☆Black Belt Tae Kwon Do Book%ultimate Reference Guide-Expert Martial Arts-Expert

$8.99 Buy It Now or Best Offer 15h 25m, $4.99 Shipping, 14-Day Returns, eBay Money Back Guarantee

Seller: telemosaic (2,494) 99%, Location: Canton, Massachusetts, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 233062909492 ☆ BLACK BELT TAE KWON DO BOOK%ULTIMATE REFERENCE GUIDE-EXPERT MARTIAL ARTS-EXPERT ☆ Yeon Hwan Park and 1 more Black Belt Tae Kwon Do: The Ultimate Reference Guide to the World's Most Popular Black Belt Martial Art ISBN-13: 978-1620875742, ISBN-10: 1620875748 Description Product Description The ancient Korean martial art of Tae Kwon Do allows its practitioners to reach physical prowess, moral development, and spiritual growth. Black Belt Tae Kwon Do is designed to meet the needs of students who wish to complete their black belt training with a reliable study source for solitary practice. This complete sourcebook combines a complete explanation of the physical aspects of the martial art with a full description of the philosophical elements of its training. More than seven hundred photographs illustrate practice routines, black belt forms, sparring strategies, and advanced self-defense techniques. Extensive appendixes include competition rules, weight and belt divisions, governing bodies of national and international organizations, and a glossary of Korean and English terms. Every serious student of Tae Kwon Do will want this manual, the only book of its kind endorsed by the World Tae Kwon Do Federation and the United States Tae Kwon Do Union. About the Author Yeon Hwan Park was the undefeated Korean national champion of Tae Kwon Do from 1971 to 1975. He has coached the United States Tae Kwon Do team and the United States Olympic and Pan American Tae Kwon Do teams. He is the president of the United States Tae Kwon Do Union and publisher of USA Tae Kwon Do Review. His previous books include Tae Kwon Do, Tae Kwon Do: My Life and Philosophy, and Tae Kwon Do for Children. He lives in New York. Jon Gerrard graduated with a degree in psychology from Princeton University, where he also served as president of the Tae Kwon Do Club for two years. For more than ten years he has taught martial arts to law enforcement agents. He is currently a teacher at a private school and a martial arts coach. He lives in New York. REVIEW 5 out of 5 St*rs!!! Excellent reference for instructors and black belt students!!! By Rod B. - November 11, 2016 Verified Purchase Excellent reference for instructors and black belt students. This is an excellent match for the other book, "Tae Kwon Do - The Ultimate Reference Guide To The World's Most Popular Martial Art." I love this book as well as the other book.... Unlike the first book, this book covers the more technical and advanced aspects of Tae Kwon Do. I was happy to come to understand more about being a black belt and the instructing system as well as why and how dojos are ran and organized. The advanced techniques included are also very interesting and I'd like to try some out myself!!!! ---- About this item Product information PublisherSkyhorse Publishing Publication dateAugust 1, 2013 LanguageEnglish Product Dimensions7.5 x 7.5 x 9 inches Shipping Weight 2 pounds Book length272 ISBN-101620875748 ISBN-13978-1620875742 SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT TAE KWON DO TaekwondoFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor the video game, see Taekwon-Do (video game),TaekwondoTaekwondo,svgA World Taekwondo sparring matchA World Taekwondo sparring matchAlso known asTKD, Tae Kwon Do, TaeKwonDo, Taekwon-Do, Tae-Kwon-DoFocusStriking, kickingHardnessFull-contact (WT), Light and medium-contact (ITF, GTF, ATA, TI, TAGB)Country of originKorean Empire KoreaFamous practitionersAustin St, John, Steve Cardenas, Jason David Frank, Choi Hong Hi, Rhee Ki Ha, Nam Tae Hi, Jhoon Rhee, Choi Bae-Dal, Chen Shih-hsin, Chu Mu-yen, Donnie Yen, Tony Jaa, Billy Blanks, Michael Jai White, Sun Hwan Chung, Scott Adkins, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Jeeja Yanin, Cung Le, Steven Lopez, Jean-Claude Van Damme, Mirko Filipović, Joe Rogan, Chang Keun Choi, Kwang Jo Choi, Han Cha Kyo, Jong Soo Park, Jung Tae Park, Yeon Hwan Park, Chong Chul Rhee, Keith H, Cooke, Jade Jones, Anthony Obame, Juan Antonio Ramos, Tran Trieu Quan, S, Henry Cho, Rose Namajunas, Yair Rodriguez, Anthony Pettis, Chan Sung Jung, Akshay Kumar, Nia Sanchez, Zlatan Ibrahimović, Deepak Bista, Tiger Shroff, Jung Tiger Kim, Caity Lotz, Guile, Jeon Somi, Vladimir Putin, Chuck Norris, Conor McGregor, Yun DukanParenthoodKarate and Chinese martial arts along with the indigenous styles of Taekkyeon, Subak, and GwonbeopOlympic sportSince 2000 (World Taekwondo Federation)TaekwondoHangul태권도Hanja跆拳道Revised RomanizationtaegwondoMcCune–ReischauertʼaekwŏndoIPA[tʰɛ,k͈wʌn,do] (About this sound listen)Taekwondo (/ˌtaɪkwɒnˈdoʊ/ TY-kwon-DOH,[1] UK: /ˌtaɪˈkwɒndoʊ/ ty-KWON-doh;[2][3] from Korean 태권도 [tʰɛ,k͈wʌn,do] (About this sound listen)) is a Korean martial art, characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques, Taekwondo was developed during the 1940s and 1950s by various martial artists who combined elements of karate and Chinese martial arts with traditional Korean martial arts traditions such as Taekkyeon, Subak, and Gwonbeop,[4][5] The oldest governing body for taekwondo is the Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA), formed in 1959 through a collaborative effort by representatives from the nine original kwans, or martial arts schools, in Korea, The main international organizational bodies for taekwondo today are the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF), founded by Choi Hong Hi in 1966, and the partnership of the Kukkiwon and World Taekwondo (WT, formerly WTF), founded in 1972 and 1973 respectively by the Korea Taekwondo Association, Gyeorugi ([kjʌɾuɡi]), a type of full-contact sparring, has been an Olympic event since 2000, The governing body for taekwondo in the Olympics and Paralympics is World Taekwondo, Contents [hide] 1History of Taekwondo2Features2,1Theory of power2,2Typical curriculum3Equipment and facilities4Styles and organizations4,11946: Traditional taekwondo4,21966: ITF/Chang Hon-style taekwondo4,31969: ATA/Songahm-style taekwondo4,41970s: Jhoon Rhee-style taekwondo4,51972: Kukki-style / WT-taekwondo4,6Other styles and hybrids5Forms (patterns)6Ranks, belts, and promotion7Historical influences8Philosophy9Competition9,1World Taekwondo9,2International Taekwon-Do Federation9,3Other organizations10Korean Taekwondo Vocabulary11See also12References13External linksHistory of Taekwondo[edit]Further information: Korean martial arts A "family tree" of the five original kwans of taekwondo, The five kwans are highlighted in yellow text,Beginning in 1945, shortly after the end of the WWII, new martial arts schools called kwans were opened in Seoul, These schools were established by Korean martial artists with backgrounds in Japanese, Chinese and Korean martial arts, The umbrella term traditional taekwondo typically refers to the martial arts practiced by the kwans during the 1940s and 1950s, though in reality the term "taekwondo" had not yet been coined at that time, and indeed each kwan was practicing its own unique style of martial art, During this time taekwondo was also adopted for use by the South Korean military, which increased its popularity among civilian martial arts schools, [6] [7] After witnessing a martial arts demonstration by the military in 1952, South Korean President Syngman Rhee urged that the martial arts styles of the kwans be merged, Beginning in 1955 the leaders of the kwans began discussing in earnest the possibility of creating a unified style of Korean martial arts, The name Tae Soo Do was used to describe this unified style, This name consists of the hanja 跆 tae "to stomp, trample", 手 su "hand" and 道 do "way, discipline", Choi Hong Hi advocated the use of the name Tae Kwon Do, i,e, replacing su "hand" by 拳 kwon (Revised Romanization: gwon; McCune–Reischauer: kkwŏn) "fist", the term also used for "martial arts" in Chinese (pinyin quán), The new name was initially slow to catch on among the leaders of the kwans, In 1959 the Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA) was established to facilitate the unification of Korean martial arts, In 1966, Choi established the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF) as a separate governing body devoted to institutionalizing a common style of taekwondo, [6][7] Cold War politics of the 1960s and 1970s complicated the adoption of ITF-style taekwondo as a unified style, however, The South Korean government wished to avoid North Korean influence on the martial art, Conversely, ITF president Choi Hong Hi sought support for the martial art from all quarters, including North Korea, In response, in 1973 South Korea withdrew its support for the ITF, The ITF continued to function as an independent federation, then headquartered in Toronto, Canada; Choi continued to develop the ITF-style, notably with the 1987 publication of his Encyclopedia of Taekwondo, After Choi's retirement the ITF split in 2001 and then again in 2002 to create three separate federations each of which continues to operate today under the same name, [6][7] In 1973 the South Korean government's Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism established the Kukkiwon as the new national academy for taekwondo, Kukkiwon now served many of the functions previously served by the KTA, in terms of defining a government-sponsored unified style of taekwondo, In 1973 the KTA supported the establishment of the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF, renamed to World Taekwondo, WT, in 2017 due to confusion with the initialism[8]) to promote taekwondo specifically as an international sport, WT competitions employ Kukkiwon-style taekwondo, [6] [9] For this reason, Kukkiwon-style taekwondo is often referred to as WT-style taekwondo, sport-style taekwondo, or Olympic-style taekwondo, though in reality the style is defined by the Kukkiwon, not the WT, Since 2000, taekwondo has been one of only two Asian martial arts (the other being judo) that are included in the Olympic Games, It became a demonstration event at the 1988 games in Seoul, a year after becoming a medal event at the Pan Am Games, and became an official medal event at the 2000 games in Sydney, In 2010, taekwondo was accepted as a Commonwealth Games sport, [10] Features[edit] Flying twin foot side kick A jumping reverse hook kickSee also: List of Taekwondo techniquesTaekwondo is characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques, In fact, World Taekwondo Federation sparring competitions award additional points for strikes that incorporate spinning kicks, kicks to the head, or both,[11] To facilitate fast, turning kicks, taekwondo generally adopts stances that are narrower, taller, and hence less-stable than the broader, wide stances used by martial arts such as karate, The tradeoff of decreased stability is believed to be worth the commensurate increase in agility, particularly in Kukkiwon-style taekwondo, Theory of power[edit]The emphasis on speed and agility is a defining characteristic of taekwondo and has its origins in analyses undertaken by Choi Hong Hi, The results of that analysis are known by ITF practitioners as Choi's Theory of Power, Choi based his understanding of power on biomechanics and Newtonian physics as well as Chinese martial arts, For example, Choi observed that the power of a strike increases quadratically with the speed of the strike, but increases only linearly with the mass of the striking object, In other words, speed is more important than size in terms of generating power, This principle was incorporated into the early design of taekwondo and is still used, [7] [12] Choi also advocated a relax/strike principle for taekwondo; in other words, between blocks, kicks, and strikes the practitioner should relax the body, then tense the muscles only while performing the technique, It is believed that the relax/strike principle increases the power of the technique, by conserving the body's energy, He expanded on this principle with his advocacy of the sine wave technique, This involves raising one's center of gravity between techniques, then lowering it as the technique is performed, producing the up-and-down movement from which the term "sine wave" is derived, [12] The sine wave is generally practiced, however, only in schools that follow ITF-style taekwondo, Kukkiwon-style taekwondo, for example, does not employ the sine wave and advocates a more uniform height during movements, drawing power mainly from the rotation of the hip, The components of the Theory of Power include:[13] Reaction Force - the principle that as the striking limb is brought forward, other parts of the body should be brought backward in order to provide more power to the striking limb, As an example, if the right leg is brought forward in a roundhouse kick, the right arm is brought backward to provide the reaction force,Concentration - the principle of bringing as many muscles as possible to bear on a strike, concentrating the area of impact into as small an area as possible,Equilibrium - maintaining a correct center-of-balance throughout a technique,Breath Control - the idea that during a strike one should exhale, with the exhalation concluding at the moment of impact,Mass - the principle of bringing as much of the body to bear on a strike as possible; again using the turning kick as an example, the idea would be to rotate the hip as well as the leg during the kick in order to take advantage of the hip's additional mass in terms of providing power to the kick,Speed - as previously noted, the speed of execution of a technique in taekwondo is deemed to be even more important than mass in terms of providing power,Typical curriculum[edit]While organizations such as ITF or Kukkiwon define the general style of taekwondo, individual clubs and schools tend to tailor their taekwondo practices, Although each taekwondo club or school is different, a student typically takes part in most or all of the following: [14] Forms (pumsae 품새, hyeong 형 or teul 틀) - these serve the same function as kata in the study of karateSparring (gyeorugi 겨루기 or matseogi 맞서기) - sparring includes variations such as free-style sparring (in which competitors spar without interruption for several minutes); 7-, 3-, 2-, and 1-step sparring (in which students practice pre-arranged sparring combinations); and point sparring (in which sparring is interrupted and then resumed after each point is scored)Breaking (gyeokpa 격파 or weerok) - the breaking of boards is used for testing, training, and martial arts demonstrations, Demonstrations often also incorporate bricks, tiles, and blocks of ice or other materials, These techniques can be separated into three types:Power breaking – using straightforward techniques to break as many boards as possibleSpeed breaking – boards are held loosely by one edge, putting special focus on the speed required to perform the breakSpecial techniques – breaking fewer boards but using jumping or flying techniques to attain greater height, distance, or to clear obstaclesSelf-defense techniques (hosinsul 호신술)Learning the fundamental techniques of taekwondo; these generally include kicks, blocks, punches, and strikes, with somewhat less emphasis on grappling and holdsThrowing and/or falling techniques (deonjigi 던지기 or tteoreojigi 떨어지기)Both anaerobic and aerobic workout, including stretchingRelaxation and meditation exercises, as well as breathing controlA focus on mental and ethical discipline, etiquette, justice, respect, and self-confidenceExaminations to progress to the next rankDevelopment of personal success and leadership skillsThough weapons training is not a formal part of most taekwondo federation curricula, individual schools will often incorporate additional training with staffs, knives, sticks, etc, Equipment and facilities[edit] A WT-style dobok A typical dojangA taekwondo student typically wears a uniform (dobok 도복), often white but sometimes black (or other colors), with a belt tied around the waist, White uniforms are considered the traditional color and are encouraged for use at formal ceremonies such as belt tests and promotions, Colored uniforms are often reserved for special teams (such as demonstration teams or leadership teams) or higher-level