore perceive things differently—there is no absolute truth, but rather only relative truth,[97] The clearest alleged instance of existentialism is in the "to be, or not to be"[98] speech, where Hamlet is thought by some to use "being" to allude to life and action, and "not being" to death and inaction, Hamlet reflects the contemporary scepticism promoted by the French Renaissance humanist Michel de Montaigne,[99] Prior to Montaigne's time, humanists such as Pico della Mirandola had argued that man was God's greatest creation, made in God's image and able to choose his own nature, but this view was subsequently challenged in Montaigne's Essais of 1580, Hamlet's "What a piece of work is a man" could supposedly echo many of Montaigne's ideas, and many scholars have disagreed on whether Shakespeare drew directly from Montaigne or whether both men were simply reacting similarly to the spirit of the times,[100][101][99] Psychoanalytic[edit] Freud suggested that an unconscious Oedipal conflict caused Hamlet's hesitations (artist: Eugène Delacroix 1844),In the first half of the 20th century, when psychoanalysis was at the height of its influence, its concepts were applied to Hamlet, notably by Sigmund Freud, Ernest Jones, and Jacques Lacan, and these studies influenced theatrical productions, In his The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), Freud's analysis st*rts from the premise that "the play is built up on Hamlet's hesitations over fulfilling the task of revenge that is assigned to him; but its text offers no reasons or motives for these hesitations",[102] After reviewing various literary theories, Freud concludes that Hamlet has an "Oedipal desire for his mother and the subsequent guilt [is] preventing him from murdering the man [Claudius] who has done what he unconsciously wanted to do",[103] Confronted with his repressed desires, Hamlet realises that "he himself is literally no better than the sinner whom he is to punish",[102] Freud suggests that Hamlet's apparent "distaste for sexuality"—articulated in his "nunnery" conversation with Ophelia—accords with this interpretation,[102][i] John Barrymore's long-running 1922 performance in New York, directed by Thomas Hopkins, "broke new ground in its Freudian approach to character", in keeping with the post-World War I rebellion against everything Victorian,[104] He had a "blunter intention" than presenting the genteel, sweet prince of 19th-century tradition, imbuing his character with virility and lust,[105] Beginning in 1910, with the publication of "The Œdipus-Complex as an Explanation of Hamlet's Mystery: A Study in Motive"[106] Ernest Jones—a psychoanalyst and Freud's biographer—developed Freud's ideas into a series of essays that culminated in his book Hamlet and Oedipus (1949), Influenced by Jones's psychoanalytic approach, several productions have portrayed the "closet scene", where Hamlet confronts his mother in her private quarters, in a sexual light,[m] In this reading, Hamlet is disgusted by his mother's "incestuous" relationship with Claudius while simultaneously fearful of killing him, as this would clear Hamlet's path to his mother's bed, Ophelia's madness after her father's death may also be read through the Freudian lens: as a reaction to the death of her hoped-for lover, her father, She is overwhelmed by having her unfulfilled love for him so abruptly terminated and drifts into the oblivion of insanity,[108][109] In 1937, Tyrone Guthrie directed Laurence Olivier in a Jones-inspired Hamlet at The Old Vic,[110] Olivier later used some of these same ideas in his 1948 film version of the play, In the 1950s, Lacan's structuralist theories about Hamlet were first presented in a series of seminars given in Paris and later published in "Desire and the Interpretation of Desire in Hamlet", Lacan postulated that the human psyche is determined by structures of language and that the linguistic structures of Hamlet shed light on human desire,[103] His point of departure is Freud's Oedipal theories, and the central theme of mourning that runs through Hamlet,[103] In Lacan's analysis, Hamlet unconsciously assumes the role of phallus—the cause of his inaction—and is increasingly distanced from reality "by mourning, fantasy, narcissism and psychosis", which create holes (or lack) in the real, imaginary, and symbolic aspects of his psyche,[103] Lacan's theories influenced literary criticism of Hamlet because of his alternative vision of the play and his use of semantics to explore the play's psychological landscape,[103] In the Bloom's Shakespeare Through the Ages volume on Hamlet, editors Bloom and Foster express a conviction that the intentions of Shakespeare in portraying the character of Hamlet in the play exceeded the capacity of the Freudian Oedipus complex to completely encompass the extent of characteristics depicted in Hamlet throughout the tragedy: "For once, Freud regressed in attempting to fasten the Oedipus Complex upon Hamlet: it will not stick, and merely showed that Freud did better than T,S, Eliot, who preferred Coriolanus to Hamlet, or so he said, Who can believe Eliot, when he exposes his own Hamlet Complex by declaring the play to be an aesthetic failure?"[111] The book also notes James Joyce's interpretation, stating that he "did far better in the Library Scene of Ulysses, where Stephen marvelously credits Shakespeare, in this play, with universal fatherhood while accurately implying that Hamlet is fatherless, thus opening a pragmatic gap between Shakespeare and Hamlet,"[111] Joshua Rothman has written in The New Yorker that "we tell the story wrong when we say that Freud used the idea of the Oedipus complex to understand Hamlet", Rothman suggests that "it was the other way around: Hamlet helped Freud understand, and perhaps even invent, psychoanalysis", He concludes, "The Oedipus complex is a misnomer, It should be called the 'Hamlet complex',"[112] In the essay "Hamlet Made Simple", David P, Gontar turns the tables on the psychoanalysts by suggesting that Claudius is not a symbolic father figure but actually Prince Hamlet's biological father, The hesitation in killing Claudius results from an unwillingness on Hamlet's part to slay his real father, If Hamlet is the biological son of Claudius, that explains many things, Hamlet doesn't become King of Denmark on the occasion of the King's death inasmuch as it is an open secret in court that he is Claudius's biological son, and as such he is merely a court bast*rd not in the line of succession, He is angry with his mother because of her long standing affair with a man Hamlet hates, and Hamlet must face the fact that he has been sired by the man he loathes, That point overturns T, S, Eliot's complaint that the play is a failure for not furnishing an "objective correlative" to account for Hamlet's rage at his mother, Gontar suggests that if the reader assumes that Hamlet is not who he seems to be, the objective correlative becomes apparent, Hamlet is suicidal in the first soliloquy not because his mother quickly remarries but because of her adulterous affair with the despised Claudius which makes Hamlet his son, Finally, the Ghost's confirmation of an alternative fatherhood for Hamlet is a fabrication that gives the Prince a motive for revenge,[113] Feminist[edit] Ophelia is distracted by grief,[114] Feminist critics have explored her descent into madness (artist: Henrietta Rae 1890),In the 20th century, feminist critics opened up new approaches to Gertrude and Ophelia, New Historicist and cultural materialist critics examined the play in its historical context, attempting to piece together its original cultural environment,[115] They focused on the gender system of early modern England, pointing to the common trinity of maid, wife, or widow, with whores outside of that stereotype, In this analysis, the essence of Hamlet is the central character's changed perception of his mother as a whore because of her failure to remain faithful to Old Hamlet, In consequence, Hamlet loses his faith in all women, treating Ophelia as if she too were a whore and dishonest with Hamlet, Ophelia, by some critics, can be seen as honest and fair; however, it is virtually impossible to link these two traits, since 'fairness' is an outward trait, while 'honesty' is an inward trait,[116] Hamlet tries to show his mother Gertrude his father's ghost (artist: Nicolai A, Abildgaard, ca, 1778),Carolyn Heilbrun's 1957 essay "The Character of Hamlet's Mother" defends Gertrude, arguing that the text never hints that Gertrude knew of Claudius poisoning King Hamlet, This analysis has been praised by many feminist critics, combating what is, by Heilbrun's argument, centuries' worth of misinterpretation, By this account, Gertrude's worst crime is of pragmatically marrying her brother-in-law in order to avoid a power vacuum, This is borne out by the fact that King Hamlet's ghost tells Hamlet to leave Gertrude out of Hamlet's revenge, to leave her to heaven, an arbitrary mercy to grant to a conspirator to murder,[117][118][119] This view has not been without objection from some critics,[n] Ophelia has also been defended by feminist critics, most notably Elaine Showalter,[121] Ophelia is surrounded by powerful men: her father, brother, and Hamlet, All three disappear: Laertes leaves, Hamlet abandons her, and Polonius dies, Conventional theories had argued that without these three powerful men making decisions for her, Ophelia is driven into madness,[122] Feminist theorists argue that she goes mad with guilt because, when Hamlet kills her father, he has fulfilled her sexual desire to have Hamlet kill her father so they can be together, Showalter points out that Ophelia has become the symbol of the distraught and hysterical woman in modern culture,[123] Influence[edit]See also Literary influence of HamletHamlet is one of the most quoted works in the English language, and is often included on lists of the world's greatest literature,[o] As such, it reverberates through the writing of later centuries, Academic Laurie Osborne identifies the direct influence of Hamlet in numerous modern narratives, and divides them into four main categories: fictional accounts of the play's composition, simplifications of the story for young readers, stories expanding the role of one or more characters, and narratives featuring performances of the play,[124] Actors before Hamlet by Władysław Czachórski (1875), National Museum in Warsaw,Henry Fielding's Tom Jones, published about 1749, describes a visit to Hamlet by Tom Jones and Mr Partridge, with similarities to the "play within a play",[125] In contrast, Goethe's Bildungsroman Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, written between 1776 and 1796, not only has a production of Hamlet at its core but also creates parallels between the Ghost and Wilhelm Meister's dead father,[125] In the early 1850s, in Pierre, Herman Melville focuses on a Hamlet-like character's long development as a writer,[125] Ten years later, Dickens's Great Expectations contains many Hamlet-like plot elements: it is driven by revenge-motivated actions, contains ghost-like characters (Abel Magwitch and Miss Havisham), and focuses on the hero's guilt,[125] Academic Alexander Welsh notes that Great Expectations is an "autobiographical novel" and "anticipates psychoanalytic readings of Hamlet itself",[126] About the same time, George Eliot's The Mill on the Floss was published, introducing Maggie Tulliver "who is explicitly compared with Hamlet"[127] though "with a reputation for sanity",[128] L, Frank Baum's first published short story was "They Played a New Hamlet" (1895), When Baum had been touring New York State in the title role, the actor playing the ghost fell through the floorboards, and the rural audience thought it was part of the show and demanded that the actor repeat the fall, because they thought it was funny, Baum would later recount the actual story in an article, but the short story is told from the point of view of the actor playing the Ghost, In the 1920s, James Joyce managed "a more upbeat version" of Hamlet—stripped of obsession and revenge—in Ulysses, though its main parallels are with Homer's Odyssey,[125] In the 1990s, two novelists were explicitly influenced by Hamlet, In Angela Carter's Wise Children, To be or not to be[129] is reworked as a song and dance routine, and Iris Murdoch's The Black Prince has Oedipal themes and murder intertwined with a love affair between a Hamlet-obsessed writer, Bradley Pearson, and the daughter of his rival,[127] There is the story of the woman who read Hamlet for the first time and said, "I don't see why people admire that play so, It is nothing but a bunch of quotations strung together," —Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Guide to Shakespeare, pg vii, Avenal Books, 1970 Performance history[edit]Main articles: Hamlet in performance and Shakespeare in performanceThe day we see Hamlet die in the theatre, something of him dies for us, He is dethroned by the spectre of an actor, and we shall never be able to keep the usurper out of our dreams, Maurice Maeterlinck in La Jeune Belgique (1890),[130]Shakespeare's day to the Interregnum[edit]Shakespeare almost certainly wrote the role of Hamlet for Richard Burbage, He was the chief tragedian of the Lord Chamberlain's Men, with a capacious memory for lines and a wide emotional range,[131][132][p] Judging by the number of reprints, Hamlet appears to have been Shakespeare's fourth most popular play during his lifetime—only Henry IV Part 1, Richard III and Pericles eclipsed it,[2] Shakespeare provides no clear indication of when his play is set; however, as Elizabethan actors performed at the Globe in contemporary dress on minimal sets, this would not have affected the staging,[136] Firm evidence for specific early performances of the play is scant, What is known is that the crew of the ship Red Dragon, anchored off Sierra Leone, performed Hamlet in September 1607;[137][138][139] that the play toured in Germany within five years of Shakespeare's death;[139] and that it was performed before James I in 1619 and Charles I in 1637,[140] Oxford editor George Hibbard argues that, since the contemporary literature contains many allusions and references to Hamlet (only Falstaff is mentioned more, from Shakespeare), the play was surely performed with a frequency that the historical record misses,[141] All theatres were closed down by the Puritan government during the Interregnum,[142] Even during this time, however, playlets known as drolls were often performed illegally, including one called The Grave-Makers based on Act 5, Scene 1 of Hamlet,[143] Restoration and 18th century[edit] Title page and frontispiece for Hamlet, Prince of Denmark: A Tragedy, As it is now acted at the Theatres-Royal in Drury-Lane and Covent-Garden, London, 1776The play was revived early in the Restoration, When the existing stock of pre-civil war plays was divided between the two newly created patent theatre companies, Hamlet was the only Shakespearean favourite that Sir William Davenant's Duke's Company secured,[144] It became the first of Shakespeare's plays to be presented with movable flats painted with generic scenery behind the proscenium arch of Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre,[q] This new stage convention highlighted the frequency with which Shakespeare shifts dramatic location, encouraging the recurrent criticisms of his violation of the neoclassical principle of maintaining a unity of place,[146] Davenant cast Thomas Betterton in the eponymous role, and he continued to play the Dane until he was 74,[147] David Garrick at Drury Lane produced a version that adapted Shakespeare heavily; he declared: "I had sworn I would not leave the stage till I had rescued that noble play from all the rubbish of the fifth act, I have brought it forth without the grave-digger's trick, Osrick, & the fencing match",[r] The first actor known to have played Hamlet in North America is Lewis Hallam, Jr,, in the American Company's production in Philadelphia in 1759,[149] David Garrick's iconic hand gesture expresses Hamlet's shock at the first sight of the Ghost (artist: unknown),John Philip Kemble made his Drury Lane debut as Hamlet in 1783,[150] His performance was said to be 20 minutes longer than anyone else's, and his lengthy pauses provoked the suggestion by Richard Brinsley Sheridan that "music should be played between the words",[151] Sarah Siddons was the first actress known to play Hamlet; many women have since played him as a breeches role, to great acclaim,[152] In 1748, Alexander Sumarokov wrote a Russian adaptation that focused on Prince Hamlet as the embodiment of an opposition to Claudius's tyranny—a treatment that would recur in Eastern European versions into the 20th century,[153] In the years following America's independence, Thomas Apthorpe Cooper, the young nation's leading tragedian, performed Hamlet among other plays at the Chestnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia, and at the Park Theatre in New York, Although chided for "acknowledging acquaintances in the audience" and "inadequate memorisation of his lines", he became a national celebrity,[154] 19th century[edit] A poster, ca, 1884, for an American production of Hamlet (st*rring Thomas W, Keene), showing several of the key scenesFrom around 1810 to 1840, the best-known Shakespearean performances in the United States were tours by leading London actors—including George Frederick Cooke, Junius Brutus Booth, Edmund Kean, William Charles Macready, and Charles Kemble, Of these, Booth remained to make his career in the States, fathering the nation's most notorious actor, John Wilkes Booth (who later assassinated Abraham Lincoln), and its most famous Hamlet, Edwin Booth,[155] Edwin Booth's Hamlet at the Fifth Avenue Theatre in 1875 was described as "… the dark, sad, dreamy, mysterious hero of a poem, … [acted] in an ideal manner, as far removed as possible from the plane of actual life",[156][157] Booth played Hamlet for 100 nights in the 1864/5 season at The Winter Garden Theatre, inaugurating the era of long-run Shakespeare in America,[157] In the United Kingdom, the actor-managers of the Victorian era (including Kean, Samuel Phelps, Macready, and Henry Irving) staged Shakespeare in a grand manner, with elaborate scenery and costumes,[158] The tendency of actor-managers to emphasise the importance of their own central character did not always meet with the critics' approval, George Bernard Shaw's praise for Johnston Forbes-Robertson's performance contains a sideswipe at Irving: "The story of the play was perfectly intelligible, and quite took the attention of the audience off the principal actor at moments, What is the Lyceum coming to?"