instructors, There are at least two major styles of dobok, with the most obvious differences being in the style of jacket: (1) the cross-over front jacket (ITF style), (2) the V-neck or Y-neck jackets (no cross-over) typically worn by Kukkiwon/WT practitioners, White uniforms in the Kukkiwon/WT tradition will typically be white throughout the jacket (black along the collars for dan grades), while ITF-style uniforms are trimmed with a black border along the bottom of the jacket (for dan grades), The belt color and any insignia thereon indicate the student's rank, Different clubs and schools use different color schemes for belts, In general, the darker the color, the higher the rank, Taekwondo is traditionally performed in bare feet, although martial arts training shoes may sometimes be worn, When sparring, padded equipment is worn, In the ITF tradition, typically only the hands and feet are padded, For this reason, ITF sparring often employs only light-contact sparring, In the Kukkiwon/WT tradition, full-contact sparring is facilitated by the employment of more extensive equipment: padded helmets called homyun are always worn, as are padded torso protectors called hogu; feet, shins, groins, hands, and forearms protectors are also worn, The school or place where instruction is given is called the dojang (도장), Specifically, the term dojang refers to the area within the school in which martial arts instruction takes place; the word dojang is sometimes translated as gymnasium, In common usage the term dojang is often used to refer to the school as a whole, Modern dojangs often incorporate padded flooring, often incorporating red-and-blue patterns in the flooring to reflect the colors of the taegeuk symbol, Some dojangs have wooden flooring instead, The dojang is usually decorated with items such as flags, banners, belts, instructional materials, and traditional Korean calligraphy, The grandmaster of the dojang is called a gwanjangnim (관장님); the master (senior instructor or head of dojang) is called sabeomnim (사범님); the instructor is called gyosannim (교사님); and the assistant instructor is called jogyonim (조교님), Styles and organizations[edit] A "family tree" illustrating how the five original kwans gave rise to multiple styles of taekwondo,There are a number of major taekwondo styles as well as a few niche styles, Most styles are associated with a governing body or federation that defines the style, The major technical differences among taekwondo styles and organizations generally revolve around: the patterns practiced by each style (called hyeong 형, pumsae 품새, or teul 틀, depending on the style); these are sets of prescribed formal sequences of movements that demonstrate mastery of posture, positioning, and techniquedifferences in the sparring rules for competition,martial arts philosophy,1946: Traditional taekwondo[edit]The term traditional taekwondo typically refers to martial arts practiced in Korea during the 1940s and 1950s by the nine original kwans, or martial arts schools, after the conclusion of the Japanese occupation of Korea at the end of World War II, The term taekwondo had not yet been coined, and in reality, each of the nine original kwans practiced its own style of martial arts, The term traditional taekwondo serves mostly as an umbrella term for these various styles, as they themselves used various other names such as Tang Soo Do (Chinese Hand Way), Kong Soo Do (Empty Hand Way) and Tae Soo Do (Foot Hand Way), Traditional taekwondo is still studied today but generally under other names, such as Tang Soo Do and Soo Bahk Do, [6][7] In 1959, the name Taekwondo was agreed upon by the nine original kwans as a common term for their martial arts, As part of the unification process, The Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA) was formed through a collaborative effort by representatives from all the kwans, and the work began on a common curriculum, which eventually resulted in the Kukkiwon and the Kukki Style of Taekwondo, The original kwans that formed KTA continues to exist today, but as independent fraternal membership organizations that support the World Taekwondo Federation and Kukkiwon, The kwans also function as a channel for the issuing of Kukkiwon dan and poom certification (black belt ranks) for their members, The official curriculum of those kwans that joined the unification is that of the Kukkiwon, with the notable exception of half the Oh Do Kwan which joined the ITF instead and therefore uses the Chan Hon curriculum, 1966: ITF/Chang Hon-style taekwondo[edit]International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF)-style taekwondo, more accurately known as Chang Hon-style taekwondo, is defined by Choi Hong Hi's Encyclopedia of Taekwon-do published in 1987, [12] In 1990, the Global Taekwondo Federation (GTF) split from the ITF due to the political controversies surrounding the ITF; the GTF continues to practice ITF-style taekwondo, however, with additional elements incorporated into the style, Likewise, the ITF itself split in 2001 and again in 2002 into three separate federations, headquartered in Austria, the United Kingdom, and Spain respectively,[15][16][17] The GTF and all three ITFs practice Choi's ITF-style taekwondo, In ITF-style taekwondo, the word used for "forms" is teul; the specific set of teul used by the ITF is called Chang Hon, Choi defined 24 Chang Hon teul, The names and symbolism of the Chang Hon teul refer to elements of Korean history, culture and religious philosophy, The GTF-variant of ITF practices an additional six teul, Within the ITF taekwondo tradition there are two sub-styles: The style of taekwondo practiced by the ITF before its 1973 split with the KTA is sometimes called by ITF practitioners "traditional taekwondo", though a more accurate term would be traditional ITF taekwondo,After the 1973 split, Choi Hong Hi continued to develop and refine the style, ultimately publishing his work in his 1987 Encyclopedia of Taekwondo, Among the refinements incorporated into this new sub-style is the "sine wave"; one of Choi Hong Hi's later principles of taekwondo is that the body's center of gravity should be raised-and-lowered throughout a movement,Some ITF schools adopt the sine wave style, while others do not, Essentially all ITF schools do, however, use the patterns (teul) defined in the Encyclopedia, with some exceptions related to the forms Juche and Ko-Dang, 1969: ATA/Songahm-style taekwondo[edit]In 1969, Haeng Ung Lee, a former taekwondo instructor in the South Korean military, relocated to Omaha, Nebraska and established a chain of martial arts schools in the United States under the banner of the American Taekwondo Association (ATA), Like Jhoon Rhee taekwondo, ATA taekwondo has its roots in traditional taekwondo, The style of taekwondo practiced by the ATA is called Songahm taekwondo, The ATA went on to become one of the largest chains of taekwondo schools in the United States,[18] The ATA established international spin-offs called the Songahm Taekwondo Federation (STF) and the World Traditional Taekwondo Union (WTTU) to promote the practice of Songahm taekwondo internationally, In 2015, all the spin-offs were reunited under the umbrella of ATA International, 1970s: Jhoon Rhee-style taekwondo[edit]In 1962 Jhoon Rhee relocated to the United States and established a chain of martial arts schools primarily in the Washington, D,C, area that practiced traditional taekwondo, In the 1970s, at the urging of Choi Hong Hi, Rhee adopted ITF-style taekwondo within his chain of schools, but like the GTF later departed from the ITF due to the political controversies surrounding Choi and the ITF, Rhee went on to develop his own style of taekwondo called Jhoon Rhee-style taekwondo, incorporating elements of both traditional and ITF-style taekwondo as well as original elements,[19] (Note that Jhoon Rhee-style taekwondo is distinct from the similarly named Rhee Taekwon-Do, based in Australia and New Zealand), Jhoon Rhee-style taekwondo is still practiced primarily in the United States and eastern Europe, 1972: Kukki-style / WT-taekwondo[edit] Relative popularity of Kukkiwon-style taekwondo around the worldIn 1972 the Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA) Central Dojang opened in Seoul in 1972; in 1973 the name was changed to Kukkiwon, Under the sponsorship of the South Korean government's Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism the Kukkiwon became the new national academy for taekwondo, thereby establishing a new "unified" style of taekwondo, [9] In 1973 the KTA established the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF, now called World Taekwondo, WT) to promote taekwondo as a sport, The International Olympic Committee recognized the WT and taekwondo sparring in 1980, For this reason, the Kukkiwon-defined style of taekwondo is sometimes referred to as Sport-style taekwondo, Olympic-style taekwondo, or WT-style taekwondo, but the style itself is defined by the Kukkiwon, not by the WT, and the WT competition ruleset itself only allows the use of a very small number of the total number of techniques included in the style,[20] Therefore, the correct term for the South Korean government sponsored style of Taekwondo associated with the Kukkiwon, is Kukki Taekwondo, meaning "national taekwondo" in Korean, In Kukki-style taekwondo, the word used for "forms" is poomsae, In 1967 the KTA established a new set of forms called the Palgwae poomse, named after the eight trigrams of the I Ching, In 1971 however (after additional kwans had joined the KTA), the KTA and Kukkiwon adopted a new set of color-belt forms instead, called the Taegeuk poomsae, Black belt forms are called yudanja poomsae, While ITF-style forms refer to key elements of Korean history, Kukki-style forms refer instead to elements of sino-Korean philosophy such as the I Ching and the taegeuk, WT-sanctioned tournaments allow any person, regardless of school affiliation or martial arts style, to compete in WT events as long as he or she is a member of the WT Member National Association in his or her nation; this allows essentially anyone to compete in WT-sanctioned competitions, Other styles and hybrids[edit]As previously mentioned, in 1990 the Global Taekwondo Federation (GTF) split from the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF) to form its own style of taekwondo based on ITF-style, Essentially this can be considered a variation of ITF-style, Also in 1990, martial artist and actor Chuck Norris, an alumnus of Hwang Kee's Moo Duk Kwan organization, established a hybrid martial art system called Chun Kuk Do, Chun Kuk Do shares many techniques, forms and names with Tang Soo Do and Taekwondo, and so can be considered a variation of traditional taekwondo, Similarly, Lim Ching Sing's Hup Kwon Do and Kwang-jo Choi's Choi Kwang Do also derive from taekwondo, Additionally, there are hybrid martial arts that combine taekwondo with other styles, These include: Kun Gek Do[21] (also Gwon Gyokdo) - combines taekwondo and muay thai,Han Moo Do - Scandinavian martial art that combines taekwondo, hapkido, and hoi jeon moo sool,Han Mu Do - Korean martial art that combines taekwondo and hapkido,Teukgong Moosool - Korean martial art that combines elements of taekwondo, hapkido, judo, kyuk too ki, and Chinese martial arts,Yongmudo - developed at Korea's Yong-In University, combines taekwondo, hapkido, judo, and ssireum,Forms (patterns)[edit]Three Korean terms may be used with reference to taekwondo forms or patterns, These forms are equivalent to kata in karate, Hyeong (sometimes romanized as hyung) is the term usually used in traditional taekwondo (i,e,, 1950s–1960s styles of Korean martial arts),Poomsae (sometimes romanized as pumsae or poomse) is the term officially used by Kukkiwon/WT-style and ATA-style taekwondo,Teul (sometimes romanized as tul) is the term usually used in ITF/Chang Hon-style taekwondo,A hyeong is a systematic, prearranged sequence of martial techniques that is performed either with or without the use of a weapon, In dojangs (taekwondo training gymnasiums) hyeong are used primarily as a form of interval training that is useful in developing mushin, proper kinetics and mental and physical fortitude, Hyeong may resemble combat, but are artistically non-combative and woven together so as to be an effective conditioning tool, One's aptitude for a particular hyeong may be evaluated in competition, In such competitions, hyeong are evaluated by a panel of judges who base the score on many factors including energy, precision, speed, and control, In Western competitions, there are two general classes of hyeong: creative and standard, Creative hyeong are created by the performer and are generally acrobatic in nature and do not necessarily reflect the kinetic principles intrinsic in any martial system, Different taekwondo styles and associations (ATA, ITF, GTF, WT, etc,) use different taekwondo forms, Even within a single association, different schools in the association may use slightly different variations on the forms, or use different names for the same form (especially in older styles of taekwondo), This is especially true for beginner forms, which tend to be less standardized than mainstream forms, [show]ATA Songahm-style[22]ITF Chang Hon-style[23]GTF style[24]WT Kukkiwon-style[25]Jhoon Rhee style[26]Ranks, belts, and promotion[edit] Exhibition of taekwondo students at the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico CityTaekwondo ranks vary from style to style and are not standardized, Typically, these ranks are separated into "junior" and "senior" sections, colloquially referred to as "color belts" and "black belts", The junior section of ranks - the "color belt" ranks - are indicated by the Korean word geup 급 (also Romanized as gup or kup), Practitioners in these ranks generally wear belts ranging in color from white (the lowest rank) to red (higher ranks, depending on the style of taekwondo), Belt colors may be solid, or may include a colored stripe on a solid background, The number of geup ranks varies depending on the style, typically ranging between 8 and 12 geup ranks, The numbering sequence for geup ranks usually begins at the larger number for white belts, and then counts down to "1st geup" as the highest color-belt rank, The senior section of ranks - the "black belt" ranks - is typically made up of nine ranks, Each rank is called a dan 단 or "degree" (as in "third dan" or "third-degree black belt"), The numbering sequence for dan ranks is opposite that of geup ranks: numbering begins at 1st dan (the lowest black-belt rank) and counts upward for higher ranks, A practitioner's degree is sometimes indicated on the belt itself with stripes, Roman numerals, or other methods, Some styles incorporate an additional rank between the geup and dan levels, called the "bo-dan" rank—essentially, a candidate rank for black belt promotion, Additionally, the Kukkiwon/WT-style of taekwondo recognizes a "poom" rank for practitioners under the age of 15: these practitioners have passed dan-level tests but will not receive dan-level rank until age 15, At age 15, their poom rank is considered to transition to equivalent dan rank automatically, In some schools, holders of the poom rank wear a half-red/half-black belt rather than a solid black belt, To advance from one rank to the next, students typically complete promotion tests in which they demonstrate their proficiency in the various aspects of the art before their teacher or a panel of judges, Promotion tests vary from school to school, but may include such elements as the execution of patterns, which combine various techniques in specific sequences; the breaking of boards to demonstrate the ability to use techniques with both power and control; sparring and self-defense to demonstrate the practical application and control of techniques; physical fitness usually with push-ups and sit-ups; and answering questions on terminology, concepts, and history to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the art, For higher dan tests, students are sometimes required to take a written test or submit a research paper in addition to taking the practical test, Promotion from one geup to the next can proceed rapidly in some schools, since schools often allow geup promotions every two, three, or four months, Students of geup rank learn the most basic techniques first, and then move on to more advanced techniques as