[s] In London, Edmund Kean was the first Hamlet to abandon the regal finery usually associated with the role in favour of a plain costume, and he is said to have surprised his audience by playing Hamlet as serious and introspective,[160] In st*rk contrast to earlier opulence, William Poel's 1881 production of the Q1 text was an early attempt at reconstructing the Elizabethan theatre's austerity; his only backdrop was a set of red curtains,[49][161] Sarah Bernhardt played the prince in her popular 1899 London production, In contrast to the "effeminate" view of the central character that usually accompanied a female casting, she described her character as "manly and resolute, but nonetheless thoughtful ,,, [he] thinks before he acts, a trait indicative of great strength and great spiritual power",[t] In France, Charles Kemble initiated an enthusiasm for Shakespeare; and leading members of the Romantic movement such as Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas saw his 1827 Paris performance of Hamlet, particularly admiring the madness of Harriet Smithson's Ophelia,[163] In Germany, Hamlet had become so assimilated by the mid-19th century that Ferdinand Freiligrath declared that "Germany is Hamlet",[164] From the 1850s, the Parsi theatre tradition in India transformed Hamlet into folk performances, with dozens of songs added,[165] 20th century[edit] In 1908, Edward Gordon Craig designed the MAT production of Hamlet (1911–12), The isolated figure of Hamlet reclines in the dark foreground, while behind a gauze the rest of the court are absorbed in a bright, unified golden pyramid emanating from Claudius, Craig's famous screens are flat against the back in this scene,Apart from some western troupes' 19th-century visits, the first professional performance of Hamlet in Japan was Otojirō Kawakami's 1903 Shimpa ("new school theatre") adaptation,[166] Shoyo Tsubouchi translated Hamlet and produced a performance in 1911 that blended Shingeki ("new drama") and Kabuki styles,[166] This hybrid-genre reached its peak in Tsuneari Fukuda's 1955 Hamlet,[166] In 1998, Yukio Ninagawa produced an acclaimed version of Hamlet in the style of Nō theatre, which he took to London,[167] Konstantin Stanislavski and Edward Gordon Craig—two of the 20th century's most influential theatre practitioners—collaborated on the Moscow Art Theatre's seminal production of 1911–12,[u] While Craig favoured stylised abstraction, Stanislavski, armed with his 'system,' explored psychological motivation,[169] Craig conceived of the play as a symbolist monodrama, offering a dream-like vision as seen through Hamlet's eyes alone,[v] This was most evident in the staging of the first court scene,[w][x] The most famous aspect of the production is Craig's use of large, abstract screens that altered the size and shape of the acting area for each scene, representing the character's state of mind spatially or visualising a dramaturgical progression,[175] The production attracted enthusiastic and unprecedented worldwide attention for the theatre and placed it "on the cultural map for Western Europe",[176][177] Hamlet is often played with contemporary political overtones, Leopold Jessner's 1926 production at the Berlin Staatstheater portrayed Claudius's court as a parody of the corrupt and fawning court of Kaiser Wilhelm,[178] In Poland, the number of productions of Hamlet has tended to increase at times of political unrest, since its political themes (suspected crimes, coups, surveillance) can be used to comment on a contemporary situation,[179] Similarly, Czech directors have used the play at times of occupation: a 1941 Vinohrady Theatre production "emphasised, with due caution, the helpless situation of an intellectual attempting to endure in a ruthless environment",[180][181] In China, performances of Hamlet often have political significance: Gu Wuwei's 1916 The Usurper of State Power, an amalgam of Hamlet and Macbeth, was an attack on Yuan Shikai's attempt to overthrow the republic,[182] In 1942, Jiao Juyin directed the play in a Confucian temple in Sichuan Province, to which the government had retreated from the advancing Japanese,[182] In the immediate aftermath of the collapse of the protests at Tiananmen Square, Lin Zhaohua staged a 1990 Hamlet in which the prince was an ordinary individual tortured by a loss of meaning, In this production, the actors playing Hamlet, Claudius and Polonius exchanged roles at crucial moments in the performance, including the moment of Claudius's death, at which point the actor mainly associated with Hamlet fell to the ground,[182] Mignon Nevada as Ophelia, 1910Notable stagings in London and New York include Barrymore's 1925 production at the Haymarket; it influenced subsequent performances by John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier,[183][184] Gielgud played the central role many times: his 1936 New York production ran for 132 performances, leading to the accolade that he was "the finest interpreter of the role since Barrymore",[185] Although "posterity has treated Maurice Evans less kindly", throughout the 1930s and 1940s he was regarded by many as the leading interpreter of Shakespeare in the United States and in the 1938/9 season he presented Broadway's first uncut Hamlet, running four and a half hours,[186] Evans later performed a highly truncated version of the play that he played for South Pacific war zones during World War II which made the prince a more decisive character, The staging, known as the "G,I, Hamlet," was produced on Broadway for 131 performances in 1945/46,[187] Olivier's 1937 performance at The Old Vic was popular with audiences but not with critics, with James Agate writing in a famous review in The Sunday Times, "Mr, Olivier does not speak poetry badly, He does not speak it at all,",[188] In 1937 Tyrone Guthrie directed the play at Elsinore, Denmark with Laurence Olivier as Hamlet and Vivien Leigh as Ophelia, In 1963, Olivier directed Peter O'Toole as Hamlet in the inaugural performance of the newly formed National Theatre; critics found resonance between O'Toole's Hamlet and John Osborne's hero, Jimmy Porter, from Look Back in Anger,[189][190] Richard Burton received his third Tony Award nomination when he played his second Hamlet, his first under John Gielgud's direction, in 1964 in a production that holds the record for the longest run of the play in Broadway history (137 performances), The performance was set on a bare stage, conceived to appear like a dress rehearsal, with Burton in a black v-neck sweater, and Gielgud himself tape-recorded the voice for the Ghost (which appeared as a looming shadow), It was immortalised both on record and on a film that played in US theatres for a week in 1964 as well as being the subject of books written by cast members William Redfield and Richard L, Sterne, Other New York portrayals of Hamlet of note include that of Ralph Fiennes's in 1995 (for which he won the Tony Award for Best Actor) – which ran, from first preview to closing night, a total of one hundred performances, About the Fiennes Hamlet Vincent Canby wrote in The New York Times that it was "… not one for literary sleuths and Shakespeare scholars, It respects the play, but it doesn't provide any new material for arcane debates on what it all means, Instead it's an intelligent, beautifully read …"[191] Stacy Keach played the role with an all-st*r cast at Joseph Papp's Delacorte Theatre in the early 70s, with Colleen Dewhurst's Gertrude, James Earl Jones's King, Barnard Hughes's Polonius, Sam Waterston's Laertes and Raúl Juliá's Osric, Sam Waterston later played the role himself at the Delacorte for the New York Shakespeare Festival, and the show transferred to the Vivian Beaumont Theatre in 1975 (Stephen Lang played Bernardo and other roles), Stephen Lang's Hamlet for the Roundabout Theatre Company in 1992 received mixed reviews[192][193] and ran for sixty-one performances, David Warner played the role with the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in 1965, William Hurt (at Circle Rep Off-Broadway, memorably performing "To Be Or Not to Be" while lying on the floor), Jon Voight at Rutgers, and Christopher Walken (fiercely) at Stratford CT have all played the role, as has Diane Venora at the Public Theatre, Off Broadway, the Riverside Shakespeare Company mounted an uncut first folio Hamlet in 1978 at Columbia University, with a playing time of under three hours,[194] In fact, Hamlet is the most produced Shakespeare play in New York theatre history, with sixty-four recorded productions on Broadway, and an untold number Off Broadway,[y] Ian Charleson performed Hamlet from 9 October to 13 November 1989, in Richard Eyre's production at the Olivier Theatre, replacing Daniel Day-Lewis, who had abandoned the production, Seriously ill from AIDS at the time, Charleson died eight weeks after his last performance, Fellow actor and friend, Sir Ian McKellen, said that Charleson played Hamlet so well it was as if he had rehearsed the role all his life; McKellen called it "the perfect Hamlet",[195][196] The performance garnered other major accolades as well, some critics echoing McKellen in calling it the definitive Hamlet performance,[197] 21st century[edit] Benedict Cumberbatch began playing Hamlet at the Barbican Theatre st*rting in August 2015,Hamlet continues to be staged regularly, with actors such as Simon Russell Beale, Ben Whishaw, David Tennant, Angela Winkler, Samuel West, Christopher Eccleston, Maxine Peake, Rory Kinnear, Christian Camargo and Andrew Scott, performing the lead role,[198][199][200][201] In May 2009, Hamlet opened with Jude Law in the title role at the Donmar Warehouse West End season at Wyndham's Theatre, The production officially opened on 3 June and ran through 22 August 2009,[202][203] A further production of the play ran at Elsinore Castle in Denmark from 25–30 August 2009,[204] The Jude Law Hamlet then moved to Broadway, and ran for 12 weeks at the Broadhurst Theatre in New York,[205][206] In 2013, American actor Paul Giamatti won critical acclaim for his performance on stage in the title role of Hamlet, performed in modern dress, at the Yale Repertory Theater, at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut,[207] The Globe Theatre of London initiated a project in 2014 to perform Hamlet in every country in the world in the space of two years, Titled Globe to Globe Hamlet, it began its tour on 23 April 2014, the 450th anniversary of Shakespeare's birth, As of 23 February 2016, the project had performed in 170 different countries,[208] Benedict Cumberbatch played the role for a 12-week run in a production at the Barbican Theatre, opening on 25 August 2015, The play was produced by Sonia Friedman, and directed by Lyndsey Turner, with set design by Es Devlin, It was called the "most in-demand theatre production of all time", The entire run sold out in seven hours after tickets went on sale 11 August 2014, more than a year before the play opened,[209][210] Film and TV performances[edit]Main article: Hamlet on screenThe earliest screen success for Hamlet was Sarah Bernhardt's five-minute film of the fencing scene,[z] which was produced in 1900, The film was an early attempt at combining sound and film, music and words were recorded on phonograph records, to be played along with the film,[212] Silent versions were released in 1907, 1908, 1910, 1913, 1917, and 1920,[212] In the 1921 film Hamlet, Danish actress Asta Nielsen played the role of Hamlet as a woman who spends her life disguised as a man,[212] Laurence Olivier's 1948 moody black-and-white Hamlet won best picture and best actor Oscars, and is still, as of 2015, the only Shakespeare film to have done so, His interpretation stressed the Oedipal overtones of the play, and cast 28-year-old Eileen Herlie as Hamlet's mother, opposite himself, at 41, as Hamlet,[213] In 1953, actor Jack Manning performed the play in 15-minute segments over two weeks in the short-lived late night DuMont series Monodrama Theater, New York Times TV critic Jack Gould praised Manning's performance as Hamlet,[214] Shakespeare experts Sir John Gielgud and Kenneth Branagh consider the definitive rendition of the Bard's tragic tale[215] to be the 1964 Russian film Gamlet (Russian: Гамлет) based on a translation by Boris Pasternak and directed by Grigori Kozintsev, with a score by Dmitri Shostakovich,[216] Innokenty Smoktunovsky was cast in the role of Hamlet; he was particularly praised by Sir Laurence Olivier, John Gielgud directed Richard Burton in a Broadway production at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre in 1964–5, the longest-running Hamlet in the U,S, to date, A live film of the production was produced using "Electronovision", a method of recording a live performance with multiple video cameras and converting the image to film,[217] Eileen Herlie repeated her role from Olivier's film version as the Queen, and the voice of Gielgud was heard as the Ghost, The Gielgud/Burton production was also recorded complete and released on LP by Columbia Masterworks, Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet, with Yorick's skull (photographer: James Lafayette, c, 1885–1900),The first Hamlet in color was a 1969 film directed by Tony Richardson with Nicol Williamson as Hamlet and Marianne Faithfull as Ophelia, In 1990 Franco Zeffirelli, whose Shakespeare films have been described as "sensual rather than cerebral",[218] cast Mel Gibson—then famous for the Mad Max and Lethal Weapon movies—in the title role of his 1990 version; Glenn Close—then famous as the psychotic "other woman" in Fatal Attraction—played Gertrude,[219] and Paul Scofield played Hamlet's father, In contrast to Zeffirelli, whose Hamlet was heavily cut, Kenneth Branagh adapted, directed, and st*rred in a 1996 version containing every word of Shakespeare's play, combining the material from the F1 and Q2 texts, Branagh's Hamlet runs for around four hours,[220] Branagh set the film with late 19th-century costuming and furnishings;[221] and Blenheim Palace, built in the early 18th century, became Elsinore Castle in the external scenes, The film is structured as an epic and makes frequent use of flashbacks to highlight elements not made explicit in the play: Hamlet's sexual relationship with Kate Winslet's Ophelia, for example, or his childhood affection for Yorick (played by Ken Dodd),[222] In 2000, Michael Almereyda's Hamlet set the story in contemporary Manhattan, with Ethan Hawke playing Hamlet as a film student, Claudius (played by Kyle MacLachlan) became the CEO of "Denmark Corporation", having taken over the company by killing his brother,[223] Notable made-for-television productions of Hamlet include those st*rring Christopher Plummer (1964), Richard Chamberlain (1970; Hallmark Hall of Fame), Derek Jacobi (1980; Royal Shakespeare Company, BBC), Kevin Kline (1990), Campbell Scott (2000) and David Tennant (2009; Royal Shakespeare Company, BBC),[citation needed] There have also been several films that transposed the general storyline of Hamlet or elements thereof to other settings, There have also been many films which included performances of scenes from Hamlet as a play-within-a-film, Stage pastiches[edit]There have been various "derivative works" of Hamlet which recast the story from the point of view of other characters, or transpose the story into a new setting or act as sequels or prequels to Hamlet, This section is limited to those written for the stage, The best-known is Tom Stoppard's 1966 play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, which retells many of the events of the story from the point of view of the characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and gives them a backstory of their own, Several times since 1995, the American Shakespeare Center has mounted repertories that included both Hamlet and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, with the same actors performing the same roles in each; in their 2001 and 2009 seasons the two plays were "directed, designed, and rehearsed together to make the most out of the shared scenes and situations",[224] W,S, Gilbert wrote a short comic play titled Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, in Hamlet's play is presented as a tragedy written by Claudius in his youth of which he is greatly embarrassed, Through the chaos triggered by Hamlet's staging of it, Guildenstern helps Rosencrantz vie with Hamlet to make Ophelia his bride,[225] Lee Blessing's Fortinbras is a comical sequel to Hamlet in which all the deceased characters come back as ghosts, The New York Times reviewed the play, saying it is "scarcely more than an extended comedy sketch, lacking the portent and linguistic complexity of Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Fortinbras operates on a far less ambitious plane, but it is a ripping yarn and offers Keith Reddin a role in which he can commit comic mayhem,"[192] Heiner Müller's postmodern drama The Hamletmachine was first produced in Paris by director Jean Jourdheuil in 1979, This play in turn inspired Giannina Braschi's dramatic novel United States of Banana, which takes place at the Statue of Liberty in post-9/11 New York City, In it, Hamlet, Zarathustra, and Giannina are on a quest to free the Puerto Rican prisoner Segismundo from the dungeon of Liberty, where Segismundo's father, Basilio, the King of the United States of Banana, imprisoned him for the crime of having been born, The work intertwines the plots and characters of Pedro Calderón de la Barca's Life Is a Dream with Shakespeare's Hamlet,[citation needed] Caridad Svich's 12 Ophelias (a play with broken songs) includes elements of the story of Hamlet but focuses on Ophelia, In Svich's play, Ophelia is resurrected and rises from a pool of water, after her death in Hamlet, The play is a series of scenes and songs, and was first staged at public swimming pool in Brooklyn,[226] Heidi Weiss of the Chicago Sun-Times said of the play, "Far more surreal and twisted than Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, 12 Ophelias is a reminder of just how morphable and mysterious Shakespeare's original remains,"[citation needed] Other characters are renamed: Hamlet is Rude Boy, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are androgynous helpers known simply as R and G, Gertrude is the madam of a brothel, Horatio becomes H and continues to be Hamlet's best friend/confidante, and a chorus of Ophelias serves as guide, A new character, Mina, is introduced, and she is a whore in Gertrude's brothel,[citation needed] David Davalos' Wittenberg is a "tragical-comical-historical" prequel to Hamlet that depicts the Danish prince as a student at Wittenberg University (now known as the University of Halle-Wittenberg), where he is torn between the conflicting teachings of his mentors John Faustus and Martin Luther, The New York Times reviewed the play, saying, "Mr, Davalos has molded a daft campus comedy out of this unlikely convergence,"[227] and nytheatre's review said the playwright "has imagined a fascinating alternate reality, and quite possibly, given the fictional Hamlet a back story that will inform the role for the future,"[228] Mad Boy Chronicle by Canadian playwright Michael O'Brien is a dark comedy loosely based on Hamlet, set in Viking Denmark in 999 A,D, It purports to be the "original story", It was called "audacious, hilarious, wild, exhilarating " (Calgary Herald) and "lusty, sprawling, wickedly funny" (NOW Magazine), The play premiered at Alberta Theatre Projects directed by Bob White, was published by Playwrights Canada Press and nominated for the 1996 Governor General's Award for English-language drama,[citation needed] Notes and references[edit]Notes[edit]^ Jump up to: a b The "Gravedigger Scene" is in Hamlet 5,1,1–205,[6]Jump up ^ In his 1936 book The Problem of Hamlet: A Solution Andrew Cairncross asserted that the Hamlet referred to in 1589 was written by Shakespeare;[16] Peter Alexander,[17] Eric Sams[18] and, more recently, Harold Bloom[19][20] have agreed, However Harold Jenkins, the editor of the second series Arden edition of the play, considers that there are not grounds for thinking that the Ur-Hamlet is an early work by Shakespeare, which he then rewrote,[21]Jump up ^ Polonius was close to the Latin name for Robert Pullen, founder of Oxford University, and Reynaldo too close for safety to John Rainolds, the President of Corpus Christi College,[32]Jump up ^ MacCary suggests 1599 or 1600;[33] James Shapiro offers late 1600 or early 1601;[34] Wells and Taylor suggest that the play was written in 1600 and revised later;[35] the New Cambridge editor settles on mid-1601;[36] the New Swan Shakespeare Advanced Series editor agrees with 1601;[37] Thompson and Taylor, tentatively ("according to whether one is the more persuaded by Jenkins or by Honigmann") suggest a terminus ad quem of either Spring 1601 or sometime in 1600,[38]Jump up ^ The whole conversation between Rozencrantz, Guildenstern and Hamlet concerning the touring players' departure from the city is at Hamlet F1 2,2,324–360,[42]Jump up ^ The Arden Shakespeare third series published Q2, with appendices, in their first volume,[53] and the F1 and Q1 texts in their second volume,[54] The RSC Shakespeare is the F1 text with additional Q2 passages in an appendix,[55] The New Cambridge Shakespeare series has begun to publish separate volumes for the separate quarto versions that exist of Shakespeare's plays,[56]Jump up ^ Based on the length of the first edition of The Riverside Shakespeare,[79]Jump up ^ Also used in Love's Labour's Lost and A Midsummer Night's Dream,[80]^ Jump up to: a b The "Nunnery Scene" is Hamlet 3,1,87–160,[85]Jump up ^ This interpretation is widely held,[87] but has been challenged by, among others, Harold Jenkins,[88] He finds the evidence for a precedent for that interpretation to be insufficient and inconclusive, and considers the literal interpretation to be better suited to the dramatic context,[88]Jump up ^ In the New Testament, see Romans 12:19: "'vengeance is mine, I will repay' sayeth the Lord",Jump up ^ See the articles on the Reformation in Denmark–Norway and Holstein and Church of Denmark for details,Jump up ^ The "Closet Scene" is Hamlet 3,4,[107]Jump up ^ "There is a recent 'Be kind to Gertrude' fashion among some feminist critics …"[120]Jump up ^ Hamlet has 208 quotations in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations; it takes up 10 of 85 pages dedicated to Shakespeare in the 1986 Bartlett's Familiar Quotations (14th ed, 1968), For examples of lists of the greatest books, see Harvard Classics, Great Books, Great Books of the Western World, Harold Bloom's The Western Canon, St, John's College reading list, and Columbia College Core Curriculum,Jump up ^ Hattaway asserts that "Richard Burbage ,,, played Hieronimo and also Richard III but then was the first Hamlet, Lear, and Othello"[133] and Thomson argues that the identity of Hamlet as Burbage is built into the dramaturgy of several moments of the play: "we will profoundly misjudge the position if we do not recognise that, whilst this is Hamlet talking about the groundlings, it is also Burbage talking to the groundlings",[134] See also Thomson on the first player's beard,[135]Jump up ^ Samuel Pepys records his delight at the novelty of Hamlet "done with scenes",[145]Jump up ^ Letter to Sir William Young, 10 January 1773, quoted by Uglow,[148]Jump up ^ George Bernard Shaw in The Saturday Review on 2 October 1897,[159]Jump up ^ Sarah Bernhardt, in a letter to the London Daily Telegraph,[162]Jump up ^ For more on this production, see the MAT production of Hamlet article, Craig and Stanislavski began planning the production in 1908 but, due to a serious illness of Stanislavski's, it was delayed until December, 1911,[168]Jump up ^ On Craig's relationship to Symbolism, Russian symbolism, and its principles of monodrama in particular, see Taxidou;[170] on Craig's staging proposals, see Innes;[171] on the centrality of the protagonist and his mirroring of the 'authorial self', see Taxidou[172] and Innes,[171]Jump up ^ The "First Court Scene" is Hamlet 1,2,1–128,[173]Jump up ^ A brightly lit, golden pyramid descended from Claudius's throne, representing the feudal hierarchy, giving the illusion of a single, unified mass of bodies, In the dark, shadowy foreground, separated by a gauze, Hamlet lay, as if dreaming, On Claudius's exit-line the figures remained but the gauze was loosened, so that they appeared to melt away as if Hamlet's thoughts had turned elsewhere, For this effect, the scene received an ovation, which was unheard of at the MAT,[174]Jump up ^ According to the Internet Broadway Database Romeo and Juliet is the second most-produced Shakespeare play on Broadway, with thirty-four different productions, followed by Twelfth Night, with thirty,Jump up ^ The "Fencing Scene" is Hamlet 5,2,203–387,[211]References[edit]All references to Hamlet, unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare Q2,[53] Under their referencing system, 3,1,55 means act 3, scene 1, line 55, References to the First Quarto and First Folio are marked Hamlet Q1 and Hamlet F1, respectively, and are taken from the Arden Shakespeare Hamlet: the texts of 1603 and 1623,[54] Their referencing system for Q1 has no act breaks, so 7,115 means scene 7, line 115,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006a, p, 74,^ Jump up to: a b Taylor 2002, p, 18,Jump up ^ Crystal & Crystal 2005, p, 66,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006a, p, 17,Jump up ^ Hamlet 1,4,Jump up ^ Hamlet 5,1,1–205Jump up ^ Saxo & Hansen 1983, pp, 36–7,Jump up ^ Saxo & Hansen 1983, pp, 16–25,Jump up ^ Saxo & Hansen 1983, pp, 5–15,Jump up ^ Saxo & Hansen 1983, pp, 1–5,Jump up ^ Saxo & Hansen 1983, pp, 25–37,Jump up ^ Edwards 1985, pp, 1–2,Jump up ^ Saxo & Hansen 1983, pp, 66–7,Jump up ^ Jenkins 1982, pp, 82–5,Jump up ^ Saxo & Hansen 1983, p, 67,Jump up ^ Cairncross 1975,Jump up ^ Alexander 1964,Jump up ^ Jackson 1991, p, 267,Jump up ^ Bloom 2001, pp, xiii,383,Jump up ^ Bloom 2003, p, 154,Jump up ^ Jenkins 1982, p, 84 n4,Jump up ^ Saxo & Hansen 1983, pp, 66–8,Jump up ^ Saxo & Hansen 1983, p, 6,Jump up ^ Greenblatt 2004a, p, 311,Jump up ^ Greenblatt 2004b,Jump up ^ Chambers 1930, p, 418,Jump up ^ Wilson 1932, p, 104,Jump up ^ Rowse 1963, p, 323,Jump up ^ Winstanley 1977, p, 114,Jump up ^ Cecil 2012,Jump up ^ Jenkins 1982, p, 35,Jump up ^ Hibbard 1987, pp, 74–5,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, p, 13,Jump up ^ Shapiro 2005, p, 341,Jump up ^ Wells & Taylor 1988, p, 653,Jump up ^ Edwards 1985, p, 8,^ Jump up to: a b c Lott 1970, p, xlvi,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006a, p, 58–9,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, pp, 12–13,Jump up ^ Edwards 1985, pp, 5–6,Jump up ^ Hamlet F1 2,2,337,Jump up ^ Hamlet F1 2,2,324–360Jump up ^ Duncan-Jones 2001, pp, 143–9,Jump up ^ Edwards 1985, p, 5,Jump up ^ Hattaway 1987, pp, 13–20,Jump up ^ Chambers 1923b, pp, 486–7,Jump up ^ Halliday 1964, pp, 204–5,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006a, p, 465,^ Jump up to: a b Halliday 1964, p, 204,^ Jump up to: a b Thompson & Taylor 2006a, p, 78,Jump up ^ Hibbard 1987, pp, 22–3,Jump up ^ Hattaway 1987, p, 16,^ Jump up to: a b Thompson & Taylor 2006a,^ Jump up to: a b Thompson & Taylor 2006b,Jump up ^ Bate & Rasmussen 2007, p, 1923,^ Jump up to: a b Irace 1998,Jump up ^ Burrow 2002,Jump up ^ Hamlet 3,4 and 4,1,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006a, pp, 543–52,Jump up ^ Jenkins 1982, p, 14,Jump up ^ Hamlet Q1 14,Jump up ^ Irace 1998, pp, 1–34,Jump up ^ Jackson 1986, p, 171,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006a, pp, 85–6,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006b, pp, 36–9,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006a, pp, 18–19,Jump up ^ Bate & Rasmussen 2008, p, 11,Jump up ^ Crowl 2014, pp, 5–6,Jump up ^ Wofford 1994,Jump up ^ Kirsch 1969,Jump up ^ Vickers 1974a, p, 447,Jump up ^ Vickers 1974b, p, 92,Jump up ^ Wofford 1994, p, 184–5,Jump up ^ Vickers 1974c, p, 5,Jump up ^ Wofford 1994, p, 185,^ Jump up to: a b Wofford 1994, p, 186,Jump up ^ Rosenberg 1992, p, 179,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, pp, 67–72, 84,Jump up ^ Evans 1974,Jump up ^ Kermode 2000, p, 256,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, pp, 84–5,Jump up ^ Hamlet 3,1,63–64,Jump up ^ Hamlet 1,2,85–86,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, pp, 89–90,Jump up ^ Hamlet 3,1,87–160Jump up ^ OED 2005,^ Jump up to: a b Kiernan 2007, p, 34,^ Jump up to: a b Jenkins 1982, pp, 493–5,Jump up ^ Hamlet 2,1,63–65,Jump up ^ Hamlet 3,1,151,Jump up ^ Hamlet 3,1,154,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, pp, 87–8,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, pp, 91–3,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, pp, 37–8,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, p, 38,Jump up ^ Hamlet F1 2,2,247–248,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, pp, 47–8,Jump up ^ Hamlet 3,1,55–87,^ Jump up to: a b MacCary 1998, p, 49,Jump up ^ Knowles 1999, pp, 1049, 1052–3,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006a, pp, 73–4,^ Jump up to: a b c Freud 1900, pp, 367–8,^ Jump up to: a b c d e Britton 1995, pp, 207–11,Jump up ^ Morrison 1997, pp, 4, 129–30,Jump up ^ Cotsell 2005, p, 191,Jump up ^ Jones 1910,Jump up ^ Hamlet 3,4,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, pp, 104–7, 113–16,Jump up ^ de Grazia 2007, pp, 168–70,Jump up ^ Smallwood 2002, p, 102,^ Jump up to: a b Bloom & Foster 2008, p, xii,Jump up ^ Rothman 2013,Jump up ^ Gontar 2013,Jump up ^ Hamlet 4,5,Jump up ^ Wofford 1994, pp, 199–202,Jump up ^ Howard 2003, pp, 411–15,Jump up ^ Heilbrun 1957,Jump up ^ Bloom 2003, pp, 58–9,Jump up ^ Thompson 2001, p, 4,Jump up ^ Bloom 2003,Jump up ^ Showalter 1985,Jump up ^ Bloom 2003, p, 57,Jump up ^ MacCary 1998, pp, 111–13,Jump up ^ Osborne 2007, pp, 114–33,^ Jump up to: a b c d e Thompson & Taylor 2006a, pp, 123–6,Jump up ^ Welsh 2001, p, 131,^ Jump up to: a b Thompson & Taylor 2006a, pp, 126–31,Jump up ^ Novy 1994, pp, 62, 77–8,Jump up ^ Hamlet 3,1,55–87,Jump up ^ Braun 1982, p, 40,Jump up ^ Taylor 2002, p, 4,Jump up ^ Banham 1998, p, 141,Jump up ^ Hattaway 1982, p, 91,Jump up ^ Thomson 1983, p, 24,Jump up ^ Thomson 1983, p, 110,Jump up ^ Taylor 2002, p, 13,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006a, pp, 53–5,Jump up ^ Chambers 1930, p, 334,^ Jump up to: a b Dawson 2002, p, 176,Jump up ^ Pitcher & Woudhuysen 1969, p, 204,Jump up ^ Hibbard 1987, p, 17,Jump up ^ Marsden 2002, p, 21,Jump up ^ Holland 2007, p, 34,Jump up ^ Marsden 2002, pp, 21–2,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 