they approach first dan, Many of the older and more traditional schools often take longer to allow students to test for higher ranks than newer, more contemporary schools, as they may not have the required testing intervals, In contrast, promotion from one dan to the next can take years, In fact, some styles impose age or time-in-rank limits on dan promotions, For example, the number of years between one dan promotion to the next may be limited to a minimum of the practitioner's current dan-rank, so that (for example) a 5th dan practitioner must wait 5 years to test for 6th dan, Black belt ranks may have titles associated with them, such as "master" and "instructor", but taekwondo organizations vary widely in rules and standards when it comes to ranks and titles, What holds true in one organization may not hold true in another, as is the case in many martial art systems, For example, achieving first dan ( black belt) ranking with three years' training might be typical in one organization, but considered too quick in another organization, and likewise for other ranks, Similarly, the title for a given dan rank in one organization might not be the same as the title for that dan rank in another organization, In the International Taekwon-Do Federation, instructors holding 1st to 3rd dan are called Boosabum (assistant instructor), those holding 4th to 6th dan are called Sabum (instructor), those holding 7th to 8th dan are called Sahyun (master), and those holding 9th dan are called Saseong (grandmaster),[28] This system does not, however, necessarily apply to other taekwondo organizations, In the American Taekwondo Association, instructor designations are separate from rank, Black belts may be designated as an instructor trainee (red collar), specialty trainer (red and black collar), certified trainer (black-red-black collar) and certified instructor (black collar), After a one-year waiting period, instructors who hold a sixth dan are eligible for the title of Master, Seventh dan black belts are eligible for the title Senior Master and eighth dan black belts are eligible for the title Chief Master, In the Kukkiwon/WT-style students holding 1st-3rd dan are considered an Instructor, but generally have much to learn, Students who hold a 4th - 6th dan are considered Masters, Those who hold a 7th - 9th dan are considered Grandmasters, This rank also holds an age requirement of 40+,[29] In this style, a 10th dan rank is sometimes awarded posthumously for practitioners with a lifetime of demonstrable contributions to the practice of taekwondo, Historical influences[edit]See also: Korean martial artsThe oldest Korean martial arts were an amalgamation of unarmed combat styles developed by the three rival Korean Kingdoms of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje,[30] where young men were trained in unarmed combat techniques to develop strength, speed, and survival skills, The most popular of these techniques were ssireum, subak, and taekkyeon, The Northern Goguryeo kingdom was a dominant force in Northern Korea and North Eastern China prior to the 1st century CE, and again from the 3rd century to the 6th century, Before the fall of the Goguryeo Dynasty in the 6th century, the Shilla Kingdom asked for help in training its people for defense against pirate invasions, During this time a few select Silla warriors were given training in taekkyeon by the early masters from Goguryeo, These Silla warriors then became known as Hwarang or "blossoming knights," The Hwarang set up a military academy for the sons of royalty in Silla called Hwarang-do {花郎徒}, which means "flower-youth corps," The Hwarang studied taekkyeon, history, Confucian philosophy, ethics, Buddhist morality, social skills, and military tactics, The guiding principles of the Hwarang warriors were based on Won Gwang's five codes of human conduct and included loyalty, filial duty, trustworthiness, valor, and justice, [31] In spite of Korea's rich history of ancient and martial arts, Korean martial arts faded during the late Joseon Dynasty, Korean society became highly centralized under Korean Confucianism, and martial arts were poorly regarded in a society whose ideals were epitomized by its scholar-kings, [32] Formal practices of traditional martial arts such as subak and taekkyeon were reserved for sanctioned military uses, However, taekkyeon persisted into the 19th century as a folk game during the May-Dano festival, and was still taught as the formal military martial art throughout the Joseon Dynasty,[30] Early progenitors of taekwondo - the founders of the nine original kwans - who were able to study in Japan were exposed to Japanese martial arts, including karate, judo, and kendo,[33] while others were exposed to the martial arts of China and Manchuria, as well as to the indigenous Korean martial art of taekkyeon, [5] [34] [35][36] Hwang Kee founder of Moo Duk Kwan, further incorporated elements of Korean Gwonbeop from the Muye Dobo Tongji into the style that eventually became Tang Soo Do, Philosophy[edit]Different styles of taekwondo adopt different philosophical underpinnings, Many of these underpinnings however refer back of the Five Commandments of the Hwarang as a historical referent, For example, Choi Hong Hi expressed his philosophical basis for taekwondo as the Five Tenets of Taekwondo:[37] Courtesy (yeui / 예의)Integrity (yeomchi / 염치)Perseverance (innae / 인내)Self-control (geukgi / 극기)Indomitable spirit (baekjeolbulgul / 백절불굴)These tenets are further articulated in a taekwondo oath, also authored by Choi: I shall observe the tenets of taekwondoI shall respect the instructor and seniorsI shall never misuse taekwondoI shall be a champion of freedom and justiceI shall build a more peaceful worldModern ITF organizations have continued to update and expand upon this philosophy,[38][39] The World Taekwondo Federation also refers to the commandments of the Hwarang in the articulation of its taekwondo philosophy,[40] Like the ITF philosophy, it centers on the development of a peaceful society as one of the overarching goals for the practice of taekwondo, The WT's stated philosophy is that this goal can be furthered by adoption of the Hwarang spirit, by behaving rationally ("education in accordance with the reason of heaven"), and by recognition of the philosophies embodied in the taegeuk (the yin and the yang, i,e,, "the unity of opposites") and the sam taegeuk (understanding change in the world as the interactions of the heavens, the Earth, and Man), The philosophical position articulated by the Kukkiwon is likewise based on the Hwarang tradition,[41] Competition[edit] Sparring in a taekwondo classTaekwondo competition typically involves sparring, breaking, and patterns; some tournaments also include special events such as demonstration teams and self-defense (hosinsul), In Olympic taekwondo competition, however, only sparring (using WT competition rules) is performed,[42] There are two kinds of competition sparring: point sparring, in which all strikes are light contact and the clock is stopped when a point is scored; and Olympic sparring, where all strikes are full contact and the clock continues when points are scored, Sparring involves a Hogu, or a chest protector, which muffles any kick's damage to avoid serious injuries, Helmets and other gear is provided as well, Though other systems may vary, a common point system works like this: One point for a regular kick to the Hogu, two for a turning behind kick, three for a back kick, and four for a spinning kick to the head, World Taekwondo[edit] Official WT trunk protector (hogu), forearm guards and shin guardsUnder World Taekwondo (WT, formerly WTF) and Olympic rules, sparring is a full-contact event and takes place between two competitors in either an area measuring 8 meters square or an octagon of similar size,[43] Competitors are matched within gender and weight division - 8 divisions for World Championships that are condensed to 4 for the Olympics, A win can occur by points, or if one competitor is unable to continue (knockout), However, there are several decisions that can lead to a win, as well, including superiority, withdrawal, disqualification, or even a referee's punitive declaration,[44] Each match consists of three two-minute rounds, with one minute rest between rounds, though these are often abbreviated or shortened for some junior and regional tournaments,[43] Competitors must wear a hogu, head protector, shin pads, foot socks, forearm guards, hand gloves, a mouthpiece, and a groin cup, Tournaments sanctioned by national governing bodies or the WT, including the Olympics and World Championship, use electronic hogus, electronic foot socks, and electronic head protectors to register and determine scoring techniques, with human judges used to assess and score technical (spinning) techniques and score punches,[43] Points are awarded for permitted techniques delivered to the legal scoring areas, as determined by the electronic scoring system, which assesses the strength and location of the contact, The only techniques allowed are kicks (delivering a strike using an area of the foot below the ankle) and punches (delivering a strike using the closed fist), In some smaller tournaments, and in the past, points were awarded by three corner judges using electronic scoring tallies, All major national and international tournaments have moved fully (as of 2017) to electronic scoring, including the use of electronic headgear, This limits corner judges to scoring only technical points and punches, Some believe that the new electronic scoring system reduces controversy concerning judging decisions,[45] but this technology is still not universally accepted,[46] In particular the move to electronic headgear has replaced controversy over judging with controversy over how the technology has changed the sport, Because the headgear is not able to determine if a kick was a correct taekwondo technique, and the pressure threshold for sensor activation for headgear is kept low for safety reasons, athletes who improvised ways of placing their foot on their opponents head were able to score points, regardless of how true to taekwondo those techniques were,[47] A punch that makes contact with the opponent's hogu (the body guard that functions as a scoring target) scores one point, while a kick scores two points, (The trunk protector is referred to as a momtong pohodae 몸통 보호대 or trunk guard in the WT rules,) If a kick to the hogu involves a technique that includes fully turning the attacking competitor's body, so that the back is fully exposed to the targeted competitor during execution of the technique (spinning kick), three points are awarded, A kick to the head scores three points; as of October 2010 an additional point is awarded if a turning kick was used to execute this attack, making a spinning head kick worth 4 points,[48] Punches to the head are not allowed, As of October 2017, no additional points are awarded for knocking down an opponent (beyond the normal points awarded for legal strikes), The referee can give penalties at any time for rule-breaking, such as hitting an area not recognized as a target, usually the legs or neck, Penalties, called "Gam-jeom" are counted as an addition of one point for the opposing contestant, Following 10 "Gam-jeom" a player is declared the loser by referee's punitive declaration[43] At the end of three rounds, the competitor with most points wins the match, In the event of a tie, a fourth "sudden death" overtime round, sometimes called a "Golden Point", is held to determine the winner after a one-minute rest period, In this round, the first competitor to score a point wins the match, If there is no score in the additional round, the winner is decided by superiority, as determined by the refereeing officials[48] or number of fouls committed during that round, If a competitor has a 20-point lead at the end of the second round or achieves a 20-point lead at any point in the third round, then the match is over and that competitor is declared the winner,[43] USA Taekwondo is the officially recognized National Governing Body for Taekwondo for the United States Olympic Committee (USOC), and the official Member National Association of the World Taekwondo Federation, In addition to sparring competition, World Taekwondo sanctions competition in poomsae or forms, although this is not an Olympic event, Single competitors perform a designated pattern of movements, and are assessed by judges for accuracy (accuracy of movements, balance, precision of details) and presentation (speed and power, rhythm, energy), both of which receive numerical scores, with deductions made for errors,[49] Pair and team competition is also recognized, where two or more competitors perform the same form at the same time, In addition to competition with the traditional forms, there is experimentation with freestyle forms that allow more creativity, [49] The World Taekwondo Federation directly sanctions the following competitions:[50] World Taekwondo Poomsae ChampionshipsWorld Taekwondo ChampionshipsWorld Para Taekwondo Championships (since 2009)[51]World Taekwondo Cadet ChampionshipsWorld Taekwondo Junior ChampionshipsWorld Taekwondo Team ChampionshipsWorld Taekwondo Para ChampionshipsWorld Taekwondo Grand PrixWorld Taekwondo Beach ChampionshipsOlympic GamesParalympic Games (debut in 2020 Tokyo Paralympics)[52]International Taekwon-Do Federation[edit] Common styles of ITF point sparring equipmentThe International Taekwon-Do Federation's sparring rules are similar to the WT's rules, but differ in several aspects, Hand attacks to the head are allowed,[53]The competition is not full contact, and excessive contact is not allowed,Competitors are penalized with disqualification if they injure their opponent and he can no longer continue (knockout),The scoring system is:1 point for: Punch to the body or head,2 points for: Jumping kick to the body or kick to the head3 points for: Jumping kick to the headThe competition area may vary between 10×10 meters and 20×20 meters in international championships,Competitors do not wear the hogu (although they are required to wear approved foot and hand protection equipment, as well as optional head guards), This scoring system varies between individual organisations within the ITF; for example, in the TAGB, punches to the head or body score 1 point, kicks to the body score 2 points, and kicks to the head score 3 points, A continuous point system is utilized in ITF competition, where the fighters are allowed to continue after scoring a technique, Excessive contact are generally not allowed according to the official ruleset, and judges penalize any competitor with disqualification if they injure their opponent and he can no longer continue (although these rules vary between ITF organizations), At the end of two minutes (or some other specified time), the competitor with more scoring techniques wins, Fouls in ITF sparring include: attacking a fallen opponent, leg sweeping, holding/grabbing, or intentional attack to a target other than the opponent,[54] ITF competitions also feature performances of patterns, breaking, and 'special techniques' (where competitors perform prescribed board breaks at great heights), Other organizations[edit]American Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) competitions are very similar, except that different styles of pads and gear are allowed,[55] Apart from WT and ITF tournaments, major taekwondo competitions (all featuring WT taekwondo only) include: UniversiadeAsian GamesAfrican GamesEuropean GamesPan American GamesPacific GamesTaekwondo is also an optional sport at the Commonwealth Games, Korean Taekwondo Vocabulary[edit] Some common taekwondo terminology and parts of the bodyIn taekwondo schools - even outside Korea - Korean language commands and vocabulary are often used, Korean numerals may be used as prompts for commands or for counting repetition exercises, Different schools and associations will use different vocabulary, however, and may even refer to entirely different techniques by the same name, As one example, in Kukkiwon/WT-style taekwondo, the term ap seogi refers to an upright walking stance, while in ITF/Chang Hon-style taekwondo ap seogi refers to a long, low, front stance, Korean vocabulary commonly used in taekwondo schools includes: [show]Basic Commands[show]Hand Techniques[show]Foot Techniques[show]Stances[show]Technique