1996, p, 57,Jump up ^ Taylor 1989, p, 16,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006a, pp, 98–9,Jump up ^ Uglow 1977, p, 473,Jump up ^ Morrison 2002, p, 231,Jump up ^ Moody 2002, p, 41,Jump up ^ Moody 2002, p, 44,Jump up ^ Gay 2002, p, 159,Jump up ^ Dawson 2002, pp, 185–7,Jump up ^ Morrison 2002, pp, 232–3,Jump up ^ Morrison 2002, pp, 235–7,Jump up ^ Winter 1875,^ Jump up to: a b Morrison 2002, p, 241,Jump up ^ Schoch 2002, pp, 58–75,Jump up ^ Shaw 1961, p, 81,Jump up ^ Moody 2002, p, 54,Jump up ^ O'Connor 2002, p, 77,Jump up ^ Gay 2002, p, 164,Jump up ^ Holland 2002, pp, 203–5,Jump up ^ Dawson 2002, p, 184,Jump up ^ Dawson 2002, p, 188,^ Jump up to: a b c Gillies et al, 2002, pp, 259–62,Jump up ^ Dawson 2002, p, 180,Jump up ^ Benedetti 1999, pp, 188–211,Jump up ^ Benedetti 1999, pp, 189, 195,Jump up ^ Taxidou 1998, pp, 38–41,^ Jump up to: a b Innes 1983, p, 153,Jump up ^ Taxidou 1998, p, 181, 188,Jump up ^ Hamlet 1,2,1–128,Jump up ^ Innes 1983, p, 152,Jump up ^ Innes 1983, pp, 165–7,Jump up ^ Innes 1983, p, 172,Jump up ^ Innes 1983, pp, 140–75,Jump up ^ Hortmann 2002, p, 214,Jump up ^ Hortmann 2002, p, 223,Jump up ^ Burian 2004,Jump up ^ Hortmann 2002, pp, 224–5,^ Jump up to: a b c Gillies et al, 2002, pp, 267–9,Jump up ^ Morrison 2002, pp, 247–8,Jump up ^ Thompson & Taylor 2006a, p, 109,Jump up ^ Morrison 2002, p, 249,Jump up ^ Morrison 2002, pp, 249–50,Jump up ^ Blum 1981, p, 307,Jump up ^ Tanitch 1985,Jump up ^ Smallwood 2002, p, 108,Jump up ^ National Theatre n,d,Jump up ^ Canby 1995,^ Jump up to: a b Gussow 1992,Jump up ^ Guernsey & Sweet 2000, p, 43,Jump up ^ Panagako 1978,Jump up ^ McKellen et al, 1990, p, 124,Jump up ^ Barratt 2005, p, 63,Jump up ^ Davison 1999, pp, 170–82,Jump up ^ Billington 2001,Jump up ^ Gardner 2002,Jump up ^ Billington 2008,Jump up ^ Brown 2016,Jump up ^ Shenton 2007,Jump up ^ Broadwayworld 2009,Jump up ^ Daily Mirror 2009,Jump up ^ Law 2009, 53:55,Jump up ^ Itzkoff 2009,Jump up ^ Fine 2013,Jump up ^ Globe to Globe Hamlet n,d,Jump up ^ Stewart 2014,Jump up ^ Calia 2014,Jump up ^ Hamlet 5,2,203–387,^ Jump up to: a b c Brode 2001, pp, 117–18,Jump up ^ Davies 2000, p, 171,Jump up ^ Fox 2009,Jump up ^ Brennan n,d,Jump up ^ Guntner 2000, pp, 120–1,Jump up ^ Brode 2001, pp, 125–7,Jump up ^ Cartmell 2000, p, 212,Jump up ^ Guntner 2000, pp, 121–2,Jump up ^ Crowl 2000, p, 232,Jump up ^ st*rks 1999, p, 272,Jump up ^ Keyishian 2000, pp, 78–9,Jump up ^ Burnett 2003,Jump up ^ Warren n,d,Jump up ^ Gilbert 1892, pp, 349–66,Jump up ^ Schultz 2008,Jump up ^ Grode 2011,Jump up ^ Todoroff 2011,Sources[edit]Editions of Hamlet[edit]Bate, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Eric, eds, (2007), Complete Works, The RSC Shakespeare, New York: Royal Shakespeare Company, ISBN 0-679-64295-1,Bate, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Eric, eds, (2008), Hamlet, The RSC Shakespeare, The Royal Shakespeare Company, ISBN 978-0230217867,Edwards, Phillip, ed, (1985), Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, New Cambridge Shakespeare, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-19-283416-9,Evans, G, Blakemore, ed, (1974), The Riverside Shakespeare, The Riverside Shakespeare, Houghton Mifflin for Riverside Shakespeare Company, ISBN 9780395044025,Hibbard, G, R,, ed, (1987), Hamlet, Oxford World's Classics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-283416-9,Irace, Kathleen O,, ed, (1998), The First Quarto of Hamlet, New Cambridge Shakespeare, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-65390-8,Jenkins, Harold, ed, (1982), Hamlet, The Arden Shakespeare, second series, London: Methuen, ISBN 1-903436-67-2,Lott, Bernard, ed, (1970), Hamlet, New Swan Shakespeare, Advanced series (New ed,), London: Longman, ISBN 0-582-52742-2,Thompson, Ann; Taylor, Neil, eds, (2006), Hamlet, The Arden Shakespeare, third series, 1, London: Cengage Learning, ISBN 1-904271-33-2,Thompson, Ann; Taylor, Neil, eds, (2006), Hamlet: The Texts of 1603 and 1623, The Arden Shakespeare, third series, 2, London: Cengage Learning, ISBN 1-904271-80-4,Wells, Stanley; Taylor, Gary, eds, (1988), The Complete Works, The Oxford Shakespeare (Compact ed,), Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-871190-5,Secondary sources[edit]Alexander, Peter (1964), Alexander's Introductions to Shakespeare, London: Collins, OCLC 257743100,Banham, Martin, ed, (1998), The Cambridge Guide to Theatre, Cambridge Guides, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43437-8,Barratt, Mark (2005), Ian Mckellen: An Unofficial Biography, Virgin Books, ISBN 978-1852272517,Benedetti, Jean (1999) [1988], Stanislavski: His Life and Art (Revised ed,), London: Methuen, ISBN 0-413-52520-1,Billington, Michael (4 May 2001), "Hamlet—Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford Upon Avon", Theatre, The Guardian, London,Billington, Michael (6 August 2008), "Hamlet—Courtyard, Stratford-upon-Avon", Theatre, The Guardian, London,Bloom, Harold (2001), Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human (Open Market ed,), Harlow, Essex: Longman, ISBN 1-57322-751-X,Bloom, Harold (2003), Hamlet: Poem Unlimited, Edinburgh: Canongate, ISBN 1-84195-461-6,Bloom, Harold; Foster, Brett, eds, (2008), Hamlet, Bloom's Shakespeare through the ages, Bloom's Literary Criticism, ISBN 9780791095928,Blum, Daniel C, (1981), A Pictorial History of the American Theatre, 1860-1980 (5th ed,), Crown Publishers, ISBN 978-0517542620,Braun, Edward (1982), The Director and the Stage: From Naturalism to Grotowski, London: Methuen, ISBN 978-0-413-46300-5,Brennan, Sandra (n,d,), "Innokenti Smoktunovsky", The New York Times, Archived from the original on 18 February 2015, Retrieved 29 May 2010,Britton, Celia (1995), "Structuralist and poststructuralist psychoanalytic and Marxist theories", In Seldon, Raman, From Formalism to Poststructuralism, Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, 8, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-30013-1,Brode, Douglas (2001), Shakespeare in the Movies: From the Silent Era to Today, New York: Berkley Boulevard Books, ISBN 0-425-18176-6,"Cook, Eyre, Lee And More Join Jude Law In Grandage's HAMLET", Broadwayworld, 4 February 2009, Retrieved 18 February 2009,Brown, Mark (1 April 2016), "Sherlock st*r Andrew Scott to play Hamlet in new UK production", Theatre, The Guardian, London, Retrieved 22 July 2016,Burian, Jarka (2004) [1993], "Hamlet in Postwar Czech Theatre", In Kennedy, Dennis, Foreign Shakespeare: Contemporary Performance (New ed,), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-61708-1,Burnett, Mark Thornton (2003), ""To Hear and See the Matter": Communicating Technology in Michael Almereyda's Hamlet (2000)", Cinema Journal, 42 (3): 48–69, doi:10,1353/cj,2003,0007, ISSN 1527-2087, JSTOR 1225904 – via JSTOR, (subscription required (help)),Burrow, Colin (19 May 2002), "Will the real Hamlet please stand up?", Shakespeare in Europe Project, University of Basel, Retrieved 28 June 2016,Calia, Michael (11 August 2014), "Benedict Cumberbatch as 'Hamlet' Opens Next Year, And Is Now Sold Out", Speakeasy, The Wall Street Journal,Canby, Vincent (3 May 1995), "Ralph Fiennes as Mod Hamlet", The New York Times, Retrieved 21 July 2016,Cairncross, Andrew S, (1975) [1936], The Problem of Hamlet: A Solution (Reprint ed,), Norwood, PA: Norwood Editions, ISBN 0-88305-130-3,Cartmell, Deborah (2000), "Franco Zeffirelli and Shakespeare", In Jackson, Russell, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film, Cambridge Companions to Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp, 212–21, ISBN 0-521-63975-1,Cecil, William (2012) [First published in 1916], "Ten Precepts", In Craik, Henry, English Prose, Selections with Critical Introductions by Various Writers and General Introductions to Each Period; edited by Henry Craik, (Online edition by Bartleby,com ed,), New York: The Macmillan Company,Chambers, E, K, (2009) [First published 1923], The Elizabethan Stage, 1, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199567485,Chambers, E, K, (2009) [First published 1923], The Elizabethan Stage, 3, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199567508,Chambers, E, K, (1930), William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-811774-4,Cotsell, Michael (2005), The Theater of Trauma: American modernist drama and the psychological struggle for the American Mind, New York: Peter Lang, ISBN 978-0-8204-7466-3,Crowl, Samuel (2000), "Flamboyant Realist: Kenneth Branagh", In Jackson, Russell, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film, Cambridge Companions to Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp, 222–40, ISBN 0-521-63975-1,Crowl, Samuel (2014), Shakespeare's Hamlet: The Relationship Between Text and Film, Screen Adaptations, Arden Shakespeare, ISBN 978-1-4725-3893-2,Crystal, David; Crystal, Ben (2005), The Shakespeare Miscellany, New York: Penguin, ISBN 0-14-051555-0,"Jude Law to play Hamlet at 'home' Kronborg Castle", The Daily Mirror, 10 July 2009, Retrieved 14 July 2009,Davies, Anthony (2000), "The Shakespeare films of Laurence Olivier", In Jackson, Russell, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film, Cambridge Companions to Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp, 163–82, ISBN 0-521-63975-1,Davison, Richard Allan (1999), "The Readiness Was All: Ian Charleson and Richard Eyre's Hamlet", In Potter, Lois; Kinney, Arthur F, Shakespeare, Text and Theater: Essays in Honor of Jay L, Halio, Newark: University of Delaware Press, ISBN 9780874136999,Dawson, Anthony B, (2002), "International Shakespeare", In Wells, Stanley; Stanton, Sarah, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage, Cambridge Companions to Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp, 174–93, ISBN 0-521-79711-X,Duncan-Jones, Catherine (2001), Ungentle Shakespeare: scenes from his life, London: Arden Shakespeare, ISBN 1-903436-26-5,Fine, Marshall (10 April 2013), "Paul Giamatti in Hamlet", Onstage, The Huffington Post, Retrieved 11 July 2015,Fox, Margalit (18 September 2009), "Jack Manning, Character Actor, Dies at 93", Theater, The New York Times, Retrieved 14 September 2013,Freud, Sigmund (1991) [1900], Richards, Angela, ed, The Interpretation of Dreams, The Penguin Freud Library, 4, Translated by Strachey, James, London: Penguin, ISBN 0-14-013794-7,Gardner, Lyn (8 November 2002), "Hamlet—West Yorkshire Playhouse, Leeds", Theatre, The Guardian, London,Gay, Penny (2002), "Women and Shakespearean Performance", In Wells, Stanley; Stanton, Sarah, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage, Cambridge Companions to Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp, 155–73, ISBN 0-521-79711-X,Gilbert, W, S, (1892), "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern", Foggerty's Fairy: and other tales, London: George Routledge & Sons, Retrieved 27 June 2016,Gillies, John; Minami, Ryuta; Li, Ruru; Trivedi, Poonam (2002), "Shakespeare on the Stages of Asia", In Wells, Stanley; Stanton, Sarah, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage, Cambridge Companions to Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp, 259–83, ISBN 0-521-79711-X,"About the Project", Globe to Globe Hamlet, Shakespeare's Globe, n,d, Retrieved 22 July 2016,Gontar, David P, (2013), "Hamlet Made Simple", Hamlet Made Simple and Other Essays, New English Review Press, ISBN 978-0985439491,de Grazia, Margreta (2007), Hamlet without Hamlet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521690362,Greenblatt, Stephen (2004), Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare, New York: W,W, Norton & Co, ISBN 0-393-05057-2,Greenblatt, Stephen (21 October 2004), "The Death of Hamnet and the Making of Hamlet", The New York Review of Books, Vol, 51 no, 16,Grode, Eric (30 March 2011), "Dueling Mentors Bedevil a Dithering Young Dane", Theater Reviews, The New York Times, Retrieved 10 December 2011,Guernsey, Otis L,; Sweet, Jeffrey, eds, (2000), The Applause/Best Plays Theater Yearbook 1991-1992, Best Plays, Illustrated by Al Hirschfeld (illustrated ed,), Hal Leonard, ISBN 9781557831477,Guntner, J, Lawrence (2000), "Hamlet, Macbeth and King Lear on film", In Jackson, Russell, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film, Cambridge Companions to Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp, 117–34, ISBN 0-521-63975-1,Gussow, Mel (3 April 1992), "A High-Keyed 'Hamlet' st*rring Stephen Lang", The New York Times, Retrieved 13 July 2016,Gussow, Mel (14 October 1992), "Theater in Review", Theater, The New York Times, Retrieved 26 June 2011,Halliday, F, E, (1969) [first ed, 1964], A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964, Shakespeare Library, Baltimore: Penguin, ISBN 0-14-053011-8,Hattaway, Michael (1982), Elizabethan Popular Theatre: Plays in Performance, Theatre Production, London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, ISBN 0-7100-9052-8,Hattaway, Michael (1987), Hamlet, The Critics Debate, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-38524-1,Heilbrun, Carolyn (1957), "The Character of Hamlet's Mother", Shakespeare Quarterly, 8 (2): 201–6, doi:10,2307/2866964, eISSN 1538-3555, ISSN 0037-3222, JSTOR 2866964 – via JSTOR, (subscription required (help)),Holland, Peter (2002), "Touring Shakespeare", In Wells, Stanley; Stanton, Sarah, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage, Cambridge Companions to Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp, 194–211, ISBN 0-521-79711-X,Holland, Peter (2007), "Shakespeare Abbreviated", In Shaughnessy, Robert, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and Popular Culture, Cambridge Companions to Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-60580-9,Hortmann, Wilhelm (2002), "Shakespeare on the Political Stage in the Twentieth Century", In Wells, Stanley; Stanton, Sarah, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage, Cambridge Companions to Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp, 212–29, ISBN 0-521-79711-X,Howard, Jean E, (2003), "Feminist Criticism", In Wells, Stanley; Orlin, Lena, 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Philadelphia: R, West, ISBN 0-8492-2912-X,Winter, William (26 October 1875), "Fifth Avenue Theater—Edwin Booth as Hamlet", The Drama, New-York Tribune, p, 5, ISSN 1941-0646, LCCN sn83030214, OCLC 9405688,Wofford, Susanne L, (1994), "A Critical History of Hamlet", Hamlet: Complete, Authoritative Text with Biographical and Historical Contexts, Critical History, and Essays from Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives, Boston: Bedford Books, pp, 181–207, ISBN 0-312-08986-4,External links[edit]Library resources aboutHamletResources in your libraryResources in other librariesListen to this article (info/dl)MENU0:00 This audio file was created from a revision of the "Hamlet" article dated 2011-10-14, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article, (Audio help)More spoken articlesHamlet at the British LibraryHamlet at the Internet Broadway DatabaseHamlet at the Internet off-Broadway Database Hamlet public domain audiobook at LibriVoxTextsThe Annotated Hamlet Complete Text of Hamlet With Explanations of Difficult Words and Passages, No ads or images,"HyperHamlet" — The Q2 text, with copious hyper-linked references and notes, Run by the University of Basel,ISE — Internet Shakespeare Editions: transcripts and facsimiles of Q1, Q2 and F1,Shakespeare Quartos Archive — Transcriptions and facsimiles of thirty-two copies of the five pre-1642 quarto editions,Open Source Shakespeare—Hamlet A complete text of Hamlet based on Q2,View all of Hamlet's lines in Open Source Shakespeare,Project Gutenberg full textAnalysisHamlet on the Ramparts — The MIT's Shakespeare Electronic Archive,Hamletworks,org – scholarly resource with multiple versions of Hamlet, commentaries, concordances, and more,Depictions and commentary of Hamlet paintingsClear Shakespeare Hamlet — A word-by-word audio guide through the play,Related worksThe Danish History (Books I-IX) by Saxo Grammaticus at The Online Medieval & Classical Library (public domain translation into English of the Gesta Danorum),[show] v t eWilliam Shakespeare[show] v t eWilliam Shakespeare's Hamlet[show] v t eLaurence Olivier Award for Best Revival (2001–2025)PortalsAccess related topicsShakespeare portalFind out more on Wikipedia'sSister projectsMediafrom CommonsQuotationsfrom WikiquoteSource textsfrom WikisourceAuthority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 176993890 LCCN: n80008522 GND: 4099350-4 SUDOC: 027294773 BNF: cb11936813g (data)Categories: Hamlet1600s playsEnglish Renaissance playsFratricide in fictionGhosts in popular cultureMetafictional playsPlays about deathBritish plays adapted into filmsPlays adapted into operasPlays adapted into radio programsPlays adapted into television programsPlays adapted into video gamesPlays set in DenmarkRegicide in fictionRevenge playsShakespearean tragediesSuicide in fictionWorks based on Gesta DanorumWorks set in castles and fortressesAvunculicide in fiction--------------------SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT King LearFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about Shakespeare's play, For the legendary figure, see Leir of Britain, For other uses, see King Lear (disambiguation), "King Lear and the Fool in the Storm" by William Dyce (1806–1864)King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare, It depicts the gradual descent into madness of the title character, after he disposes of his kingdom giving bequests to two of his three daughters based on their flattery of him, bringing tragic consequences for all, Derived from the legend of Leir of Britain, a mythological pre-Roman Celtic king, the play has been widely adapted for the stage and motion pictures, with the title role coveted by many of the world's most accomplished actors, Originally drafted in 1605 or 1606 at the latest, with its first known performance on St, Stephen's Day in 1606, the first attribution to Shakespeare was a 1608 publication in a quarto of uncertain provenance; it may be an early draft or simply reflect the first performance text, The Tragedy of King Lear, a more theatrical revision, was included in the 1623 First Folio, Modern editors usually conflate the two, though some insist that each version has its own individual integrity that should be preserved, After the English Restoration, the play was often revised with a happy, non-tragic ending for audiences who disliked its dark and depressing tone, but since the 19th century Shakespeare's original version has been regarded as one of his supreme achievements, The tragedy is particularly noted for its probing observations on the nature of human suffering and kinship, George Bernard Shaw wrote, "No man will ever write a better tragedy than Lear," Contents [hide] 1Characters2Synopsis3Sources3,1Changes from source material4Date and text5Analysis and criticism5,1Historicist interpretations5,2Psychoanalytic and psychosocial interpretations5,3Christianity5,4Fairy tales6Performance history6,117th century6,218th century6,319th century6,420th century6,521st century7Screen adaptations8See also9Notes and references9,1Notes9,2References10Cited sources10,1Editions of King Lear10,2Secondary sources11External linksCharacters[edit]Lear – King of BritainGoneril – Lear's eldest daughterRegan – Lear's second daughterCordelia – Lear's youngest daughterDuke of Albany – Goneril's husbandDuke of Cornwall – Regan's husbandEarl of GloucesterEarl of Kent – later disguised as CaiusEdgar – Gloucester's sonEdmund – Gloucester's illegitimate sonOswald – Goneril's stewardFool – Lear's foolKing of France – suitor and later husband to CordeliaDuke of Burgundy – suitor to CordeliaCuran – courtierOld man – tenant of GloucesterOfficer – employed by EdmundGentleman – attends CordeliaServants to CornwallKnights of Lear's TrainOfficers, Messengers, Soldiers, and Attendants,Synopsis[edit] Cordelia in the Court of King Lear (1873) by Sir John GilbertKing Lear of Britain, elderly and wanting to retire from the duties of the monarchy, decides to divide his realm among his three daughters, and declares he'll offer the largest share to the one who loves him most, The eldest, Goneril, speaks first, declaring her love for her father in fulsome terms, Moved by her flattery Lear proceeds to grant to Goneril her share as soon as she's finished her declaration, before Regan and Cordelia have a chance to speak, He then awards to Regan her share as soon as she has spoken, When it is finally the turn of his youngest daughter, Cordelia, at first she refuses to say anything ("Nothing, my Lord") and then declares there is nothing to compare her love to, nor words to properly express it; she speaks honestly but bluntly, which infuriates him, In his anger he disinherits Cordelia and divides her share between Regan and Goneril, The Earl of Gloucester and the Earl of Kent observe that, by dividing his realm between Goneril and Regan, Lear has awarded his realm in equal shares to the peerages of the Duke of Albany (Goneril's husband) and the Duke of Cornwall (Regan's husband), Kent objects to Lear's unfair treatment of Cordelia; enraged by Kent's protests, Lear banishes him from the country, Lear then summons the Duke of Burgundy and the King of France, who have both proposed marriage to Cordelia, Learning that Cordelia has been disinherited, the Duke of Burgundy withdraws his suit, but the King of France is impressed by her honesty and marries her nonetheless, Meanwhile, Gloucester has introduced his illegitimate son Edmund to Kent, Lear announces he will live alternately with Goneril and Regan, and their husbands, He reserves to himself a retinue of one hundred knights, to be supported by his daughters, Goneril and Regan speak privately, revealing that their declarations of love were fake, and that they view Lear as a foolish, old man, A watercolour of King Lear and the Fool in the storm from Act III, Scene ii of King LearEdmund resents his illegitimate status, and plots to dispose of his legitimate older brother Edgar, He tricks their father Gloucester with a forged letter, making him think Edgar plans to usurp the estate, Kent returns from exile in disguise under the name of Caius, and Lear hires him as a servant, Lear and Caius quarrel with Oswald, Goneril's steward, Lear discovers that now that Goneril has power, she no longer respects him, She orders him to behave better and reduces his retinue, Enraged, Lear departs for Regan's home, The Fool mocks Lear's misfortune, Edmund learns from Curan, a courtier, that there is likely to be war between Albany and Cornwall, and that Regan and Cornwall are to arrive at Gloucester's house that evening, Taking advantage of the arrival of the duke and Regan, Edmund fakes an attack by Edgar, and Gloucester is completely taken in, He disinherits Edgar and proclaims him an outlaw, Bearing Lear's message to Regan, Caius meets Oswald again at Gloucester's home, quarrels with him again, and is put in the stocks by Regan and her husband Cornwall, When Lear arrives, he objects to the mistreatment of his messenger, but Regan is as dismissive of her father as Goneril was, Lear is enraged but impotent, Goneril arrives and supports Regan's argument against him, Lear yields completely to his rage, He rushes out into a storm to rant against his ungrateful daughters, accompanied by the mocking Fool, Kent later follows to protect him, Gloucester protests against Lear's mistreatment, With Lear's retinue of a hundred knights dissolved, the only companions he has left are his Fool and Caius, Wandering on the heath after the storm, Edgar, in the guise of a madman named Tom o' Bedlam, meets Lear, Edgar babbles madly while Lear denounces his daughters, Kent leads them all to shelter, King Lear: Cordelia's Farewell by Edwin Austin AbbeyEdmund betrays Gloucester to Cornwall, Regan and Goneril, He reveals evidence that his father knows of an impending French invasion designed to reinstate Lear to the throne; and in fact a French army has landed in Britain, Once Edmund leaves with Goneril to warn Albany about the invasion, Gloucester is arrested, and Regan and Cornwall gouge out Gloucester's eyes, As he is doing so, a servant is overcome with rage by what he is witnessing and attacks Cornwall, mortally wounding him, Regan kills the servant, and tells Gloucester that Edmund betrayed him; then she turns him out to wander the heath too, Edgar, in his madman's guise, meets his blinded father on the heath, Gloucester, not recognising him, begs Tom to lead him to a cliff at Dover so that he may jump to his death, Goneril discovers that she finds Edmund more attractive than her honest husband Albany, whom she regards as cowardly, Albany has developed a conscience — he is disgusted by the sisters' treatment of Lear, and the mutilation of Gloucester, and denounces his wife, Goneril sends Edmund back to Regan; receiving news of Cornwall's death, she fears her newly widowed sister may steal Edmund and sends him a letter through Oswald, By now alone with Lear, Kent leads him to the French army, which is commanded by Cordelia, But Lear is half-mad and terribly embarrassed by his earlier follies, At Regan's instigation, Albany joins his forces with hers against the French, Goneril's suspicions about Regan's motives are confirmed and returned, as Regan rightly guesses the meaning of her letter and declares to Oswald that she is a more appropriate match for Edmund, Edgar pretends to lead Gloucester to a cliff, then changes his voice and tells Gloucester he has miraculously survived a great fall, Lear appears, by now completely mad, He rants that the whole world is corrupt and runs off, Lear and Cordelia by Ford Madox BrownOswald appears, still looking for Edmund, On Regan's orders, he tries to kill Gloucester but is killed by Edgar, In Oswald's pocket, Edgar finds Goneril's letter, in which she encourages Edmund to kill her husband and take her as his wife, Kent and Cordelia take charge of Lear, whose madness quickly passes, Regan, Goneril, Albany, and Edmund meet with their forces, Albany insists that they fight the French invaders but not harm Lear or Cordelia, The two sisters lust for Edmund, who has made promises to both, He considers the dilemma and plots the deaths of Albany, Lear, and Cordelia, Edgar gives Goneril's letter to Albany, The armies meet in battle, the British defeat the French, and Lear and Cordelia are captured, Edmund sends Lear and Cordelia off with secret-joint orders from him (representing Regan and her forces) and Goneril (representing Albany's) for the execution of Cordelia, The victorious British leaders meet, and the recently widowed Regan now declares she will marry Edmund, But Albany exposes the intrigues of Edmund and Goneril and proclaims Edmund a traitor, Regan falls ill, having been poisoned by Goneril, and is escorted offstage, where she dies, Edmund defies Albany, who calls for a trial by combat, Edgar appears masked and in armour, and challenges Edmund to a duel, No one knows who he is, Edgar wounds Edmund fatally, though he does not die immediately, Albany confronts Goneril with the letter which was intended to be his death warrant; she flees in shame and rage, Edgar reveals himself, and reports that Gloucester died offstage from the shock and joy of learning that Edgar is alive, after Edgar revealed himself to his father, Offstage, Goneril, with all her evil plans thwarted, commits suicide, The dying Edmund decides, though he admits it is against his own character, to try to save Lear and Cordelia; however, his confession comes too late, Soon after Albany sends men to countermand Edmund's orders, Lear enters bearing Cordelia's corpse in his arms, having survived by killing the executioner, Kent appears and Lear now recognises him, Albany urges Lear to resume his throne, but like Gloucester, the trials Lear has been through have finally overwhelmed him, and he dies, Albany then asks Kent and Edgar to take charge of the throne, Kent declines, explaining that his master is calling him on a journey, Finally, Albany (in the Quarto version) or Edgar (in the Folio version) implies that he will now become king, Sources[edit] The first edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1577,Shakespeare's play is based on various accounts of the semi-legendary Brythonic figure Leir of Britain, whose name has been linked by some scholars to the Brythonic god Lir/Llŷr, though in actuality the names are not etymologically related,[1][2][3] Shakespeare's most important source is probably the second edition of The Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande by Raphael Holinshed, published in 1587, Holinshed himself found the story in the earlier Historia Regum Britanniae by Geoffrey of Monmouth, which was written in the 12th century, Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, published 1590, also contains a character named Cordelia, who also dies from hanging, as in King Lear, Other possible sources are the anonymous play King Leir (published in 1605); The Mirror for Magistrates (1574), by John Higgins; The Malcontent (1604), by John Marston; The London Prodigal (1605); Montaigne's Essays, which were translated into English by John Florio in 1603; An Historical Description of Iland of Britaine (1577), by William Harrison; Remaines Concerning Britaine (1606), by William Camden; Albion's England (1589), by William Warner; and A Declaration of egregious Popish Impostures (1603), by Samuel Harsnett, which provided some of the language used by Edgar while he feigns madness, King Lear is also a literary variant of a common fairy tale, Love Like Salt, Aarne-Thompson type 923, in which a father rejects his youngest daughter for a statement of her love that does not please him,[4] The source of the subplot involving Gloucester, Edgar, and Edmund is a tale in Philip Sidney's Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia (1580–90), with a blind Paphlagonian king and his two sons, Leonatus and Plexitrus,[5] Changes from source material[edit]Besides the subplot involving the Earl of Gloucester and his sons, the principal innovation Shakespeare made to this story was the death of Cordelia and Lear at the end; in the account by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Cordelia restores Lear to the throne, and succeeds him as ruler after his death, During the 17th century, Shakespeare's tragic ending was much criticised and alternative versions were written by Nahum Tate, in which the leading characters survived and Edgar and Cordelia were married (despite the fact that Cordelia was previously betrothed to the King of France),[6] As Harold Bloom states: "Tate's version held the stage for almost 150 years, until Edmund Kean reinstated the play's tragic ending in 1823,"[6] Date and text[edit] Title page of the first quarto edition, published in 1608Although an exact date of composition cannot be given, many academic editors of the play date King Lear between 1603 and 1606, The latest it could have been written is 1606, as the Stationers' Register notes a performance on 26 December 1606, The 1603 date originates from words in Edgar's speeches which may derive from Samuel Harsnett's Declaration of Egregious Popish Impostures (1603),[7] In his Arden edition, R,A, Foakes argues for a date of 1605–6, because one of Shakespeare's sources, The True Chronicle History of King Leir, was not published until 1605; close correspondences between that play and Shakespeare's suggest that he may have been working from a text (rather than from recollections of a performance),[8] Conversely, Frank Kermode, in the Riverside Shakespeare, considers the publication of Leir to have been a response to performances of Shakespeare's already-written play; noting a sonnet by William Strachey that may have verbal resemblances with Lear, Kermode concludes that "1604-5 seems the best compromise",[9] Dr, Naseeb Shaheen dates the play c1605-6 per line 1,2,103 "These late eclipses in the sun and moon" which relates to the lunar eclipse of 27 September 1605 and the solar eclipse of 2 October 1605,[10] The first page of King Lear, printed in the Second Folio of 1632The modern text of King Lear derives from three sources: two quartos, published in 1608 (Q1) and 1619 (Q2)[11] respectively, and the version in the First Folio of 1623 (F1), The differences between these versions are significant, Q1 contains 285 lines not in F1; F1 contains around 100 lines not in Q1, Also, at least a thousand individual words are changed between the two texts, each text has a completely different style of punctuation, and about half the verse lines in the F1 are either printed as prose or differently divided in the Q1, The early editors, beginning with Alexander Pope, simply conflated the two texts, creating the modern version that has remained nearly universal for centuries, The conflated version is born from the presumption that Shakespeare wrote only one original manuscript, now unfortunately lost, and that the Quarto and