Direction[show]Titles[show]Other/MiscellaneousSee also[edit]iconKorea portaliconCulture portalMartial arts portalWorld Taekwondo ChampionshipsPara TaekwondoReferences[edit]Jump up ^ "tae kwon do", OxfordDictionaries,com, Oxford University Press, Retrieved 8 January 2017,Jump up ^ "tae kwon do", Cambridge English Dictionary, Cambridge University Press, Retrieved 8 January 2017,Jump up ^ "tae kwon do", Merriam-Webster, Retrieved 8 January 2017,Jump up ^ http://fightland,vice,com/blog/flying-kicks-the-roots-of-taekwondo-and-the-future-of-martial-arts^ Jump up to: a b "Brief History of Taekwondo", Long Beach Press-Telegram, 2005,^ Jump up to: a b c d e Sik, Kang Won; Lee Kyong Myung (1999), A Modern History of Taekwondo, Seoul: Pogyŏng Munhwasa, ISBN 978-89-358-0124-4,^ Jump up to: a b c d e Gillis, Alex (2008), A Killing Art: The Untold History of Tae Kwon Do, ECW Press, ISBN 978-1550228250,Jump up ^ "World Taekwondo Federation changes name over 'negative connotations'", BBC Sport, 2017-06-24, Retrieved 2017-10-02,^ Jump up to: a b "Kukkiwon History", Kukkiwon,or,kr, Retrieved September 7, 2014,Jump up ^ Williams, Bob (23 June 2010), "Taekwondo set to join 2018 Commonwealth Games after 'category two' classification", The Telegraph, Retrieved 21 November 2010,Jump up ^ "WT Competition Rules", WorldTaekwondo,org, Retrieved September 7, 2014,^ Jump up to: a b c Choi, Hong Hi (1987), Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do, International Taekwon-Do Federation, ASIN B008UAO292,Jump up ^ "ITF Theory of Power", Tkd,co,uk, Retrieved September 11, 2014,Jump up ^ Kim, Sang H, (2002), Martial Arts Instructors Desk Reference: A Complete Guide to Martial Arts Administration, Turtle Press, ASIN B001GIOGL4,Jump up ^ "ITF Austria", Itftkd,org, Retrieved September 16, 2014,Jump up ^ "ITF United Kingdom", Itf-administration,com, Retrieved September 16, 2014,Jump up ^ "ITF Spain", Tkd-itf,org, Retrieved September 16, 2014,Jump up ^ "ATA History", Ataon;ine,com, Retrieved September 7, 2014,Jump up ^ "The Jhoon Rhee Story", Jhoonrhee,com, Retrieved September 7, 2014,Jump up ^ "WTF History", Worldtaekwondofederation,net, Retrieved September 7, 2014,Jump up ^ "Kun Gek Do (Korean Kickboxing, Gwon Gyokdo)", Fullcontactmartialarts,org, Retrieved 30 April 2017,Jump up ^ "American Taekwondo Association | Martial Arts, Karate, Tae Kwon Do, Tae-Kwon-Do", Ataonline,com, Retrieved 2015-06-26,Jump up ^ Website, A, "Blue Cottage Taekwon-Do", Bluecottagetkd,com, Retrieved 2015-06-26,Jump up ^ "Main", Gtftaekwondo,com, Retrieved 2015-06-26,Jump up ^ "World Taekwondo Headquarters", Kukkiwon,or,kr, Retrieved 2015-06-26,Jump up ^ "Home - Jhoon Rhee Tae Kwon Do - Arlington", Jhoon Rhee Tae Kwon Do - Arlington, Retrieved 2015-06-26,Jump up ^ "U-Nam The Forgotten ITF Pattern" (PDF), Blue Cottage Taekwondo, Retrieved January 5, 2016,Jump up ^ Choi, H, H, (1993): Taekwon-Do: The Korean art of self-defence, 3rd ed, (Vol, 1, p, 122), Mississauga: International Taekwon-Do Federation,Jump up ^ Kukkiwon (2005), Kukkiwon Textbook, Seoul: Osung, ISBN 978-8973367504,^ Jump up to: a b Capener, Steven D,; H, Edward Kim (ed,) (2000), Taekwondo: The Spirit of Korea (portions of), Korea: Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Republic of Korea, Korea has a long history of martial arts stretching well back into ancient times, Written historical records from the early days of the Korean peninsula are sparse, however, there are a number of well-preserved archeological artifacts that tell stores of Korea's early martial arts,", "taekwondo leaders st*rted to experiment with a radical new system that would result in the development of a new martial sport different from anything ever seen before, This new martial sport would bear some important similarities to the traditional Korean game of taekkyon,Jump up ^ Seth, Michael J, (2010), A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, ISBN 978-0742567160,Jump up ^ Cummings, B, (2005), Korea's Place in the Sun, New York, NY: W,W, Norton,Jump up ^ Park, S, W, (1993): About the author, In H, H, Choi: Taekwon-Do: The Korean art of self-defence, 3rd ed, (Vol, 1, pp, 241–274), Mississauga: International Taekwon-Do FederationJump up ^ Glen R, Morris, "The History of Taekwondo",Jump up ^ Cook, Doug (2006), "Chapter 3: The Formative Years of Taekwondo", Traditional Taekwondo: Core Techniques, History and Philosophy, Boston: YMAA Publication Center, p, 19, ISBN 978-1-59439-066-1,Jump up ^ Choi Hong Hi (1999), "ITF Information interviews with General Choi", The Condensed Encyclopedia Fifth Edition, Archived from the original on 2009-09-18, Young Choi's father sent him to study calligraphy under one of the most famous teachers in Korea, Mr, Han II Dong, Han, in addition to his skills as a calligrapher, was also a master of taekkyeon, the ancient Korean art of foot fighting, The teacher, concerned over the frail condition of his new student, began teaching him the rigorous exercises of taekkyeon to help build up his body,Jump up ^ S, Benko, James, "Grand Master, Ph,D", The Tenants Of Tae Kwon Do, ITA Institute, Retrieved 13 March 2013,Jump up ^ "ITF More Culture", Retrieved September 11, 2014,Jump up ^ "ITF Philosophy", Tkd,otf,org, Retrieved September 11, 2014,Jump up ^ "WTF Philosophy", Worldtaekwondofederation,net, Retrieved September 11, 2014,Jump up ^ "Kukkiwon Philosophy", Kukkiwon,or,kr, Retrieved September 11, 2014,Jump up ^ World Taekwondo Federation (2004), "Kyorugi rules", Rules, WorldTaekwondo,org, Archived from the original on 2007-07-02, Retrieved 2007-08-11,^ Jump up to: a b c d e "WORLD TAEKWONDO FEDERATION COMPETITION RULES & INTERPRETATION" (PDF), World Taekwondo, October 1, 2017,Jump up ^ "Taekwondo Rules" (PDF), martialartsweaponstraining,com,(24 June 2017, p, 38)Jump up ^ Gomez, Brian (August 23, 2009), "New taekwondo scoring system reduces controversy", The Gazette,Jump up ^ "British taekwondo chief says new judging system is far from flawless", morethanthegames,co,uk, Archived from the original on 26 December 2010,Jump up ^ Press, MARIA CHENG Associated, "Is that a kick? Taekwondo fighters devise new ways to score", sandiegouniontribune,com, Retrieved 2017-10-02,^ Jump up to: a b World Taekwondo Federation (Oct 7, 2010): Competition rules & interpretation (7 October 2010, pp, 31–32), Retrieved on 27 November 2010,^ Jump up to: a b "WORLD TAEKWONDO FEDERATION POOMSAE COMPETITION RULES & INTERPRETATION" (PDF), World Taekwondo, October 1, 2017,Jump up ^ "main - World Taekwondo Federation", World Taekwondo Federation, Retrieved 2016-04-30,Jump up ^ http://www,worldtaekwondo,org/competition/wtf-world-para-taekwondo-championships/london-2017/information/Jump up ^ https://tokyo2020,jp/en/games/sport/paralympic/taekwondo/Jump up ^ "itf-information,com", itf-information,com,Jump up ^ ITF World Junior & Senior Tournament Rules - Rules and RegulationsJump up ^ "AAU Taekwondo > Rules/Info > Rules Handbook > 2015 AAU Taekwondo Handbook Divided By Sections", Aautaekwondo,org, Retrieved 2015-06-13,External links[edit]Kukkiwon's Guide to Technical Terminology in Taekwondo The dictionary definition of taekwondo at Wiktionary Media related to Taekwondo (category) at Wikimedia Commons[show] v t eKorean martial arts[show] v t eMartial arts[show] v t eSummer Olympic sportsAuthority controlGND: 4058878-6 NDL: 00576899Categories: TaekwondoKorean martial artsSummer Olympic sportsKorean cultureMixed martial arts stylesSports originating in Korea 4 SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT MARTIAL ARTSMartial artsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaMartial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage, Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of eastern Asia, it originally referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s, The term is derived from Latin, and means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war,[1] Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors,[2] The martial art of boxing was practiced in the ancient Thera,Contents [hide] 1Variation and scope1,1By technical focus1,2By application or intent2History2,1Historical martial arts2,2Folk styles2,3Modern history2,4Reviving of lost martial arts3Testing and competition3,1Light- and medium-contact3,2Full-contact3,3Martial sport4Health and fitness benefits5Self-defense, military and law enforcement applications6Martial arts industry6,1Equipment6,2Martial arts fraud7See also8ReferencesVariation and scope[edit]Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, including: Traditional or historical arts vs, contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts,Techniques taught: Armed vs, unarmed, and within these groups by type of weapon (swordsmanship, stick fighting etc,) and by type of combat (grappling vs, striking; stand-up fighting vs, ground fighting)By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, meditation, etc,Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs, "internal" stylesBy technical focus[edit]UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields, often described as hybrid martial arts, Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, KarateKicking: Taekwondo, Capoeira, SavateOthers using strikes: Muay Thai, SanshouGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Judo, Sumo, Wrestling, AikidoJoint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Jujutsu, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, SamboPinning Techniques: Judo, Wrestling, AikidoWeapon-basedThose traditional martial arts which train armed combat often encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms, Such traditions include eskrima, silat, kalaripayat, kobudo, and historical European martial arts, especially those of the German Renaissance, Many Chinese martial arts also feature weapons as part of their curriculum, Sometimes, training with one specific weapon will be considered a style of martial arts in its own right, which is especially the case in Japanese martial arts with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo (sword), bojutsu (staff), and kyudo (archery), Similarly, modern Western martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat or singlestick, and modern competitive archery, By application or intent[edit]Combat-orientedMain articles: Combat sport and Self-defenseHealth-orientedMany martial arts, especially those from Asia, also teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices, This is particularly prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting, herbalism, and other aspects of traditional medicine,[3] Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can also be linked with religion and spirituality, Numerous systems are reputed to have been founded, disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns, Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training, In those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment, Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are often strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy, Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent, Aikido, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba, Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development, A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, which is stressed to be only achieved through individual meditation and training, The Koreans believe that the use of physical force is only justified through defense, Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, and to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual,[4] Some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner, Many such martial arts incorporate music, especially strong percussive rhythms, (See also war dance,) History[edit]Main article: History of martial artsFurther information: Martial arts timelineHistorical martial arts[edit]Main articles: History of Asian martial arts and Historical European martial artsFurther information: History of boxing and History of fencing Detail of the wrestling fresco in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan,The oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows,[5][6] Chinese martial arts originated during the Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, It is said the Yellow Emperor Huangdi (legendary date of ascension 2698 BC) introduced the earliest fighting systems to China, The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who, before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine, astrology and the martial arts, One of his main opponents was Chi You who was credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling, The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is likely a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts, During the Warring States period of Chinese history (480-221 BC) extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War (c, 350 BC),[7] Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China,[8] Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD,[9] The combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to Kalaripayattu,[10] Pankratiasts fighting under the eyes of a judge, Side B of a Panathenaic prize amphora, c, 500 BC,In Europe, the earliest sources of martial arts traditions date to Ancient Greece, Boxing (pygme, pyx), wrestling (pale) and pankration were represented in the Ancient Olympic Games, The Romans produced gladiatorial combat as a public spectacle, A number of historical combat manuals have survived from the European Middle Ages, This includes such styles as sword and shield, two-handed swordfighting and other types of melee weapons besides unarmed combat, Amongst these are transcriptions of Johannes Liechtenauer's mnemonic poem on the longsword dating back to the late fourteenth century, Likewise, Asian martial arts become well-documented during the medieval period, Japanese martial arts beginning with the establishment of the samurai nobility in the 12th century, Chinese martial arts with Ming era treatises such as Ji Xiao Xin Shu, Indian martial arts in medieval texts such as the Agni Purana and the Malla Purana, and Korean martial arts from the Joseon era and texts such as Muyejebo (1598), European swordsmanship always had a sportive component, but the duel was always a possibility until World War I, Modern sport fencing began developing during the 19th century as the French and Italian military academies began codifying instruction, The Olympic games led to standard international rules, with the Féderation Internationale d'Escrime founded in 1913, Modern boxing originates with Jack Broughton's rules in the 18th century, and reaches its present form with the Marquess of Queensberry Rules of 1867, Folk styles[edit]Main article: Folk wrestlingCertain traditional combat sports and fighting styles exist all over the world, rooted in local culture and folklore, The most common of these are styles of folk wrestling, some of which have been practiced since antiquity, and are found in the most remote areas, Other examples include forms of stick fighting and boxing, While these arts are based on historical traditions of folklore, they are not "historical" in the sense that they reconstruct or preserve a historical system from a specific era, They are rather contemporary regional sports that coexist with the modern forms of martial arts sports as they have developed since the 19th century, often including cross-fertilization between sports and folk styles; thus, the traditional Thai art of muay boran developed into the modern national sport of muay Thai, which in turn came to be practiced worldwide and contributed significantly to modern hybrid styles like kickboxing and mixed martial arts, Singlestick, an English martial art can be seen often utilised in morris dancing, Many European dances share elements of martial arts with examples including Ukrainian Hopak, Polish Zbójnicki (use of ciupaga), the Czech dance odzemek, and the Norwegian Halling, Modern history[edit]Further information: Modern history of East Asian martial artsLate 19th to early 20th centuryThe mid to late 19th century marks the beginning of the history of martial arts as modern sports developed out of earlier traditional fighting systems, In Europe, this concerns the developments of boxing and fencing as sports, In Japan, the same period marks the formation of the modern forms of judo, jujutsu, karate, and kendo (among others) based on