Folio versions are distortions of that original, As early as 1931, Madeleine Doran suggested that the two texts had basically different provenances, and that these differences between them were critically interesting, This argument, however, was not widely discussed until the late 1970s, when it was revived, principally by Michael Warren and Gary Taylor, Their thesis, while controversial, has gained significant acceptance, It posits, essentially, that the Quarto derives from something close to Shakespeare's foul papers, and the Folio is drawn in some way from a promptbook, prepared for production by Shakespeare's company or someone else, In short, Q1 is "authorial"; F1 is "theatrical", In criticism, the rise of "revision criticism" has been part of the pronounced trend away from mid-century formalism,[12] The New Cambridge Shakespeare has published separate editions of Q and F; the most recent Pelican Shakespeare edition contains both the 1608 Quarto and the 1623 Folio text as well as a conflated version; the New Arden edition edited by R,A, Foakes is the only recent edition to offer the traditional conflated text, Both Anthony Nuttall of Oxford University and Harold Bloom of Yale University have endorsed the view of Shakespeare having revised the tragedy at least once during his lifetime,[13] As Bloom indicates: "At the close of Shakespeare's revised King Lear, a reluctant Edgar becomes King of Britain, accepting his destiny but in the accents of despair, Nuttall speculates that Edgar, like Shakespeare himself, usurps the power of manipulating the audience by deceiving poor Gloucester,"[13] Analysis and criticism[edit]Analysis and criticism of King Lear over the centuries has been extensive, What we know of Shakespeare's wide reading and powers of assimilation seems to show that he made use of all kinds of material, absorbing contradictory viewpoints, positive and negative, religious and secular, as if to ensure that King Lear would offer no single controlling perspective, but be open to, indeed demand, multiple interpretations,R, A, Foakes [14]Historicist interpretations[edit]John F, Danby, in his Shakespeare's Doctrine of Nature – A Study of King Lear (1949), argues that Lear dramatizes, among other things, the current meanings of "Nature", The words "nature," "natural" and "unnatural" occur over forty times in the play, reflecting a debate in Shakespeare's time about what nature really was like; this debate pervades the play and finds symbolic expression in Lear's changing attitude to Thunder, There are two strongly contrasting views of human nature in the play: that of the Lear party (Lear, Gloucester, Albany, Kent), exemplifying the philosophy of Bacon and Hooker, and that of the Edmund party (Edmund, Cornwall, Goneril, Regan), akin to the views later formulated by Hobbes, Along with the two views of Nature, Lear contains two views of Reason, brought out in Gloucester and Edmund's speeches on astrology (1,2), The rationality of the Edmund party is one with which a modern audience more readily identifies, But the Edmund party carries bold rationalism to such extremes that it becomes madness: a madness-in-reason, the ironic counterpart of Lear's "reason in madness" (IV,6,190) and the Fool's wisdom-in-folly, This betrayal of reason lies behind the play's later emphasis on feeling, The two Natures and the two Reasons imply two societies, Edmund is the New Man, a member of an age of competition, suspicion, glory, in contrast with the older society which has come down from the Middle Ages, with its belief in co-operation, reasonable decency, and respect for the whole as greater than the part, King Lear is thus an allegory, The older society, that of the medieval vision, with its doting king, falls into error, and is threatened by the new Machiavellianism; it is regenerated and saved by a vision of a new order, embodied in the king's rejected daughter, Cordelia, in the allegorical scheme, is threefold: a person; an ethical principle (love); and a community, Nevertheless, Shakespeare's understanding of the New Man is so extensive as to amount almost to sympathy, Edmund is the last great expression in Shakespeare of that side of Renaissance individualism – the energy, the emancipation, the courage – which has made a positive contribution to the heritage of the West, "He embodies something vital which a final synthesis must reaffirm, But he makes an absolute claim which Shakespeare will not support, It is right for man to feel, as Edmund does, that society exists for man, not man for society, It is not right to assert the kind of man Edmund would erect to this supremacy,"[15] The play offers an alternative to the feudal-Machiavellian polarity, an alternative foreshadowed in France's speech (I,1,245–256), in Lear and Gloucester's prayers (III,4, 28–36; IV,1,61–66), and in the figure of Cordelia, Until the decent society is achieved, we are meant to take as role-model (though qualified by Shakespearean ironies) Edgar, "the machiavel of goodness",[16] endurance, courage and "ripeness",[17] Three daughters of King Lear by Gustav PopePsychoanalytic and psychosocial interpretations[edit]Since there are no literal mothers in King Lear, Coppélia Kahn[18] provides a psychoanalytic interpretation of the "maternal subtext" found in the play, According to Kahn, Lear in his old age regresses to an infantile disposition, and now seeks for a love that is normally satisfied by a mothering woman, Her characterisation of Lear is that of a child being mothered, but without real mothers, his children become the daughter-mother figures, Lear's contest of love serves as the binding agreement; his daughters will get their inheritance provided they care for him, especially Cordelia, on whose "kind nursery" he will greatly depend, Her refusal to love him as more than a father is often interpreted as a resistance from incest, but Kahn also inserts the image of a rejecting mother, The situation is now a reversal of parent-child roles, in which Lear's madness is essentially a childlike rage from being deprived of maternal care, Even when Lear and Cordelia are captured together, this madness persists as Lear envisions a nursery in prison, where Cordelia's sole existence is for him, However, it is Cordelia's death that ultimately ends his fantasy of a daughter-mother, as the play ends with only male characters left, Lear and Cordelia in Prison — William Blake circa 1779Sigmund Freud asserted that Cordelia symbolises Death, Therefore, when the play begins with Lear rejecting his daughter, it can be interpreted as him rejecting death; Lear is unwilling to face the finitude of his being, The play's poignant ending scene, wherein Lear carries the body of his beloved Cordelia, was of great importance to Freud, In this scene, she causes in Lear a realisation of his finitude, or as Freud put it, she causes him to "make friends with the necessity of dying",[19] It is logical to infer that Shakespeare had special intentions with Cordelia's death, as he was the only writer to have Cordelia killed (in the version by the Nahum Tate, she continues to live happily, and in Holinshed's, she restores her father and succeeds him), Alternatively, an analysis based on Adlerian theory suggests that the King's contest among his daughters in Act one has more to do with his control over the unmarried Cordelia,[20] In his study of the character-portrayal of Edmund, Harold Bloom refers to him as "Shakespeare's most original character",[21] "As Hazlitt pointed out," writes Bloom, "Edmund does not share in the hypocrisy of Goneril and Regan: his Machiavellianism is absolutely pure, and lacks an Oedipal motive, Freud's vision of family romances simply does not apply to Edmund, Iago is free to reinvent himself every minute, yet Iago has strong passions, however negative, Edmund has no passions whatsoever; he has never loved anyone, and he never will, In that respect, he is Shakespeare's most original character,"[21] The tragedy of Lear's lack of understanding of the consequences of his demands and actions is often observed to be like that of a spoiled child, but it has also been noted that his behaviour is equally likely to be seen in parents who have never adjusted to their children having grown up,[22] Christianity[edit] A 1793 painting of King Lear and Cordelia by Benjamin West,Critics are divided on the question of whether or not King Lear represents an affirmation of Christian doctrine,[23] Among those who argue that Lear is redeemed in the Christian sense through suffering are A, C, Bradley[24] and John Reibetanz, who has written: "through his sufferings, Lear has won an enlightened soul",[25] Other critics who find no evidence of redemption and emphasise the horrors of the final act include John Holloway[26] and Marvin Rosenberg,[27] William R, Elton stresses the pre-Christian setting of the play, writing that, "Lear fulfills the criteria for pagan behavior in life," falling "into total blasphemy at the moment of his irredeemable loss",[28] Fairy tales[edit]In the first edition of Kinder- und Hausmärchen by the Brothers Grimm, the Anhang (appendix) entry to No, 71 Princess Mouse-skin included a note: "as the father here, so asks King Lear his daughter", The English translation of this story by Oliver Loo begins as follows: "A king had three daughters; thereon he wanted to know, which loved him most, let them come in front of him and asked them, The eldest spoke, she loved him more, than the whole kingdom; the second, more than all the precious stones and pearls in the world; but the third said, she loved him more than salt, The king was so upset, that she compared her love of him with such a small thing, gave her to a servant and commanded, he should take her into the forest and kill her,"[29] Performance history[edit]King Lear has been performed by esteemed actors since the 17th Century when men played all the roles, From the 20th Century, a number of women have played male roles in the play; most commonly the Fool, who has been played (among others) by Judy Davis, Emma Thompson and Robyn Nevin, Lear himself has been played by Marianne Hoppe in 1990 and by Kathryn Hunter in 1996-7,[30] Marcia Gay Harden plays Lear in the few scenes of the play-within-the-film If I Were You, 17th century[edit] Cover of Tate's The History of King LearShakespeare wrote the role of Lear for his company's chief tragedian, Richard Burbage, for whom Shakespeare was writing incrementally older characters as their careers progressed,[31] It has been speculated either that the role of the Fool was written for the company's clown Robert Armin, or that it was written for performance by one of the company's boys, doubling the role of Cordelia,[32] Only one specific performance of the play during Shakespeare's lifetime is known: before the court of King James I at Whitehall on 26 December 1606,[33] Its original performances would have been at The Globe, where there were no sets in the modern sense, and characters would have signified their roles visually with props and costumes: Lear's costume, for example, would have changed in the course of the play as his status diminished: commencing in crown and regalia; then as a huntsman; raging bareheaded in the storm scene; and finally crowned with flowers in parody of his original status,[34] All theatres were closed down by the Puritan government on 6 September 1642, Upon the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, two patent companies (the King's Company and the Duke's Company) were established, and the existing theatrical repertoire divided between them,[35] And from the restoration until the mid-19th century the performance history of King Lear is not the story of Shakespeare's version, but instead of The History of King Lear, a popular adaptation by Nahum Tate, Its most significant deviations from Shakespeare were to omit the Fool entirely, to introduce a happy ending in which Lear and Cordelia survive, and to develop a love story between Cordelia and Edgar (two characters who never interact in Shakespeare) which ends with their marriage,[36] Like most Restoration adapters of Shakespeare, Tate admired Shakespeare's natural genius but saw fit to augment his work with contemporary standards of art (which were largely guided by the neoclassical unities of time, place, and action),[37] Tate's struggle to strike a balance between raw nature and refined art is apparent in his description of the tragedy: "a heap of jewels, unstrung and unpolish't; yet so dazzling in their disorder, that I soon perceiv'd I had seiz'd a treasure,"[38] Other changes included giving Cordelia a confidante named Arante, bringing the play closer to contemporary notions of poetic justice, and added titilating material such as amorous encounters between Edmund and both Regan and Goneril, a scene in which Edgar rescues Cordelia from Edmund's attempted kidnap and rape,[39] and a scene in which Cordelia wears men's pants that would reveal the actress's ankles,[40] The play ends with a celebration of "the King's blest Restauration", an obvious reference to Charles II,[41] 18th century[edit]In the early 18th century, some writers began to express objections to this (and other) Restoration adaptations of Shakespeare, For example, in The Spectator on 16 April 1711 Joseph Addison wrote "King Lear is an admirable Tragedy ,,, as Shakespeare wrote it; but as it is reformed according to the chymerical Notion of poetical Justice in my humble Opinion it hath lost half its Beauty," Yet on the stage, Tate's version prevailed,[42] David Garrick was the first actor-manager to begin to cut back on elements of Tate's adaptation in favour of Shakespeare's original: he retained Tate's major changes, including the happy ending, but removed many of Tate's lines, including Edgar's closing speech,[43] He also reduced the prominence of the Edgar-Cordelia love story, in order to focus more on the relationship between Lear and his daughters,[44] His version had a powerful emotional impact: Lear driven to madness by his daughters was (in the words of one spectator, Arthur Murphy) "the finest tragic distress ever seen on any stage" and, in contrast, the devotion shown to Lear by Cordelia (a mix of Shakespeare's, Tate's and Garrick's contributions to the part) moved the audience to tears,[45] The first professional performances of King Lear in North America are likely to have been those of the Hallam Company (later the American Company) which arrived in Virginia in 1752 and who counted the play among their repertoire by the time of their departure for Jamaica in 1774,[46] 19th century[edit] King Lear mourns Cordelia's death, James Barry, 1786–1788Charles Lamb established the Romantics' attitude to King Lear in his 1811 essay "On the Tragedies of Shakespeare, considered with reference to their fitness for stage representation" where he says that the play "is essentially impossible to be represented on the stage", preferring to experience it in the study, In the theatre, he argues, "to see Lear acted, to see an old man tottering about the stage with a walking-stick, turned out of doors by his daughters on a rainy night, has nothing in it but what is painful and disgusting" yet "while we read it, we see not Lear but we are Lear, – we are in his mind, we are sustained by a grandeur which baffles the malice of daughters and storms,"[47] King Lear was politically controversial during the period of George III's madness, and as a result was not performed at all in the two professional theatres of London from 1811 to 1820: but was then the subject of major productions in both, within three months of his death,[48] The 19th century saw the gradual reintroduction of Shakespeare's text to displace Tate's version, Like Garrick before him, John Philip Kemble had introduced more of Shakespeare's text, while still preserving the three main elements of Tate's version: the love story, the omission of the Fool, and the happy ending, Edmund Kean played King Lear with its tragic ending in 1823, but failed and reverted to Tate's crowd-pleaser after only three performances,[49] At last in 1838 William Macready at Covent Garden performed Shakespeare's version, freed from Tate's adaptions,[50] The restored character of the Fool was played by an actress, Priscilla Horton, as, in the words of one spectator, "a fragile, hectic, beautiful-faced, half-idiot-looking boy,"[51] And Helen Faucit's final appearance as Cordelia, dead in her father's arms, became one of the most iconic of Victorian images,[52] John Forster, writing in the Examiner on 14 February 1838, expressed the hope that "Mr Macready's success has banished that disgrace [Tate's version] from the stage for ever,"[53] But even this version was not close to Shakespeare's: the 19th-century actor-managers heavily cut Shakespeare's scripts: ending scenes on big "curtain effects" and reducing or eliminating supporting roles to give greater prominence to the st*r,[54] One of Macready's innovations – the use of Stonehenge-like structures on stage to indicate an ancient setting – proved enduring on stage into the 20th century, and can be seen in the 1983 television version st*rring Laurence Olivier,[55] In 1843, the Act for Regulating the Theatres came into force, bringing an end to the monopolies of the two existing companies and, by doing so, increased the number of theatres in London,[56] At the same time, the fashion in theatre was "pictorial": valuing visual spectacle above plot or characterisation and often required lengthy (and time consuming) scene changes,[57] For example, Henry Irving's 1892 King Lear offered spectacles such as Lear's death beneath a cliff at Dover, his face lit by the red glow of a setting sun; at the expense of cutting 46% of the text, including the blinding of Gloucester,[58] But Irving's production clearly evoked strong emotions: one spectator, Gordon Crosse, wrote of the first entrance of Lear, "a striking figure with masses of white hair, He is leaning on a huge scabbarded sword which he raises with a wild cry in answer to the shouted greeting of his guards, His gait, his looks, his gestures, all reveal the noble, imperious mind already degenerating into senile irritability under the coming shocks of grief and age,"[59] The importance of pictorialism to Irving, and to other theatre professionals of the Victorian era, is exemplified by the fact that Irving had used Ford Madox Brown's painting Cordelia's Portion as the inspiration for the look of his production, and that the artist himself was brought in to provide sketches for the settings of other scenes,[60] A reaction against pictorialism came with the rise of reconstructive movement, believers in a simple style of staging more similar to that which would have pertained in renaissance theatres, whose chief early exponent was the actor-manager William Poel, Poel was influenced by a performance of King Lear directed by Jocza Savits at the Hoftheater in Munich in 1890, set on an apron stage with a three-tier Globe-like reconstruction theatre as its backdrop, Poel would use this same configuration for his own Shakespearean performances in 1893,[61] 20th century[edit] Cordelia's Portion by Ford Madox BrownBy mid-century, the actor-manager tradition had declined, to be replaced by a structure where the major theatre companies employed professional directors as auteurs, The last of the great actor-managers, Donald Wolfit, played Lear in 1944 on a Stonehenge-like set and was praised by James Agate as "the greatest piece of Shakespearean acting since I have been privileged to write for the Sunday Times",[62] Wolfit supposedly drank eight bottles of Guinness in the course of each performance,[63] George Bernard Shaw wrote, "No man will ever write a better tragedy than Lear",[64] The character of Lear in the 19th century was often that of a frail old man from the opening scene, but Lears of the 20th century often began the play as strong men displaying regal authority, including John Gielgud, Donald Wolfit and Donald Sinden,[65] Cordelia, also, evolved in the 20th century: earlier Cordelias had often been praised for being sweet, innocent and modest, but 20th-century Cordelias were often portrayed as war leaders, For example, Peggy Ashcroft, at the RST in 1950, played the role in a breastplate and carrying a sword,[66] Similarly, the Fool evolved through the course of the century, with portrayals often deriving from the music hall or circus tradition,[67] At Stratford-upon-Avon in 1962, Peter Brook (who would later film the play with the same actor, Paul Scofield, in the role of Lear) set the action simply, against a huge, empty white stage, The effect of the scene when Lear and Gloucester meet, two tiny figures in rags in the midst of this emptiness, was said (by the scholar Roger Warren) to catch "both the human pathos ,,, and the universal scale ,,, of the scene,"[68] Some of the lines from the radio broadcast were used by The Beatles to add into the recorded mix of the song "I Am the Walrus", John Lennon happened upon the play on the BBC Third Programme while fiddling with the radio while working on the song, The voices of actors Mark Dignam, Philip Guard, and John Bryning from the play are all heard in the song,[69] Like other Shakespearean tragedies, King Lear has proved amenable to conversion into other theatrical traditions, In 1989, David McRuvie and Iyyamkode Sreedharan adapted the play then translated it to Malayalam, for performance in Kerala in the Kathakali tradition – which itself developed around 1600, contemporary with Shakespeare's writing, The show later went on tour, and in 2000 played at Shakespeare's Globe, completing (in Anthony Dawson's words) "a kind of symbolic circle",[70] Perhaps even more radical was Ong Keng Sen's 1997 adaptation of King Lear, which featured six actors each performing in a separate Asian acting tradition and in their own separate languages, A pivotal moment occurred when the Jingju performer playing Older Daughter (a conflation of Goneril and Regan) stabbed the Noh-performed Lear whose "falling pine" deadfall, straight face-forward into the stage, astonished the audience, in what Yong Li Lan describes as a "triumph through the moving power of noh performance at the very moment of his character's defeat",[71] In 1974, Buzz Goodbody directed Lear, a deliberately abbreviated title for Shakespeare's text, as the inaugural production of the RSC's studio theatre The Other Place, The performance was conceived as a chamber piece, the small intimate space and proximity to the audience enabled detailed psychological acting, which was performed with simple sets and in modern dress,[72] Peter Holland has speculated that this company/directoral decision – namely choosing to present Shakespeare in a small venue for artistic reasons when a larger venue was available – may at the time have been unprecedented,[72] Brook's earlier vision of the play proved influential, and directors have gone further in presenting Lear as (in the words of R, A, Foakes) "a pathetic senior citizen trapped in a violent and hostile environment", When John Wood took the role in 1990, he played the later scenes in clothes that looked like cast-offs, inviting deliberate parallels with the uncared-for in modern Western societies,[73] Indeed, modern productions of Shakespeare's plays often reflect the world in which they are performed as much as the world for which they were written: and the Moscow theatre scene in 1994 provided an example, when two very different productions of the play (those by Sergei Zhonovach and Alexei Borodin), very different from one another in their style and outlook, were both reflections on the break-up of the Soviet Union,[74] 21st century[edit]In 2002 and 2010, the Hudson Shakespeare Company of New Jersey staged separate productions as part of their respective Shakespeare in the Parks seasons, The 2002 version was directed by Michael Collins and transposed the action to a West Indies, nautical setting, Actors were featured in outfits indicative of looks of various Caribbean islands, The 2010 production directed by Jon Ciccarelli was fashioned after the atmosphere of the film The Dark Knight with a palette of reds and blacks and set the action in an urban setting, Lear (Tom Cox) appeared as a head of multi-national conglomerate who divided up his fortune among his socialite daughter Goneril (Brenda Scott), his officious middle daughter Regan (Noelle Fair) and university daughter Cordelia (Emily Best),[75] In 2012, Peter Hinton directed an all-First Nations production of King Lear at the National Arts Centre in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, with the setting changed to an Algonquin nation in the 17th century,[76] The cast included August Schellenberg as Lear, Billy Merasty as Gloucester, Tantoo Cardinal as Regan, Kevin Loring as Edmund, Jani Lauzon in a dual role as Cordelia and the Fool, and Craig Lauzon as Kent,[76] In 2015, Toronto's Theatre Passe Muraille staged a production set in Upper Canada, against the backdrop of the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837,[77] This production st*rred David Fox as Lear,[77] In the summer of 2015-2016, The Sydney Theatre Company staged King Lear, directed by Neil Armfield with Geoffrey Rush in the lead role and Robyn Nevin as the Fool, About the madness at the heart of the play, Rush said that for him "it's about finding the dramatic impact in the moments of his mania, What seems to work best is finding a vulnerability or a point of empathy, where an audience can look at Lear and think how shocking it must be to be that old and to be banished from your family into the open air in a storm, That's a level of impoverishment you would never want to see in any other human being, ever,"[78] In 2016 Talawa Theatre Company and Royal Exchange Manchester co-produced a production of King Lear with Don Warrington in the title role,[79][80] The production, featuring a largely black cast, was described in The Guardian as being "as close to definitive as can be"[81] The Daily Telegraph said "Don Warrington's King Lear is a heartbreaking tour de force",[82][83] Screen adaptations[edit]The play's plot, or major elements from it, have frequently been used by film makers, The first film of King Lear was a five-minute German version made around 1905, which has not survived,[84] The oldest extant version is a ten-minute studio-based version from 1909 by Vitagraph, which made (in Luke McKernan's words) the "ill-advised" decision to attempt to cram in as much of the plot as possible,[85] Two silent versions, both titled Re Lear, were made in Italy in 1910, Of these, the version by director Gerolamo Lo Savio was filmed on location, and it dropped the Edgar sub-plot and used frequent intertitling to make the plot easier to follow than its Vitagraph predecessor,[86] A contemporary setting was used for Louis Feuillade's 1911 French adaptation Le Roi Lear Au Village, and in 1914 in America, Ernest Warde expanded the story to an hour, including spectacles such as a final battle scene,[87] Joseph Mankiewicz' 1949 House of Strangers is often considered a Lear adaptation, but the parallels are more striking in its 1954 Western remake Broken Lance in which a cattle baron played by Spencer Tracy tyrannises over his three sons, of whom only the youngest, Joe, played by Robert Wagner, remains loyal,[88] Screenshot from trailer for Korol Lir (1971)The only two significant big-screen performances of Shakespeare's text date from the early 1970s: Grigori Kozintsev was working on his Korol Lir[a] at the same time as Peter Brook was filming his King Lear,[89] Brook's film st*rkly divided the critics: Pauline Kael said "I didn't just dislike this production, I hated it!" and suggested the alternative title "Night of the Living Dead",[90] Yet Robert Hatch in The Nation thought it as "excellent a filming of the play as one can expect" and Vincent Canby in The New York Times called it "an exalting Lear, full of exquisite terror",[91] The film drew heavily on the ideas of Jan Kott, in particular his observation that King Lear was the precursor of absurdist theatre: in particular, the film has parallels with Beckett's Endgame,[92] Critics who dislike the film particularly draw attention to its bleak nature from its opening: complaining that the world of the play does not deteriorate with Lear's suffering, but commences dark, colourless and wintry, leaving (in Douglas Brode's words) "Lear, the land, and us with nowhere to go",[93] Cruelty pervades the film, which does not distinguish between the violence of ostensibly good and evil characters, presenting both savagely,[94] Paul Scofield, as Lear, eschews sentimentality: this demanding old man with a coterie of unruly knights provokes audience sympathy for the daughters in the early scenes, and his presentation explicitly rejects the tradition (as Daniel Rosenthal describes it) of playing Lear as "poor old white-haired patriarch",[95] By contrast, Korol Lir has been praised, for example by critic Alexander Anikst for the "serious, deeply thoughtful" even "philosophical approach" of director Grigori Kozintsev and writer Boris Pasternak, Making a thinly veiled criticism of Brook in the process, Anikst praised the fact that there were "no attempts at sensationalism, no efforts to 'modernise' Shakespeare by introducing Freudian themes, Existentialist ideas, eroticism, or sexual perversion, [Kozintsev],,, has simply made a film of Shakespeare's tragedy,"[96] Dmitri Shostakovich provided an epic score, its motifs including an (increasingly ironic) trumpet fanfare for Lear, and a five-bar "Call to Death" marking each character's demise,[97] Kozintzev described his vision of the film as an ensemble piece: with Lear, played by a dynamic Jüri Järvet, as first among equals in a cast of fully developed characters,[98] The film highlights Lear's role as king by including his people throughout the film on a scale no stage production could emulate, charting the central character's decline from their god to their helpless equal; his final descent into madness marked by his realisation that he has neglected the 'poor naked wretches',[99] As the film progresses, ruthless characters – Goneril, Regan, Edmund – increasingly appear isolated in shots, in contrast to the director's focus, throughout the film, on masses of human beings,[100] Jonathan Miller twice directed Michael Hordern in the title role for English television, the first for the BBC's Play of the Month in 1975 and the second for the BBC Television Shakespeare in 1982, Horden received mixed reviews, and was considered a bold choice due to his history of taking much lighter roles,[101] Also for English television, Laurence Olivier took the role in a 1983 TV production for Granada Television, It was his last screen appearance in a Shakespearean role, its pathos deriving in part from the physical frailty of Olivier the actor,[102] In 1985 a major screen adaptation of the play appeared: Ran, directed by Akira Kurosawa, At the time the most expensive Japanese film ever made, it tells the story of Hidetora, a fictional 16th-century Japanese warlord, whose attempt to divide his kingdom among his three sons leads to an estrangement with the youngest, and ultimately most loyal, of them, and eventually to civil war,[103] In contrast to the cold drab greys of Brook and Kozintsev, Kurosawa's film is full of vibrant colour: external scenes in yellows, blues and greens, interiors in browns and ambers, and Emi Wada's Oscar-winning colour-coded costumes for each family member's soldiers,[104] Hidetora has a back-story: a violent and ruthless rise to power, and the film portrays contrasting victims: the virtuous characters Sue and Tsurumaru who are able to forgive, and the vengeful Kaede (Mieko Harada), Hidetora's daughter-in-law and the film's Lady Macbeth-like villain,[105] Screenshot from trailer for House of Strangers (1949)"The film has two antecedents--biblical references to Joseph and his brothers and King Lear",[106]A scene in which a character is threatened with blinding in the manner of Gloucester forms the climax of the 1973 parody horror Theatre of Blood,[107] Comic use is made of Sir's inability to physically carry any actress cast as Cordelia opposite his Lear in the 1983 film of the stage play The Dresser,[108] John Boorman's 1990 Where the Heart Is features a father who disinherits his three spoilt children,[109] Francis Ford Coppola deliberately incorporated elements of Lear in his 1990 sequel The Godfather Part III, including Michael Corleone's attempt to retire from crime throwing his domain into anarchy, and most obviously the death of his daughter in his arms, Parallels have also been drawn between Andy García's character Vincent and both Edgar and Edmund, and between Talia Shire's character Connie and Kaede in Ran,[110] In 1997, Jocelyn Moorhouse directed A Thousand Acres, based on Jane Smiley's Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, set