revivals of old schools of Edo period martial arts which had been suppressed during the Meiji Restoration,[citation needed] Modern muay Thai rules date to the 1920s, In China, the modern history of martial arts begins in the Nanjing decade (1930s) following the foundation of the Central Guoshu Institute in 1928 under the Kuomintang government, Western interest in Asian martial arts arises towards the end of the 19th century, due to the increase in trade between the United States with China and Japan,[citation needed] Relatively few Westerners actually practiced the arts, considering it to be mere performance, Edward William Barton-Wright, a railway engineer who had studied jujutsu while working in Japan between 1894 and 1897, was the first man known to have taught Asian martial arts in Europe, He also founded an eclectic style named Bartitsu which combined jujutsu, judo, wrestling, boxing, savate and stick fighting, Fencing and Greco-Roman wrestling was included in the 1896 Summer Olympics, FILA Wrestling World Championships and Boxing at the Summer Olympics were introduced in 1904, The tradition of awarding championship belts in wrestling and boxing can be traced to the Lonsdale Belt, introduced in 1909, 20th century (1914 to 1989) Bruce Lee and his teacher Yip Man, Jackie Chan, one of the best known Hollywood actors and martial artists,The International Boxing Association was established in 1920, World Fencing Championships have been held since 1921, As Western influence grew in Asia a greater number of military personnel spent time in China, Japan and South Korea during World War II and the Korean War and were exposed to local fighting styles, Jujutsu, judo and karate first became popular among the mainstream from the 1950s-60s, Due in part to Asian and Hollywood martial arts movies, most modern American martial arts are either Asian-derived or Asian influenced,[11] The term kickboxing (キックボクシング) was created by the Japanese boxing promoter Osamu Noguchi for a variant of muay Thai and karate that he created in the 1950s, American kickboxing was developed in the 1970s, as a combination of boxing and karate, Taekwondo was developed in the context of the Korean War in the 1950s, The later 1960s and 1970s witnessed an increased media interest in Chinese martial arts, influenced by martial artist Bruce Lee, Bruce Lee is credited as one of the first instructors to openly teach Chinese martial arts to Westerners,[12] World Judo Championships have been held since 1956, Judo at the Summer Olympics was introduced in 1964, Karate World Championships were introduced in 1970, Following the "kung fu wave" in Hong Kong action cinema in the 1970s, a number of mainstream films produced during the 1980s contributed significantly to the perception of martial arts in western popular culture, These include The Karate Kid (1984) and Bloodsport (1988), This era produced some Hollywood action st*rs with martial arts background, such as Jean-Claude Van Damme and Chuck Norris, Also during the 20th century, a number of martial arts were adapted for self-defense purposes for military hand-to-hand combat, World War II combatives, KAPAP (1930s) and Krav Maga (1950s) in Israel, Systema in Soviet-era Russia, and Sanshou in the People's Republic of China are examples of such systems, The US military de-emphasized hand-to-hand combat training during the Cold War period, but revived it with the introduction of LINE in 1989, 1990 to presentDuring the 1990s Brazilian jiu-jitsu became popular and proved to be effective in mixed martial arts competitions such as the UFC and PRIDE,[13] In 1993 the first Pancrase event was held,[14] The K-1 rules of kickboxing were introduced based on 1980s Seidokaikan karate, Jackie Chan and Jet Li are prominent movie figures who have been responsible for promoting Chinese martial arts in recent years, With the continual discovery of more medieval and Renaissance fighting manuals, the practice of Historical European Martial Arts and other Western Martial Arts are growing in popularity across the United States and Europe, November 29, 2011, UNESCO inscribed taekkyeon onto its Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity List,[15] Reviving of lost martial arts[edit]Many martial arts which originated in Southern India were banned by the government of the British Raj,[16] few of them which barely survived are Kalaripayattu and Silambam, These and other martial arts survived by telling the British government it was a form of dance, Varma kalai, a martial arts concentrating on vital points, was almost dead but is gradually being revived,[17] Testing and competition[edit]Testing or evaluation is important to martial artists of many disciplines who wish to determine their progression or own level of skill in specific contexts, Students often undergo periodic testing and grading by their own teacher in order to advance to a higher level of recognized achievement, such as a different belt color or title, The type of testing used varies from system to system but may include forms or sparring, Steven Ho executing a Jump Spin Hook KickVarious forms and sparring are commonly used in martial art exhibitions and tournaments, Some competitions pit practitioners of different disciplines against each other using a common set of rules, these are referred to as mixed martial arts competitions, Rules for sparring vary between art and organization but can generally be divided into light-contact, medium-contact, and full-contact variants, reflecting the amount of force that should be used on an opponent, Light- and medium-contact[edit]These types of sparring restrict the amount of force that may be used to hit an opponent, in the case of light sparring this is usually to 'touch' contact, e,g, a punch should be 'pulled' as soon as or before contact is made, In medium-contact (sometimes referred to as semi-contact) the punch would not be 'pulled' but not hit with full force, As the amount of force used is restricted, the aim of these types of sparring is not to knock out an opponent; a point system is used in competitions, A referee acts to monitor for fouls and to control the match, while judges mark down scores, as in boxing, Particular targets may be prohibited, certain techniques may be forbidden (such as headbutting or groin hits), and fighters may be required to wear protective equipment on their head, hands, chest, groin, shins or feet, Some grappling arts, such as aikido, use a similar method of compliant training that is equivalent to light or medium contact, In some styles (such as fencing and some styles of taekwondo sparring), competitors score points based on the landing of a single technique or strike as judged by the referee, whereupon the referee will briefly stop the match, award a point, then rest*rt the match, Alternatively, sparring may continue with the point noted by the judges, Some critics of point sparring feel that this method of training teaches habits that result in lower combat effectiveness, Lighter-contact sparring may be used exclusively, for children or in other situations when heavy contact would be inappropriate (such as beginners), medium-contact sparring is often used as training for full contact Full-contact[edit]Further information: Full-contactFull-contact sparring or competition, where strikes or techniques are not pulled but used with full force as the name implies, has a number of tactical differences from light and medium-contact sparring, It is considered by some to be requisite in learning realistic unarmed combat,[18] In full-contact sparring, the aim of a competitive match is to knock out the opponent or to force the opponent to submit, Where scoring takes place it may be a subsidiary measure, only used if no clear winner has been established by other means; in some competitions, such as the UFC 1, there was no scoring, though most now use some form of judging as a backup,[19] Due to these factors, full-contact matches tend to be more aggressive in character, but rule sets may still mandate the use of protective equipment, or limit the techniques allowed, Nearly all mixed martial arts organizations such as UFC, Pancrase, Shooto use a form of full-contact rules, as do professional boxing organizations and K-1, Kyokushin karate requires advanced practitioners to engage in bare-knuckled, full-contact sparring allowing kicks, knees and punching although punching to the head is disallowed while wearing only a karate gi and groin protector, Brazilian jiu-jitsu and judo matches do not allow striking, but are full-contact in the sense that full force is applied in the permitted grappling and submission techniques, Competitions held by the World Taekwondo Federation requires the use of Headgear and padded vest, but are full contact in the sense that full force is applied to strikes to the head and body, and win by knockout is possible, Martial sport[edit]Main article: Combat sport Several martial arts, such as judo, are Olympic sports,Martial arts have crossed over into sports when forms of sparring become competitive, becoming a sport in its own right that is dissociated from the original combative origin, such as with western fencing, The Summer Olympic Games includes judo, taekwondo, western archery, boxing, javelin, wrestling and fencing as events, while Chinese wushu recently failed in its bid to be included, but is still actively performed in tournaments across the world, Practitioners in some arts such as kickboxing and Brazilian jiu-jitsu often train for sport matches, whereas those in other arts such as aikido generally spurn such competitions, Some schools believe that competition breeds better and more efficient practitioners, and gives a sense of good sportsmanship, Others believe that the rules under which competition takes place have diminished the combat effectiveness of martial arts or encourage a kind of practice which focuses on winning trophies rather than a focus such as cultivating a particular moral character, The question of "which is the best martial art" has led to inter style competitions fought with very few rules allowing a variety of fighting styles to enter with few limitations, This was the origin of the first Ultimate Fighting Championship tournament (later renamed UFC 1: The Beginning) in the U,S, inspired by the Brazilian Vale tudo tradition and along with other minimal rule competitions, most notably those from Japan such as Shooto and Pancrase, have evolved into the combat sport of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA), Some martial artists compete in non-sparring competitions such as breaking or choreographed routines of techniques such as poomse, kata and aka, or modern variations of the martial arts which include dance-influenced competitions such as tricking, Martial traditions have been influenced by governments to become more sport-like for political purposes; the central impetus for the attempt by the People's Republic of China in transforming Chinese martial arts into the committee-regulated sport of wushu was suppressing what they saw as the potentially subversive aspects of martial training, especially under the traditional system of family lineages,[20] Health and fitness benefits[edit]Martial arts training aims to result in several benefits to trainees, such as their physical, mental, emotional and spiritual health,[21] Through systematic practice in the martial arts a person's physical fitness may be boosted (strength, stamina, flexibility, movement coordination, etc,) as the whole body is exercised and the entire muscular system is activated,[citation needed] Beyond contributing to physical fitness, martial arts training also has benefits for mental health, contributing to self-esteem, self-control, emotional and spiritual well-being, For this reason, a number of martial arts schools have focused purely on therapeutic aspects, de-emphasizing the historical aspect of self-defense or combat completely,[citation needed] According to Bruce Lee, martial arts also have the nature of an art, since there is emotional communication and complete emotional expression,[citation needed] Self-defense, military and law enforcement applications[edit]Main articles: Hand-to-hand combat and Self-defense U,S, Army Combatives instructor Matt Larsen demonstrates a chokehold,Some traditional martial concepts have seen new use within modern military training, Perhaps the most recent example of this is point shooting which relies on muscle memory to more effectively utilize a firearm in a variety of awkward situations, much the way an iaidoka would master movements with their sword, During the World War II era William E, Fairbairn and Eric A, Sykes were recruited by the Special Operations Executive (SOE) to teach their martial art of defendu (itself drawing on Western boxing and jujutsu) and pistol shooting to UK, US, and Canadian special forces, The book Kill or Get Killed, written by Colonel Rex Applegate, was based on the defendu taught by Sykes and Fairbairn, Both Fairbairn's Get Tough and Appelgate's Kill or Get Killed became classic works on hand-to-hand combat, Traditional hand-to-hand, knife, and spear techniques continue to see use in the composite systems developed for today's wars, Examples of this include European Unifight, the US Army's Combatives system developed by Matt Larsen, the Israeli army's KAPAP and Krav Maga, and the US Marine Corps's Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP), Unarmed dagger defenses identical to those found in the manual of Fiore dei Liberi and the Codex Wallerstein were integrated into the U,S, Army's training manuals in 1942[22] and continue to influence today's systems along with other traditional systems such as eskrima and silat, The rifle-mounted bayonet, which has its origin in the spear, has seen use by the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps, and the British Army as recently as the Iraq War,[23] Many martial arts are also seen and used in Law Enforcement hand to hand training, For example, the Tokyo Riot Police's use of aikido,[24] Martial arts industry[edit]Martial arts since the 1970s has become a significant industry, a subset of the wider sport industry (including cinema and sports television), Hundreds of millions of people worldwide practice some form of martial art, Web Japan (sponsored by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs) claims there are 50 million karate practitioners worldwide,[25] The South Korean government in 2009 published an estimate that taekwondo is practiced by 70 million people in 190 countries,[26] The wholesale value of martial arts related sporting equipment shipped in the United States was estimated at 314 million USD in 2007; participation in the same year was estimated at 6,9 million (ages 6 or older, 2% of US population),[27] R, A, Court, CEO of Martial Arts Channel, stated the total revenue of the US martial arts industry at USD 40 billion and the number of US practitioners at 30 million in 2003,[28] Equipment[edit]Martial arts equipment can include that used for conditioning, protection and weapons, Specialized conditioning equipment can include breaking boards, dummy partners such as the wooden dummy, and targets such as punching bags and the makiwara, Protective equipment for sparring and competition includes boxing gloves and headgear, Martial arts fraud[edit]Asian martial arts experienced a surge of popularity in the west during the 1970s, and the rising demand resulted in numerous low quality or fraudulent schools, Fueled by fictional depictions in martial arts movies, this led to the ninja craze of the 1980s in the United States,[29] There were also numerous fraudulent ads for martial arts training programs, inserted into comic books circa the 1960s and 1970s, which were read primarily by adolescent boys,[30] When the martial arts came to the United States in the seventies, lower ranks (kyu) began to be given colorful belts to show progress, This proved to be commercially viable and colored-belt systems were adopted in many martial arts degree mills (also known as McDojos and Belt Factories) as a means to generate additional cash, This was covered in Penn & Teller: Bullshit! episode "Martial Arts" (June 2010), See also[edit]Martial arts portalWikimedia Commons has media related to Martial arts,For a time line of martial arts historical milestones, see Martial arts timelineFor a detailed history of martial arts see: History of martial artsFor a detailed list of martial arts, see List of martial artsFor a detailed list of fictional martial arts, see List of fictional martial artsReferences[edit]Jump up ^ Clements, John (January 2006), "A Short Introduction to Historical European Martial Arts" (PDF), Meibukan Magazine (Special Edition No, 1): 2–4, Archived from the original (PDF) on March 18, 2012,Jump up ^ Donn F, Draeger and P'ng Chye Khim (1979), Shaolin Lohan Kung-fu, Tuttle Publishing,Jump up ^ "Internal Kung Fu", Chiflow,com, Retrieved 2010-11-07,Jump up ^ "Philosophy aspects of Systema", Russian Martial Art - Systema Headquarters, Retrieved 2011-09-29,Jump up ^ Hamblin, William J, (2006), Warfare in the ancient Near East to 1600 BC : holy warriors at the dawn of history (Repr, ed,), New York: Routledge, p, 15, ISBN 978-0415255899,Jump up ^ Nash, George, "Assessing rank and warfare strategy in prehistoric hunter-gatherer society: a study of representational warrior figures in rock-art from the Spanish Levant" in: M, Parker Pearson & I,J,N, Thorpe (eds,), Warfare, violence and slavery in prehistory: proceedings of a Prehistoric Society conference at Sheffield University, 2005, Archaeopress, ISBN 1-84171-816-5, 9781841718163, Fully online, Bristol UniversityJump up ^ "Sun Tzu Biography and Introduction: Sun Tzu The Art of War and Strategy Site by", Sonshi, Com, Retrieved 2010-11-07,Jump up ^ Reid, Howard and Croucher, Michael, The Way of the Warrior-The Paradox of the Martial Arts" New York, Overlook Press: 1983,Jump up ^ "Kalari Payatte, the martial art of Kerala, India, Kalari Payattu", 2009-08-29, Archived from the original on August 29, 2009, Retrieved 2016-02-29,Jump up ^ "Actualizing Power and Crafting a Self in Kalarippayattu", spa,exeter,ac,uk, Retrieved 2016-02-29,Jump up ^ Berreby, David (1988-08-28), "The Martial Arts as Moneymakers", The New York Times, Retrieved 2010-12-04,Jump up ^ "Jeet Kune Do", absolutedefense,net, Retrieved 2014-05-27,Jump up ^ "fighting art used in the UFC", Ufc,com, Retrieved 2010-11-07,Jump up ^ "The origins, history and rules from the early days of Pancrase circa 1993 - Bloody Elbow", bloodyelbow,com, Retrieved 2014-05-27,Jump up ^ "UNESCO Culture Sector - Intangible Heritage - 2003 Convention", unesco,org,Jump up ^ "Reviving the Lost Martial Arts of India - The Armchair Lounge", The Armchair Lounge, Retrieved 2016-03-01,Jump up ^ Manoharan, Suresh K, "History of Varmakalai", www,varmam,org, Retrieved 2016-03-01,Jump up ^ "Aliveness 101", Straight Blast gym, Retrieved 2008-11-03, – An essay on contact levels in trainingJump up ^ Dave Meltzer, (November 12, 2007), "First UFC forever altered combat sports", Yahoo! Sports, Retrieved 2008-11-03,Jump up ^ Fu, Zhongwen (2006) [1996], Mastering Yang Style Taijiquan, Berkeley, California: Blue Snake Books,Jump up ^ "Effects of martial arts on health status: A systematic review", Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, 3 (4): 205–219, doi:10,1111/j,1756-5391,2010,01107,x,Jump up ^ Vail, Jason (2006), Medieval and Renaissance Dagger Combat, Paladin Press, pp, 91–95,Jump up ^ Sean Rayment (2004-06-13), "British battalion 'attacked every day for six weeks'", The Daily Telegraph, London: Telegraph Media Group Limited, Retrieved 2008-12-11,Jump up ^ Twigger, R, (1997): Angry White Pyjamas, London: Phoenix, (ISBN 978-0-7538-0858-0)Jump up ^ "Martial Arts : Fact Sheet" (PDF), Web-japan,org, Retrieved 2015-08-13,Jump up ^ Kim, H,-S, (2009): Taekwondo: A new strategy for Brand Korea (21 December 2009), Retrieved on 8 January 2010,Jump up ^ , Jack W, Plunkett, Plunkett's Sports Industry Almanac 2009, ISBN 978-1-59392-140-8,Jump up ^ Black Belt Magazine September 2003, p, 20,Jump up ^ see e,g, Black Belt Magazine, June 1999, p, 78,Jump up ^ Tom Heintjes, "The Deadliest Ads Alive! | Hogan's Alley", Cartoonician,com, Retrieved 2015-08-13,[hide] v t eMartial artsList of styles History Timeline Hard and softRegional originChina Europe India Indonesia Japan Korea PhilippinesUnarmed techniquesChokehold Clinch Footwork Elbow strike Headbutt Hold Kick Knee strike Joint lock Punch Sweep Takedown ThrowWeaponsArchery Knife fighting Melee weapons Shooting Stick-fighting SwordsmanshipTrainingKata Practice weapon Punching bag Pushing hands Randori SparringGrapplingBrazilian jiu-jitsu Judo Jujutsu Sambo Sumo WrestlingStrikingBoxing Capoeira Karate Kickboxing Muay Thai Lethwei Sanshou Savate Taekwondo VovinamInternalAikido Aikijutsu Baguazhang Tai chi Xing Yi QuanFull contact / combat sportsProfessional boxing Professional kickboxing Knockdown karate Mixed martial arts Submission wrestlingSelf-defense / combativesArnis Bartitsu Hapkido Kajukenbo Krav Maga MCMAP Pencak Silat Systema Wing Chun Legal aspectsEclectic / hybridsAmerican Kenpo Chun Kuk Do Jeet Kune Do Kuk Sool Shooto Shorinji Kempo UnifightEntertainmentFighting game Martial arts film (Chanbara) Professional wrestling WuxiaPortal The Martial Arts PortalAuthority controlNDL: 00564740Categories: Martial artsCombat sportsIndividual sportsMental trainingPerforming artsSelf-defense ------------------------------ terms and phrases abdomen attacker's backward basic punch Bear Hug begin black belt Blocking Techniques body Bring your left bring your right chest CHOJUN MIYAGI circular motion Dachi defender dojo Endless Path exercises face feet floor front foot front kick goju-ryu karate hips Japanese ju-jitsu KARATE BASICS karate classes karate master karate schools karate students Karate teachers karate training kata Keep your back kiai Kick-box kung fu lean left arm left fist left foot left hand left knee left leg left sanchin stance left zenkutsu stance Lift low block martial arts meditation middle block midsection Miyagi movements muscles Naha Nardi neck Okinawan opponent opponent's palm person proper form punches and kicks rear foot retracted right arm right fist right foot right hand right knee score shoulders side sit-ups slowly snap your right solar plexus sparring techniques stretch style of karate tae kwon tenth degree toes youngster Zenkutsu-dachi attack axe kick back kick backfist backward basic black belt block to face Cat Stance chamber position counterattack crescent kick cut kick DAE SUNG LEE defensive dobok dojang drills East Pivot elbow strike fighter fighting stance find fingers finish first fist floor footwork forearm block front foot front leg front snap kick heel hips horse stance hwarang Iang jeonjin step keep kihap knee knife-hand middle Koguryo Korean Left Back Stance Left Front Stance Left Walking martial arts motion moving the left opponent opponent's palm facing Pivot left 90 poomse practice rear foot rear leg rechamber reverse inside block reverse middle punch Right Back Stance right foot Left Right Front Stance right hand Right Walking Right-leg front snap rotation shoulder side kick Silla slide sparring spinning hook kick Step forward Right straight stretch supporting foot switch Taegeuk Taekwondo target throw toumament tuming kick turning kick Walking Stance wrist ------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT KARATEKarateFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the martial art, For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation),Karate(空手)Karatedo,svgHanashiro ChomoHanashiro ChomoAlso known asKarate Do 空手道FocusStrikingHardnessFull-contact, semi-contact, light-contactCountry of originRyukyu KingdomCreatorSakukawa Kanga; Matsumura Sōkon; Itosu Ankō; Arakaki Seishō; Higaonna KanryōParenthoodIndigenous martial arts of Ryukyu Islands, Chinese martial arts[1][2]Olympic sportYes (2020 Summer Olympics)Karate (空手) (English: /kəˈrɑːtiː/; Japanese pronunciation: [kaɾate] (About this sound listen); Okinawan pronunciation: Ryukyuan pronunciation: [kaɽati]) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom, It developed from the indigenous Ryukyuan martial arts (called te (手), "hand"; tii in Okinawan) under the influence of Chinese martial arts, particularly Fujian White Crane,[1][2] Karate is now predominantly a striking art using punching, kicking, knee strikes, elbow strikes and open-hand techniques such as knife-hands, spear-hands, and palm-heel strikes, Historically, and in some modern styles, grappling, throws, joint locks, restraints, and vital-point strikes are also taught,[3] A karate practitioner is called a karateka (空手家), The Ryukyu Kingdom was annexed by Japan in 1879, Karate was brought to Japan in the early 20th century during a time of migration as Ryukyuans, especially from Okinawa, looked for work in Japan,[4] It was systematically taught in Japan after the Taishō era,[5] In 1922 the Japanese Ministry of Education invited Gichin Funakoshi to Tokyo to give a karate demonstration, In 1924 Keio University established the first university karate club in mainland Japan and by 1932, major Japanese universities had karate clubs,[6] In this era of escalating Japanese militarism,[7] the name was changed from 唐手 ("Chinese hand" or "Tang hand")[8] to 空手 ("empty hand") – both of which are pronounced karate in Japanese – to indicate that the Japanese wished to develop the combat form in Japanese style,[9] After World War II, Okinawa became an important United States military site and karate became popular among servicemen stationed there,[10] The martial arts movies of the 1960s and 1970s served to greatly increase the popularity of martial arts around the world, and in English the word karate began to be used in a generic way to refer to all striking-based Oriental martial arts,[11] Karate schools began appearing across the world, catering to those with casual interest as well as those seeking a deeper study of the art, Shigeru Egami, Chief Instructor of Shotokan Dojo, opined that "the majority of followers of karate in overseas countries pursue karate only for its fighting techniques ,,, Movies and television ,,, depict karate as a mysterious way of fighting capable of causing death or injury with a single blow ,,, the mass media present a pseudo art far from the real thing,"[12] Shōshin Nagamine said, "Karate may be considered as the conflict within oneself or as a life-long marathon which can be won only through self-discipline, hard training and one's own creative efforts,"[13] On 28 September 2015, karate was featured on a shortlist along with baseball, softball, skateboarding, surfing, and sport climbing to be considered for inclusion in the 2020 Summer Olympics, On 1 June 2016, the International Olympic Committee's executive board announced they were supporting the inclusion of all five sports (counting baseball and softball as only one sport) for inclusion in the 2020 Games, Web Japan (sponsored by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs) claims there are 50 million karate practitioners worldwide,[14] while the World Karate Federation claims there are 100 million practitioners around the world,[15] Contents [hide] 1History1,1Okinawa1,2Japan2Practice2,1Kihon2,2Kata2,3Kumite2,4Dojo Kun2,5Conditioning2,6Sport2,7Rank3Philosophy4Etymology5Karate and its influence outside Japan5,1Canada5,2Korea5,3Soviet Union5,4United States5,5Europe5,6United Kingdom5,7Italy5,8France5,9Africa6Film and popular culture7See also8References9External linksHistory[edit]Okinawa[edit]See also: Okinawan martial artsKarate began as a common fighting system known as te (Okinawan: ti) among the Pechin class of the Ryukyuans, After trade relationships were established with the Ming dynasty of China in 1372 by King Satto of Chūzan, some forms of Chinese martial arts were introduced to the Ryukyu Islands by the visitors from China, particularly Fujian Province, A large group of Chinese families moved to Okinawa around 1392 for the purpose of cultural exchange, where they established the community of Kumemura and shared their knowledge of a wide variety of Chinese arts and sciences, including the Chinese martial arts, The political centralization of Okinawa by King Shō Hashi in 1429 and the policy of banning weapons by King Shō Shin in 1477, later enforced in Okinawa after the invasion by the Shimazu clan in 1609, are also factors that furthered the development of unarmed combat techniques in Okinawa,[2] There were few formal styles of te, but rather many practitioners with their own methods, One surviving example is the Motobu-ryū school passed down from the Motobu family by Seikichi Uehara,[16] Early styles of karate are often generalized as Shuri-te, Naha-te, and Tomari-te, named after the three cities from which they emerged,[17] Each area and its teachers had particular kata, techniques, and principles that distinguished their local version of te from the others, Members of the Okinawan upper classes were sent to China regularly to study various political and practical disciplines, The incorporation of empty-handed Chinese Kung Fu into Okinawan martial arts occurred partly because of these exchanges and partly because of growing legal restrictions on the use of weaponry, Traditional karate kata bear a strong resemblance to the forms found in Fujian martial arts such as Fujian White Crane, Tai Zu Quan or Grand Ancestors Fist, Five Ancestors, and Gangrou-quan (Hard Soft Fist; pronounced "Gōjūken" in Japanese),[18] Many Okinawan weapons such as the sai, tonfa, and nunchaku may have originated in and around Southeast Asia, Sakukawa Kanga (1782–1838) had studied pugilism and staff (bo) fighting in China (according to one legend, under the guidance of Kosokun, originator of kusanku kata), In 1806 he st*rted teaching a fighting art in the city of Shuri that he called "Tudi Sakukawa," which meant "Sakukawa of China Hand," This was the first known recorded reference to the art of "Tudi," written as 唐手, Around the 1820s Sakukawa's most significant student Matsumura Sōkon (1809–1899) taught a synthesis of te (Shuri-te and Tomari-te) and Shaolin (Chinese 少林) styles,[citation needed] Matsumura's style would later become the Shōrin-ryū style, Ankō Itosu, grandfather of modern karateMatsumura taught his art to Itosu Ankō (1831–1915) among others, Itosu adapted two forms he had learned from Matsumura, These are kusanku and chiang nan,[19] He created the ping'an forms ("heian" or "pinan" in Japanese) which are simplified kata for beginning students, In 1901 Itosu helped to get karate introduced into Okinawa's public schools, These forms were taught to children at the elementary school level, Itosu's influence in karate is broad, The forms he created are common across nearly all styles of karate, His students became some of the most well-known karate masters, including Gichin Funakoshi, Kenwa Mabuni, and Motobu Chōki, Itosu is sometimes referred to as "the Grandfather of Modern Karate,"[20] In 1881 Higaonna Kanryō returned from China after years of instruction with Ryu Ryu Ko and founded what would become Naha-te, One of his students was the founder of Gojū-ryū, Chōjun Miyagi, Chōjun Miyagi taught such well-known karateka as Seko Higa (who also trained with Higaonna), Meitoku Yagi, Miyazato Ei'ichi, and Seikichi Toguchi, and for a very brief time near the end of his life, An'ichi Miyagi (a teacher claimed by Morio Higaonna), In addition to the three early te styles of karate a fourth Okinawan influence is that of Kanbun Uechi (1877–1948), At the age of 20 he went to Fuzhou in Fujian Province, China, to escape Japanese military conscription, While there he studied under Shushiwa, He was a leading figure of Chinese Nanpa Shorin-ken style at that time,[21] He later developed his own style of Uechi-ryū karate based on the Sanchin, Seisan, and Sanseiryu kata that he had studied in China,[22] Japan[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (May 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)See also: Japanese martial artsSee also: Karate in Japan Masters of karate in Tokyo (c, 1930s), from left to right, Kanken Toyama, Hironori Otsuka, Takeshi Shimoda, Gichin Funakoshi, Motobu Chōki, Kenwa Mabuni, Genwa Nakasone, and Shinken TairaGichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan karate, is generally credited with having introduced and popularized karate on the main islands of Japan, In addition many Okinawans were actively teaching, and are thus also responsible for the development of karate on the main islands, Funakoshi was a student of both Asato Ankō and Itosu Ankō (who had worked to introduce karate to the Okinawa Prefectural School System in 1902), During this time period, prominent teachers who also influenced the spread of karate in