in 1990s Iowa,[111] The film is described, by scholar Tony Howard, as the first adaptation to confront the play's disturbing sexual dimensions,[110] The story is told from the viewpoint of the elder two daughters, Ginny played by Jessica Lange and Rose played by Michelle Pfeiffer, who were sexually abused by their father as teenagers, Their younger sister Caroline, played by Jennifer Jason Leigh had escaped this fate and is ultimately the only one to remain loyal,[112][113] The play was again adapted to the world of gangsters in Don Boyd's 2001 My Kingdom, a version which differs from all others in commencing with the Lear character, Sandeman, played by Richard Harris, in a loving relationship with his wife, But her violent death marks the st*rt of an increasingly bleak and violent chain of events (influenced by co-writer Nick Davies' documentary book Dark Heart) which in spite of the director's denial that the film had "serious parallels" to Shakespeare's play, actually mirror aspects of its plot closely,[114] Unlike Shakespeare's Lear, but like Hidetora and Sandeman, the central character of Uli Edel's 2002 American TV adaptation King of Texas, John Lear played by Patrick Stewart, has a back-story centred on his violent rise to power as the richest landowner (metaphorically a "king") in General Sam Houston's independent Texas in the early 1840s, Daniel Rosenthal comments that the film was able, by reason of having been commissioned by the cable channel TNT, to include a bleaker and more violent ending than would have been possible on the national networks,[115] 2003's Channel 4-commissioned two-parter Second Generation set the story in the world of Asian manufacturing and music in England,[116] In 2016, Talawa Theatre Company and Royal Exchange Manchester released a stage to screen adaptation of King Lear with Don Warrington in the title role, and also st*rring Alfred Enoch, Miltos Yerolemou, Philip Whitchurch, Fraser Ayres and Rakie Ayola,[117][118] King Lear: The Film is available free in the UK and internationally via the BBC and British Council collaboration, Shakespeare Lives till 30 September 2016,[118] See also[edit]Illegitimacy in fictionNothing comes from nothingShakespearian foolFool (novel)Notes and references[edit]Notes[edit]Jump up ^ The original title of this film in Cyrillic script is Король Лир and the sources anglicise it with different spellings, Rosenthal 2007 has Korol Lir, Brode 2001 has Karol Lear,References[edit]Jump up ^ Jackson 1995, p, 459,Jump up ^ Ekwall 1928, p, xlii,Jump up ^ Stevenson, W, H,, "A note on the derivation of the name 'Leicester'", in: The Archaeological Journal, Volume 75, Royal Archaeological Institute, London, 1918, pp, 30–31Jump up ^ Soula Mitakidou and Anthony L, Manna, with Melpomeni Kanatsouli, Folktales from Greece: A Treasury of Delights, p 100 ISBN 1-56308-908-4; see also D, L, Ashliman, "Love Like Salt: folktales of types 923 and 510"Jump up ^ McNeir 1968,^ Jump up to: a b Harold Bloom, Bloom's Shakespeare Through the Ages: King Lear, Infobase Publishing, p,53, 2008,Jump up ^ Frank Kermode, 'King Lear', The Riverside Shakespeare (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974), 1249,Jump up ^ R,A, Foakes, ed, King Lear, London: Arden, 1997, 89–90,Jump up ^ Kermode, Riverside, 1250,Jump up ^ Naseeb Shaheen Biblical References in Shakespeare's Plays (Newark, 1999, 2011), p, 606Jump up ^ The 1619 quarto is part of William Jaggard's so-called False Folio,Jump up ^ Taylor & Warren 1983,^ Jump up to: a b Harold Bloom, Bloom's Shakespeare Through the Ages: King Lear, Infobase Publishing, p,xii, 2008,Jump up ^ Shakespeare and Foakes p,107,Jump up ^ John Danby, Shakespeare's Doctrine of Nature: A Study of King Lear (London, 1949), p,50Jump up ^ Danby, p,151Jump up ^ Danby, p,50Jump up ^ Kahn, Coppèlia, "The Absent Mother in King Lear", Rewriting the Renaissance: The Discourses of Sexual Difference in Early Modern Europe, Eds, Margaret Ferguson, Maureen Quilligan, and Nancy Vickers, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1986, p, 33-49,Jump up ^ Writings on Art and Literature by Sigmund Freud, Foreword by Neil Hertz, Stanford University Press (page 120)Jump up ^ McLaughlin, John, "The Dynamics of Power in King Lear: An Adlerian Interpretation," Shakespeare Quarterly 29 (1978): 39,^ Jump up to: a b Harold Bloom, Shakespeare Through the Ages: King Lear, p, 317,Jump up ^ Kamaralli, Anna (22 December 2015), "Thou hadst better avoid getting teary – and King Leary – this Christmas", The Conversation, Retrieved 4 January 2016,Jump up ^ Peat, Derek (1982), "And That's True Too: King Lear and the Tension of Uncertainty", in Aspects of King Lear edited by Kenneth Muir and Stanley Wells, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp, 43–53, ISBN 978-0-521-28813-2,Jump up ^ Bradley, A, C, (1991), Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth, London: Penguin, p, 235, ISBN 978-0-14-053019-3,Jump up ^ Reibetanz, John (1977), The Lear world : a study of King Lear in its dramatic context, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, p, 108,Jump up ^ Holloway, John (2005), The Story of the Night: Studies in Shakespeare's Major Tragedies, New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-1-138-01033-8,Jump up ^ Rosenberg, Marvin (1992), The Masks of King Lear, Newark DE: Univ of Delaware Press, ISBN 978-0-87413-485-8,Jump up ^ Elton, William R, (1988), King Lear and the Gods, Lexington KY: University Press of Kentucky, p, 260, ISBN 978-0-8131-0178-1,Jump up ^ The Original Grimm Fairy Tales Translated by Oliver Loo, 2014, ISBN 978-1-312-41904-9Jump up ^ Gay p,171,Jump up ^ Taylor, Gary (b) p,5Jump up ^ Thomson p,143; Taylor, Gary (b) p,6,Jump up ^ Shakespeare and Hunter p,45; Taylor, Gary (b) pp,18–19,Jump up ^ Gurr and Ichikawa, pp,53–54,Jump up ^ Marsden p,21,Jump up ^ Taylor, Michael pp,324–325,Jump up ^ Bradley pp,43Jump up ^ Armstrong p,312; Jackson (c) p,190,Jump up ^ Potter p,186; Marsden p,28,Jump up ^ Bradley pp,47,Jump up ^ Marsden p,28, citing Tate's Lear line 5,6,119,Jump up ^ Cited by Marsden p,30,Jump up ^ Tatspaugh p,528,Jump up ^ Marsden p,33Jump up ^ Marsden p,30, citing Gray's Inn Journal 12 January 1754,Jump up ^ Morrison p,232,Jump up ^ Moody p,40; Shakespeare and Hunter p,50,Jump up ^ Potter p,189,Jump up ^ Potter pp,190–191; Wells (b) p,62,Jump up ^ Potter pp,190–191,Jump up ^ Potter, p,191,Jump up ^ Gay p,161,Jump up ^ Wells (b) p,73,Jump up ^ Shakespeare and Hunter p,51,Jump up ^ Shakespeare and Foakes pp,30–31,Jump up ^ Potter p,191,Jump up ^ Schoch pp,58–75 and 67,Jump up ^ Potter p,193,Jump up ^ Jackson (c) p,206,Jump up ^ Schoch p,63; and see: [1],Jump up ^ O'Connor p,78,Jump up ^ Quoted in Wells (b) p,224; Shakespeare and Foakes p,89,Jump up ^ According to Ronald Harwood, quoted in Wells (b) p,229,Jump up ^ Shaw 1961, p, 111,Jump up ^ Shakespeare and Foakes p,24,Jump up ^ Shakespeare and Foakes pp,36–37,Jump up ^ Shakespeare and Foakes p,52,Jump up ^ Warren p,266,Jump up ^ Administrator, "I Am The Walrus (Lennon/McCartney) - About The Beatles", About The Beatles,Jump up ^ Dawson p,178,Jump up ^ Lan, p,532; Gillies, Minami Li and Trivedi p,265,^ Jump up to: a b Holland p,211,Jump up ^ Shakespeare and Foakes pp,27–28,Jump up ^ Holland p,213,Jump up ^ Beckerman, Jim (21 June 2010), "Hudson Shakespeare Company takes "King Lear" outdoors", The Daily Record of Bergen County,^ Jump up to: a b "A 'King Lear' in need of a king ", The Globe and Mail, 13 May 2012,^ Jump up to: a b "David Fox st*rs in ‘Upper Canada’ King Lear", Toronto st*r, 16 November 2015,Jump up ^ Blake, Elissa (22 November 2015), "Three girls – lucky me! says Geoffrey Rush as he plays in King Lear", The Sydney Morning Herald, Retrieved 15 December 2015,Jump up ^ https://www,thestage,co,uk/news/2015/don-warrington-cast-as-king-lear-at-the-royal-exchange/Jump up ^ http://www,talawa,com/articles/dw-to-play-king-lear/Jump up ^ http://www,theguardian,com/stage/2016, /apr/07/king-lear-review-royal-exchange-manchesterJump up ^ http://www,telegraph,co,uk/theatre/what-to-see/don-warringtons-king-lear-is-a-heartbreaking-tour-de-force/Jump up ^ http://www,talawa,com/articles/king-lear-reviewed/Jump up ^ Brode 2001, p, 205,Jump up ^ McKernan and Terris p,83Jump up ^ McKernan and Terris p,84; this version appears on the British Film Institute video compilation Silent Shakespeare (1999),Jump up ^ Brode 2001, pp, 205–6,Jump up ^ McKernan and Terris pp,84–85,Jump up ^ Brode 2001, p, 206,Jump up ^ Pauline Kael's New Yorker review cited by Brode 2001, pp, 206,209,Jump up ^ Both cited by Brode 2001, p, 206,Jump up ^ Brode 2001, pp, 206–7,Jump up ^ Brode 2001, pp, 206–10,Jump up ^ Rosenthal p,82,Jump up ^ Rosenthal p,83,Jump up ^ Cited by Brode 2001, p, 211,Jump up ^ Rosenthal p,81Jump up ^ Brode 2001, pp, 211–12,Jump up ^ Rosenthal pp,79–80; King Lear III iv 28,Jump up ^ Guntner pp,129–130,Jump up ^ McKernan and Terris pp,85–87,Jump up ^ McKernan and Terris pp,87–88,Jump up ^ Rosenthal p,84,Jump up ^ Guntner p,131; Rosenthal p,84,Jump up ^ Rosenthal pp,84–87; Jackson(b) p,225,Jump up ^ Griggs, Yvonne (2009), Screen Adaptations: Shakespeare's King Lear: A Close Study of the Relationship Between Text and Film, London: Methuen Drama, p, 122, ISBN 978-1-408-10592-4,Jump up ^ McKernan and Terris p,85Jump up ^ McKernan and Terris p,87Jump up ^ Howard p,308,^ Jump up to: a b Howard p,299,Jump up ^ Rosenthal p,88,Jump up ^ Rosenthal pp,88–89Jump up ^ Brode 2001, p, 217,Jump up ^ Rosenthal pp,90–91; Lehmann pp,72–89,Jump up ^ Rosenthal pp,92–93,Jump up ^ Greenhalgh and Shaughnessy p,99,Jump up ^ http://metro,co,uk/2016/07/17/harry-potter-and-how-to-get-away-with-murder-st*r-alfred-enoch-thinks-its-about-time-we-had-a-black-mr-darcy-6006299/^ Jump up to: a b http://www,bbc,co,uk/programmes/p03zc113Cited sources[edit]Editions of King Lear[edit]Secondary sources[edit]Armstrong, Alan Unfamiliar Shakespeare in Wells and Orlin pp, 308–319,Bradley, Lynne (2010), Adapting King Lear for the Stage, Ashgate, ISBN 978-1-4094-0597-9,Brode, Douglas (2001), Shakespeare in the Movies: From the Silent Era to Today, Berkley Boulevard, ISBN 0-425-18176-6,Burnett, Mark Thornton; Ramona Wray (2006), Screening Shakespeare in the Twenty-First Century, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2351-8,Burt, Richard Backstage Pass(ing): Stage Beauty, Othello and the Make-up of Race in Burnett and Wray pp, 53–71,Chauhan, Abnish Singh (2016), William Shakespeare King Lear, Bhavdiya Prakashan, Ayodhya, India, ISBN 978-9385893018,Dawson, Anthony B, International Shakespeare in Wells and Stanton pp, 174–193,Ekwall, Eilert (1928), English River-names, Oxford: Clarendon Press,deGrazia, Margreta; Stanley Wells (2001), The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-65881-0,Gay, Penny Women and Shakespearean Performance in Wells and Stanton pp, 155–173,Gillies, John & Ryuta Minami, Ruri Li and Poonam Trivedi Shakespeare on the Stages of Asia in Wells and Stanton pp, 259–283,Greenhalgh, Susan and Robert Shaughnessy Our Shakespeares: British Television and the Strains of Multiculturalism in Burnett and Wray pp, 90–112,Guntner, J, Lawrence Hamlet, Macbeth and King Lear on Film in Jackson (a) pp, 117–134, especially the section King Lear: A Play For Our Times pp, 128–132,Gurr, Andrew; Mariko Ichikawa (2000), Oxford Shakespeare Topics: Staging in Shakespeare's Theatres, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-871158-2,Hodgdon, Barbara; W, B, Worthen (2005), A Companion to Shakespeare and Performance, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4051-8821-0,Holland, Peter Shakespeare in the Twentieth-Century Theatre in deGrazia and Wells pp, 199–215,Howard, Tony Shakespeare's Cinematic Offshoots in Jackson (a) pp, 295–313,Jackson, Kenneth Hurlstone (1995) [1953], Language and history in early Britain: A chronological survey of the Brittonic languages, first to twelfth century A,D, Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, ISBN 978-1-85182-140-2,Jackson, Russell (a) (2000), The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-63975-1,Keenan, Siobhan, Acting Companies and Their Plays in Shakespeare's London, London: Arden, 2014, 86-92,Jackson, Russell (b) Shakespeare and the Cinema in deGrazia and Wells pp, 217–233,Jackson, Russell (c) Shakespeare on the Stage from 1660 to 1900 in Wells (a) pp, 187–212,Lan, Yong Li Shakespeare and the Fiction of the Intercultural in Hodgdon and Worthen pp, 527–549,Lehmann, Courtney The Postnostalgic Renaissance: The 'Place' of Liverpool in Don Boyd's My Kingdom in Burnett and Wray pp, 72–89,Marsden, Jean I, Improving Shakespeare: from the Restoration to Garrick in Wells and Stanton pp, 21–36,McKernan, Luke; Olwen Terris (1994), Walking Shadows: Shakespeare in the National Film and Television Archive, British Film Institute, ISBN 0-85170-486-7,McNeir, Waldo F, (1968), "The Role of Edmund in King Lear", Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Rice University, 8 (2, Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama): 187–216, doi:10,2307/449655, ISSN 0039-3657, JSTOR 449655, EISSN 1522-9270 – via JSTOR, (registration required (help)),Moody, Jane Romantic Shakespeare in Wells and Stanton pp, 37–57,Potter, Lois Shakespeare in the Theatre, 1660–1900 in deGrazia and Wells pp, 183–198,Rosenthal, Daniel (2007), 100 Shakespeare Films, British Film Institute, ISBN 978-1-84457-170-3,Schoch, Richard W, Pictorial Shakespeare in Wells and Stanton pp, 58–75,Shakespeare, William (1997), R, A, Foakes, ed, King Lear, The Arden Shakespeare (Third Series) Methuen Drama, ISBN 978-1-903436-59-2,Shakespeare, William (1972–1996), G, K, Hunter, ed, King Lear, New Penguin Shakespeare,Shaw, George Bernard (1961), Wilson, Edwin, ed, Shaw on Shakespeare, Applause, ISBN 1-55783-561-6,Tatspaugh, Patricia Performance History: Shakespeare on the Stage 1660–2001 in Wells and Orlin pp, 525–549,Taylor, Gary (a); Warren, Michael, eds, (1983), The Division of the Kingdoms: Shakespeare's Two Versions of King Lear, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 978-0-19-812950-9,Taylor, Gary (b) Shakespeare Plays on Renaissance Stages in Wells and Stanton pp, 1–20,Taylor, Michael The Critical Tradition in Wells and Orlin pp, 323–332,Thomson, Peter The Comic Actor and Shakespeare in Wells and Stanton pp, 137–154,Warren, Roger Shakespeare on the Twentieth-Century Stage in Wells (a) pp, 257–272,Wells, Stanley (a) (1986), The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare Studies, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-31841-6,Wells, Stanley (b) (1997), Oxford Shakespeare Topics: Shakespeare in the Theatre, An Anthology of Criticism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-871176-6,Wells, Stanley; Lena Cowen Orlin (2003), Shakespeare: An Oxford Guide, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-924522-3,Wells, Stanley; Sarah Stanton (2002), The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-79711-X,External links[edit]Wikisource has original text related to this article:The Tragedy of King LearWikiquote has quotations related to: King LearWikimedia Commons has media related to King Lear,King Lear – plaintext file at Project Gutenberg,"Modern Translation of King Lear" - Modern version of the playKing Lear – Searchable, online version of the text,King Lear – Read OnlineKing Lear at the British Library King Lear public domain audiobook at LibriVoxBBC audio file, In Our Time, BBC Radio 4 discussion,King Lear study guide, themes, quotes, character analyses, multimedia, teaching guideJoyce Carol Oates on King Lear[show] v t eWilliam Shakespeare[show] v t eWilliam Shakespeare's King LearAuthority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 181048567 LCCN: n84006972 GND: 4099357-7 SUDOC: 027342956 BNF: cb11940560x (data)Categories: 1605 playsShakespearean tragediesEnglish Renaissance playsBritish traditional historyBritish plays adapted into filmsFictional kingsKing LearSororicide in fictionWorks based on European myths and legendsTHANKS FOR LOOKING!!! Track Page Views With Auctiva's FREE Counter Condition: Good Condition., Publisher: Barnes and Noble, Character Family: Complete Works, Region: Europe, Subject: Literature & Fiction, Place of Publication: USA, Author: William Shakespeare, Country/Region of Manufacture: Unknown, Topic: Classics, Year Printed: 1994, Language: English, Special Attributes: Luxury Edition, Origin: American, Original/Facsimile: Complete Collection, Binding: Leather

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