Japan included Kenwa Mabuni, Chōjun Miyagi, Motobu Chōki, Kanken Tōyama, and Kanbun Uechi, This was a turbulent period in the history of the region, It includes Japan's annexation of the Okinawan island group in 1872, the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), the annexation of Korea, and the rise of Japanese militarism (1905–1945), Japan was invading China at the time, and Funakoshi knew that the art of Tang/China hand would not be accepted; thus the change of the art's name to "way of the empty hand," The dō suffix implies that karatedō is a path to self-knowledge, not just a study of the technical aspects of fighting, Like most martial arts practiced in Japan, karate made its transition from -jutsu to -dō around the beginning of the 20th century, The "dō" in "karate-dō" sets it apart from karate-jutsu, as aikido is distinguished from aikijutsu, judo from jujutsu, kendo from kenjutsu and iaido from iaijutsu, Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan KarateFunakoshi changed the names of many kata and the name of the art itself (at least on mainland Japan), doing so to get karate accepted by the Japanese budō organization Dai Nippon Butoku Kai, Funakoshi also gave Japanese names to many of the kata, The five pinan forms became known as heian, the three naihanchi forms became known as tekki, seisan as hangetsu, Chintō as gankaku, wanshu as enpi, and so on, These were mostly political changes, rather than changes to the content of the forms, although Funakoshi did introduce some such changes, Funakoshi had trained in two of the popular branches of Okinawan karate of the time, Shorin-ryū and Shōrei-ryū, In Japan he was influenced by kendo, incorporating some ideas about distancing and timing into his style, He always referred to what he taught as simply karate, but in 1936 he built a dojo in Tokyo and the style he left behind is usually called Shotokan after this dojo, The modernization and systemization of karate in Japan also included the adoption of the white uniform that consisted of the kimono and the dogi or keikogi—mostly called just karategi—and colored belt ranks, Both of these innovations were originated and popularized by Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo and one of the men Funakoshi consulted in his efforts to modernize karate, A new form of karate called Kyokushin was formally founded in 1957 by Masutatsu Oyama (who was born a Korean, Choi Yeong-Eui 최영의), Kyokushin is largely a synthesis of Shotokan and Gōjū-ryū, It teaches a curriculum that emphasizes aliveness, physical toughness, and full contact sparring, Because of its emphasis on physical, full-force sparring, Kyokushin is now often called "full contact karate", or "Knockdown karate" (after the name for its competition rules), Many other karate organizations and styles are descended from the Kyokushin curriculum, Practice[edit]See also: Okinawan kobudō and Japanese martial arts § Philosophical and strategic conceptsKarate can be practiced as an art (budō), self defense or as a combat sport, Traditional karate places emphasis on self-development (budō),[23] Modern Japanese style training emphasizes the psychological elements incorporated into a proper kokoro (attitude) such as perseverance, fearlessness, virtue, and leadership skills, Sport karate places emphasis on exercise and competition, Weapons are an important training activity in some styles of karate, Karate training is commonly divided into kihon (basics or fundamentals), kata (forms), and kumite (sparring), Kihon[edit]Main article: KihonKarate styles place varying importance on kihon, Typically this is performance in unison of a technique or a combination of techniques by a group of karateka, Kihon may also be prearranged drills in smaller groups or in pairs, Kata[edit] Motobu Chōki in Naihanchi-dachi, one of the basic karate stancesMain article: Karate kataKata (型:かた) means literally "shape" or "model," Kata is a formalized sequence of movements which represent various offensive and defensive postures, These postures are based on idealized combat applications, The applications when applied in a demonstration with real opponents is referred to as a Bunkai, The Bunkai shows how every stance and movement is used, Bunkai is a useful tool to understand a kata, To attain a formal rank the karateka must demonstrate competent performance of specific required kata for that level, The Japanese terminology for grades or ranks is commonly used, Requirements for examinations vary among schools, Kumite[edit]Main article: KumiteSparring in Karate is called kumite (組手:くみて), It literally means "meeting of hands," Kumite is practiced both as a sport and as self-defense training, Levels of physical contact during sparring vary considerably, Full contact karate has several variants, Knockdown karate (such as Kyokushin) uses full power techniques to bring an opponent to the ground, In kickboxing variants (for example K-1), the preferred win is by knockout, Sparring in armour, bogu kumite, allows full power techniques with some safety, Sport kumite in many international competition under the World Karate Federation is free or structured with light contact or semi contact and points are awarded by a referee, In structured kumite (yakusoku, prearranged), two participants perform a choreographed series of techniques with one striking while the other blocks, The form ends with one devastating technique (hito tsuki), In free sparring (Jiyu Kumite), the two participants have a free choice of scoring techniques, The allowed techniques and contact level are primarily determined by sport or style organization policy, but might be modified according to the age, rank and sex of the participants, Depending upon style, take-downs, sweeps and in some rare cases even time-limited grappling on the ground are also allowed, Free sparring is performed in a marked or closed area, The bout runs for a fixed time (2 to 3 minutes,) The time can run continuously (iri kume) or be stopped for referee judgment, In light contact or semi contact kumite, points are awarded based on the criteria: good form, sporting attitude, vigorous application, awareness/zanshin, good timing and correct distance, In full contact karate kumite, points are based on the results of the impact, rather than the formal appearance of the scoring technique, Dojo Kun[edit]Main article: Dojo kunIn the bushidō tradition dojo kun is a set of guidelines for karateka to follow, These guidelines apply both in the dojo (training hall) and in everyday life, Conditioning[edit]Okinawan karate uses supplementary training known as hojo undo, This utilizes simple equipment made of wood and stone, The makiwara is a striking post, The nigiri game is a large jar used for developing grip strength, These supplementary exercises are designed to increase strength, stamina, speed, and muscle coordination,[24] Sport Karate emphasizes aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, power, agility, flexibility, and stress management,[25] All practices vary depending upon the school and the teacher, Sport[edit]Gichin Funakoshi (船越 義珍) said, "There are no contests in karate,"[26] In pre–World War II Okinawa, kumite was not part of karate training,[27] Shigeru Egami relates that, in 1940, some karateka were ousted from their dojo because they adopted sparring after having learned it in Tokyo,[28] Karate is divided into style organizations,[29] These organizations sometimes cooperate in non-style specific sport karate organizations or federations, Examples of sport organizations include AAKF/ITKF, AOK, TKL, AKA, WKF, NWUKO, WUKF and WKC,[30] Organizations hold competitions (tournaments) from local to international level, Tournaments are designed to match members of opposing schools or styles against one another in kata, sparring and weapons demonstration, They are often separated by age, rank and sex with potentially different rules or standards based on these factors, The tournament may be exclusively for members of a particular style (closed) or one in which any martial artist from any style may participate within the rules of the tournament (open), The World Karate Federation (WKF) is the largest sport karate organization and is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as being responsible for karate competition in the Olympic Games,[31] The WKF has developed common rules governing all styles, The national WKF organizations coordinate with their respective National Olympic Committees, WKF karate competition has two disciplines: sparring (kumite) and forms (kata), Competitors may enter either as individuals or as part of a team, Evaluation for kata and kobudō is performed by a panel of judges, whereas sparring is judged by a head referee, usually with assistant referees at the side of the sparring area, Sparring matches are typically divided by weight, age, gender, and experience,[32] WKF only allows membership through one national organization/federation per country to which clubs may join, The World Union of Karate-do Federations (WUKF)[33] offers different styles and federations a world body they may join, without having to compromise their style or size, The WUKF accepts more than one federation or association per country, Sport organizations use different competition rule systems,[29][32][34][35][36] Light contact rules are used by the WKF, WUKO, IASK and WKC, Full contact karate rules used by Kyokushinkai, Seidokaikan and other organizations, Bogu kumite (full contact with protective shielding of targets) rules are used in the World Koshiki Karate-Do Federation organization,[37] Shinkaratedo Federation use boxing gloves,[38] Within the United States, rules may be under the jurisdiction of state sports authorities, such as the boxing commission, In August 2016, the International Olympic Committee approved karate as an Olympic sport beginning at the 2020 Summer Olympics,[39][40] Karate, although not widely used in mixed martial arts, has been effective for some MMA practitioners,[41][42][43] Various styles of karate are practiced in MMA: Lyoto Machida and John Makdessi practice Shotokan;[44] Bas Rutten and Georges St-Pierre train in Kyokushinl;[45] and Michelle Waterson holds a black belt in American Free Style Karate, [46] Rank[edit] Karatekas wearing different colored beltsSee also: KyūIn 1924 Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan Karate, adopted the Dan system from the judo founder Jigoro Kano[47] using a rank scheme with a limited set of belt colors, Other Okinawan teachers also adopted this practice, In the Kyū/Dan system the beginner grades st*rt with a higher numbered kyū (e,g,, 10th Kyū or Jukyū) and progress toward a lower numbered kyū, The Dan progression continues from 1st Dan (Shodan, or 'beginning dan') to the higher dan grades, Kyū-grade karateka are referred to as "color belt" or mudansha ("ones without dan/rank"), Dan-grade karateka are referred to as yudansha (holders of dan/rank), Yudansha typically wear a black belt, Normally, the first five to six dans are given by examination by superior dan holders, while the subsequent (7 and up) are honorary, given for special merits and/or age reached, Requirements of rank differ among styles, organizations, and schools, Kyū ranks stress stance, balance, and coordination, Speed and power are added at higher grades, Minimum age and time in rank are factors affecting promotion, Testing consists of demonstration of techniques before a panel of examiners, This will vary by school, but testing may include everything learned at that point, or just new information, The demonstration is an application for new rank (shinsa) and may include kata, bunkai, self-defense, routines, tameshiwari (breaking), and kumite (sparring), Philosophy[edit]In Karate-Do Kyohan, Funakoshi quoted from the Heart Sutra, which is prominent in Shingon Buddhism: "Form is emptiness, emptiness is form itself" (shiki zokuze kū kū zokuze shiki),[48] He interpreted the "kara" of Karate-dō to mean "to purge oneself of selfish and evil thoughts ,,, for only with a clear mind and conscience can the practitioner understand the knowledge which he receives," Funakoshi believed that one should be "inwardly humble and outwardly gentle," Only by behaving humbly can one be open to Karate's many lessons, This is done by listening and being receptive to criticism, He considered courtesy of prime importance, He said that "Karate is properly applied only in those rare situations in which one really must either down another or be downed by him," Funakoshi did not consider it unusual for a devotee to use Karate in a real physical confrontation no more than perhaps once in a lifetime, He stated that Karate practitioners must "never be easily drawn into a fight," It is understood that one blow from a real expert could mean death, It is clear that those who misuse what they have learned bring dishonor upon themselves, He promoted the character trait of personal conviction, In "time of grave public crisis, one must have the courage ,,, to face a million and one opponents," He taught that indecisiveness is a weakness,[49] Etymology[edit]Karate was originally written as "Chinese hand" (唐手 literally "Tang dynasty hand") in kanji, It was later changed to a homophone meaning empty hand (空手), The original use of the word "karate" in print is attributed to Ankō Itosu; he wrote it as "唐手", The Tang Dynasty of China ended in AD 907, but the kanji representing it remains in use in Japanese language referring to China generally, in such words as "唐人街" meaning Chinatown, Thus the word "karate" was originally a way of expressing "martial art from China," Since there are no written records it is not known definitely whether the kara in karate was originally written with the character 唐 meaning China or the character 空 meaning empty, During the time when admiration for China and things Chinese was at its height in the Ryūkyūs it was the custom to use the former character when referring to things of fine quality, Influenced by this practice, in recent times karate has begun to be written with the character 唐 to give it a sense of class or elegance, — Gichin Funakoshi[50]The first documented use of a homophone of the logogram pronounced kara by replacing the Chinese character meaning "Tang Dynasty" with the character meaning "empty" took place in Karate Kumite written in August 1905 by Chōmo Hanashiro (1869–1945), Sino-Japanese relations have never been very good, and especially at the time of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, referring to the Chinese origins of karate was considered politically incorrect,[51] In 1933, the Okinawan art of karate was recognized as a Japanese martial art by the Japanese Martial Arts Committee known as the "Butoku Kai", Until 1935, "karate" was written as "唐手" (Chinese hand), But in 1935, the masters of the various styles of Okinawan karate conferred to decide a new name for their art, They decided to call their art "karate" written in Japanese characters as "空手" (empty hand),[17] Another nominal development is the addition of dō (道:どう) to the end of the word karate, Dō is a suffix having numerous meanings including road, path, route, and way, It is used in many martial arts that survived Japan's transition from feudal culture to modern times, It implies that these arts are not just fighting systems but contain spiritual elements when promoted as disciplines, In this context dō is usually translated as "the way of ___", Examples include aikido, judo, kyudo, and kendo, Thus karatedō is more than just empty hand techniques, It is "The Way of the Empty Hand", Karate and its influence outside Japan[edit]Canada[edit]Karate began in Canada in the 1930s and 1940s as Japanese people immigrated to the country, Karate was practised quietly without a large amount of organization, During the Second World War, many Japanese-Canadian families were moved to the interior of British Columbia, Masaru Shintani, at the age of 13, began to study Shorin-Ryu karate in the Japanese camp under Kitigawa, In 1956 after 9 years of training with Kitigawa, Shintani travelled to Japan and met Hironori Otsuka (Wado Ryu), In 1958 Otsuka invited Shintani to join his organization Wado Kai, and in 1969 he asked Shintani to officially call his style Wado,[52] In Canada during this same time, karate was also introduced by Masami Tsuruoka who had studied in Japan in the 1940s under Tsuyoshi Chitose,[53] In 1954 Tsuruoka initiated the first karate competition in Canada and laid the foundation for the National Karate Association,[53] In the late 1950s Shintani moved to Ontario and began teaching karate and judo at the Japanese Cultural Centre in Hamilton, In 1966 he began (with Otsuka's endorsement) the Shintani Wado Kai Karate Federation, During the 1970s Otsuka appointed Shintani the Supreme Instructor of Wado Kai in North America, In 1979, Otsuka publicly promoted Shintani to hachidan (8th dan) and privately gave him a kudan certificate (9th dan), which was revealed by Shintani in 1995, Shintani and Otsuka visited each other in Japan and Canada several times, the last time in 1980 two years prior to Otsuka's death, Shintani died 7 May 2000,[52] Korea[edit]See also: Korea under Japanese ruleDue to past conflict between Korea and Japan, most notably during the Japanese occupation of Korea in the early 20th century, the influence of karate in Korea is a contentious issue,[54] From 1910 until 1945, Korea was annexed by the Japanese Empire, It was during this time that many of the Korean martial arts masters of the 20th century were exposed to Japanese karate, After regaining independence from Japan, many Korean martial arts schools that opened up in the 1940s and 50's were founded by masters who had trained in karate in Japan as part of their martial arts training, Won Kuk Lee, a Korean student of Funakoshi, founded the first martial arts school after the Japanese occupation of Korea ended in 1945, called the Chung Do Kwan, Having studied under Gichin Funakoshi at Chuo University, Lee had incorporated taekkyon, kung fu, and karate in the martial art that he taught which he called "Tang Soo Do", the Korean transliteration of the Chinese characters for "Way of Chinese Hand" (唐手道),[55] In the mid-1950s, the martial arts schools were unified under President Rhee Syngman's order, and became taekwondo under the leadership of Choi Hong Hi and a committee of Korean masters, Choi, a significant figure in taekwondo history, had also studied karate under Funakoshi, Karate also provided an important comparative model for the early founders of taekwondo in the formalization of their art including hyung and the belt ranking system, The original taekwondo hyung were identical to karate kata, Eventually, original Korean forms were developed by individual schools and associations, Although the World Taekwondo Federation and International Taekwon-Do Federation are the most prominent among Korean martial arts organizations, tang soo do schools that teach Japanese karate still exist as they were originally conveyed to Won Kuk Lee and his contemporaries from Funakoshi, Soviet Union[edit]Karate appeared in the Soviet Union in the mid-1960s, during Nikita Khrushchev's policy of improved international relations, The first Shotokan clubs were opened in Moscow's universities,[56] In 1973, however, the government banned karate—together with all other foreign martial arts—endorsing only the Soviet martial art of sambo, Failing to suppress these uncontrolled groups, the USSR's Sport Committee formed the Karate Federation of USSR in December 1978,[56] On 17 May 1984, the Soviet Karate Federation was disbanded and all karate became illegal again, In 1989, karate practice became legal again, but under strict government regulations, only after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 did independent karate schools resume functioning, and so federations were formed and national tournaments in authentic styles began,[56] United States[edit]See also: Karate in the United States After World War II, members of the US military learned karate in Okinawa or Japan and then opened schools in the USA, In 1945 Robert Trias opened the first dojo in the United States in Phoenix, Arizona, a Shuri-ryū karate dojo, In the 1950s, William J, Dometrich, Ed Parker, Cecil T, Patterson, Gordon Doversola, Donald Hugh Nagle, George Mattson and Peter Urban all began instructing in the US, Tsutomu Ohshima began studying karate under Shotokan's founder, Gichin Funakoshi, while a student at Waseda University, beginning in 1948, In 1957 Ohshima received his godan (fifth degree black belt), the highest rank awarded by Funakoshi, He founded the first university karate club in the United States at California Institute of Technology in 1957, In 1959 he founded the Southern California Karate Association (SCKA) which was renamed Shotokan Karate of America (SKA) in 1969, In the 1960s, Anthony Mirakian, Richard Kim, Teruyuki Okazaki, John Pachivas, Allen Steen, Gosei Yamaguchi (son of Gōgen Yamaguchi), Michael G, Foster and Pat Burleson began teaching martial arts around the country,[57] In 1961 Hidetaka Nishiyama, a co-founder of the Japan Karate Association (JKA) and student of Gichin Funakoshi, began teaching in the United States, He founded the International Traditional Karate Federation (ITKF), Takayuki Mikami was sent to New Orleans by the JKA in 1963, In 1964, Takayuki Kubota relocated the International Karate Association from Tokyo to California, Europe[edit]In the 1950s and 1960s, several Japanese karate masters began to teach the art in Europe, but it was not until 1965 that the Japan Karate Association (JKA) sent to Europe four well-trained young Karate instructors Taiji Kase, Keinosuke Enoeda, Hirokazu Kanazawa and Hiroshi Shirai,[58] Kase went to France, Enoeada to England and Shirai in Italy, These Masters maintained always a strong link between them, the JKA and the others JKA masters in the world, especially Hidetaka Nishiyama in the USA, United Kingdom[edit]See also: Karate in the United KingdomVernon Bell, a 3rd Dan Judo instructor who had been instructed by Kenshiro Abbe introduced Karate to England in 1956, having attended classes in Henry Plée's Yoseikan dojo in Paris, Yoseikan had been founded by Minoru Mochizuki, a master of multiple Japanese martial arts, who had studied Karate with Gichin Funakoshi, thus the Yoseikan style was heavily influenced by Shotokan,[59] Bell began teaching in the tennis courts of his parents' back garden in Ilford, Essex and his group was to become the British Karate Federation, On 19 July 1957, Vietnamese Hoang Nam 3rd Dan, billed as "Karate champion of Indo China", was invited to teach by Bell at Maybush Road, but the first instructor from Japan was Tetsuji Murakami (1927–1987) a 3rd Dan Yoseikan under Minoru Mochizuki and 1st Dan of the JKA, who arrived in England in July 1959,[59] In 1959 Frederick Gille set up the Liverpool branch of the British Karate Federation, which was officially recognised in 1961, The Liverpool branch was based at Harold House Jewish Boys Club in Chatham Street before relocating to the YMCA in Everton where it became known as the Red Triangle, One of the early members of this branch was Andy Sherry who had previously studied Jujutsu with Jack Britten, In 1961 Edward Ainsworth, another blackbelt Judoka, set up the first Karate study group in Ayrshire, Scotland having attended Bell's third 'Karate Summer School' in 1961,[59] Outside of Bell's organisation, Charles Mack traveled to Japan and studied under Masatoshi Nakayama of the Japan Karate Association who graded Mack to 1st Dan Shotokan on 4 March 1962 in Japan,[59] Shotokai Karate was introduced to England in 1963 by another of Gichin Funakoshi's students, Mitsusuke Harada,[59] Outside of the Shotokan stable of karate styles, Wado Ryu Karate was also an early adopted style in the UK, introduced by Tatsuo Suzuki, a 6th Dan at the time in 1964, Despite the early adoption of Shotokan in the UK, it was not until 1964 that JKA Shotokan officially came to the UK, Bell had been corresponding with the JKA in Tokyo asking for his grades to be ratified in Shotokan having apparently learnt that Murakami was not a designated representative of the JKA, The JKA obliged, and without enforcing a grading on Bell, ratified his black belt on 5 February 1964, though he had to relinquish his Yoseikan grade, Bell requested a visitation from JKA instructors and the next year Taiji Kase, Hirokazu Kanazawa, Keinosuke Enoeda and Hiroshi Shirai gave the first JKA demo at Kensington Town Hall on 21 April 1965, Hirokazu Kanazawa and Keinosuke Enoeda stayed and Murakami left (later re-emerging as a 5th Dan Shotokai under Harada),[59] In 1966, members of the former British Karate Federation established the Karate Union of Great Britain (KUGB) under Hirokazu Kanazawa as chief instructor[60] and affiliated to JKA, Keinosuke Enoeda came to England at the same time as Kanazawa, teaching at a dojo in Liverpool, Kanazawa left the UK after 3 years and Enoeda took over, After Enoeda’s death in 2003, the KUGB elected Andy Sherry as Chief Instructor, Shortly after this, a new association split off from KUGB, JKA England, An earlier significant split from the KUGB took place in 1991 when a group led by KUGB senior instructor Steve Cattle formed the English Shotokan Academy (ESA), The aim of this group was to follow the teachings of Taiji Kase, formerly the JKA chief instructor in Europe, who along with Hiroshi Shirai created the World Shotokan Karate-do Academy (WKSA), in 1989 in order to pursue the teaching of "Budo" karate as opposed to what he viewed as "sport karate", Kase sought to return the practice of Shotokan Karate to its martial roots, reintroducing amongst other things open hand and throwing techniques that had been side lined as the result of competition rules introduced by the JKA, Both the ESA and the WKSA (renamed the Kase-Ha Shotokan-Ryu Karate-do Academy (KSKA) after Kase’s death in 2004) continue following this path today, In 1975 Great Britain became the first team ever to take the World male team title from Japan after being defeated the previous year in the final, Italy[edit]Hiroshi Shirai, one of the original instructors sent by the JKA to Europe along with Kase, Enoeda and Kanazawa, moved to Italy in 1965 and quickly established a Shotokan enclave that spawned several instructors who in their turn soon spread the style all over the country, By 1970 Shotokan karate was the most spread martial art in Italy apart from Judo, Other styles such as Wado Ryu, Goju Ryu and Shito Ryu, although present and well established in Italy, were never able to break the monopoly of Shotokan, France[edit]France Shotokan Karate was created in 1964 by Tsutomu Ohshima, It is affiliated with another of his organizations, Shotokan Karate of America (SKA), However, in 1965 Taiji Kase came from Japan along with Enoeda and Shirai, who went to England and Italy respectively, and karate came under the influence of the JKA, Africa[edit]Karate has grown in popularity in Africa, particularly in South Africa and Ghana,[61][62][63] Film and popular culture[edit]Karate spread rapidly in the West through popular culture, In 1950s popular fiction, karate was at times described to readers in near-mythical terms, and it was credible to show Western experts of unarmed combat as unaware of Eastern martial arts of this kind,[64] By the 1970s, martial arts films had formed a mainstream genre that propelled karate and other Asian martial arts into mass popularity,[41] The Karate Kid (1984) and its sequels The Karate Kid, Part II (1986), The Karate Kid, Part III (1989) and The Next Karate Kid (1994) are films relating the fictional story of an American adolescent's introduction into karate,[65][66] Karate Kommandos, an animated children's show, with Chuck Norris appearing to reveal the moral lessons contained in every episode, Film st*rs and their stylesPractitionerFighting styleSonny ChibaKyokushin[67]Sean ConneryKyokushin[68]Hiroyuki SanadaKyokushin[69]Dolph LundgrenKyokushin[70]Michael Jai WhiteKyokushin[71]Yasuaki KurataShito-ryu[72]Fumio DemuraShitō-ryū[73]Don "The Dragon" WilsonGōjū-ryu[74]Richard NortonGōjū-ryu[75]Yukari OshimaGōjū-ryu[76][77]Leung Siu-LungGōjū-ryu[78]Wesley SnipesShotokan[79]Jean-Claude Van DammeShotokan[80]Jim KellyShōrin-ryū[81]Joe LewisShōrin-ryū[82]Tadashi YamashitaShōrin-ryū[83]Matt MullinsShōrei-ryū[84]Sho KosugiShindō jinen-ryū[85]Many other film st*rs such as Bruce Lee, Chuck Norris, Jackie Chan, Sammo Hung, and Jet Li come from a range of other martial arts, See also[edit]Karate portalMartial arts portalWikimedia Commons has media related to:Karate (category)Comparison of karate stylesJapanese martial artsKarate World ChampionshipsKarate at the Summer OlympicsKarate at the World GamesReferences[edit]^ Jump up to: a b Higaonna, Morio (1985), Traditional Karatedo Vol, 1 Fundamental Techniques, p, 17, ISBN 0-87040-595-0,^ Jump up to: a b c "History of Okinawan Karate", Web,archive,org, 2 March 2009, Archived from the original on 2 March 2009, Retrieved 14 March 2013,Jump up ^ Bishop, Mark (1989), Okinawan Karate, pp, 153–166, ISBN 0-7136-5666-2, Chapter 9 covers Motobu-ryu and Bugeikan, two 'ti' styles with grappling and vital point striking techniques, Page 165, Seitoku Higa: "Use pressure on vital points, wrist locks, grappling, strikes and kicks in a gentle manner to neutralize an attack,"Jump up ^ Kerr, George, Okinawa: History of an Island People, Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing Company, 2000, 436, 442, 448-449,Jump up ^ Donn F, Draeger (1974), Modern Bujutsu & Budo, Weatherhill, New York & Tokyo, Page 125,Jump up ^ "唐手研究会、次いで空手の創立", Keio Univ, Karate Team, Archived from the original on 12 July 2009, Retrieved 12 June 2009,Jump up ^ Miyagi, Chojun (1993) [1934], McCarthy, Patrick, ed, Karate-doh Gaisetsu [An Outline of Karate-Do], p, 9, ISBN 4-900613-05-3,Jump up ^ The name of the Tang dynasty was a synonym to China in Okinawa,Jump up ^ Draeger & Smith (1969), Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts, p, 60, ISBN 978-0-87011-436-6,Jump up ^ Bishop, Mark (1999), Okinawan Karate Second Edition, p, 11, ISBN 978-0-8048-3205-2,Jump up ^ Gary J, Krug (1 November 2001), "Dr, Gary J, Krug: the Feet of the Master: Three Stages in the Appropriation of Okinawan Karate Into Anglo-American Culture", Csc,sagepub,com, Retrieved 14 March 2013,Jump up ^ Shigeru, Egami (1976), The Heart of Karate-Do, p, 13, ISBN 0-87011-816-1,Jump up ^ Nagamine, Shoshin (1976), Okinawan Karate-do, p, 47, ISBN 978-0-8048-2110-0,Jump up ^ "Web Japan" (PDF), Retrieved 14 March 2013,Jump up ^ "WKF claims 100 million practitioners", Thekisontheway,com, Archived from the original on 26 April 2013, Retrieved 14 March 2013,Jump up ^ Bishop, Mark (1989), Okinawan Karate, p, 154, ISBN 0-7136-5666-2, Motobu-ryū & Seikichi Uehara^ Jump up to: a b Higaonna, Morio (1985), Traditional Karatedo Vol, 1 Fundamental Techniques, p, 19, ISBN 0-87040-595-0,Jump up ^ Bishop, Mark (1989), Okinawan Karate, p, 28, ISBN 0-7136-5666-2, For example Chōjun Miyagi adapted Rokkushu of White Crane into TenshōJump up ^ Lund, Graeme, The Essential Karate Book: For White Belts, Black Belts and All Karateka in Between, p, 12,Jump up ^ International Ryukyu Karate-jutsu Research Society (15 October 2012), "Patrick McCarthy, footnote #4", Web,archive,org, Archived from the original on 30 January 2014, Retrieved 23 May 2014,Jump up ^ "Kanbun Uechi history", Web,archive,org, 1 March 2009, Archived from the original on 1 March 2009, Retrieved 23 May 2014,Jump up ^ Hokama, Tetsuhiro (2005), 100 Masters of Okinawan Karate, Okinawa: Ozata Print, p, 28,Jump up ^ "International Traditional Karate Federation (ITKF)", Web,archive,org, Archived from the original on 4 December 2010, Retrieved 23 May 2014,Jump up ^ Higaonna, Morio (1985), Traditional Karatedo Vol, 1 Fundamental Techniques, p, 67, ISBN 0-87040-595-0,Jump up ^ Mitchell, David (1991), Winning Karate Competition, p, 25, ISBN 0-7136-3402-2,Jump up ^ Shigeru, Egami (1976), The Heart of Karatedo, p, 111, ISBN 0-87011-816-1,Jump up ^ Higaonna, Morio (1990), Traditional Karatedo Vol, 4 Applications of the Kata, p, 136, ISBN 978-0870408489,Jump up ^ Shigeru, Egami (1976), The Heart of Karatedo, p, 113, ISBN 0-87011-816-1,^ Jump up to: a b "Black Belt", Books,google,co,uk, p, 62, Retrieved 13 October 2015,Jump up ^ "World Karate Confederation", Wkc-org,net, Retrieved 14 March 2013,Jump up ^ "Activity Report" (PDF), Retrieved 14 March 2013,^ Jump up to: a b Warnock, Eleanor (25 September 2015), "Which Kind of Karate Has Olympic Chops?", WSJ, Retrieved 18 October 2015,Jump up ^ "WUKF – World Union of Karate-Do Federations", Wukf-karate,org, Retrieved 14 March 2013,Jump up ^ "Black Belt", Books,google,co,uk, p, 31, Retrieved 10 October 2015,Jump up ^ Joel Alswang, "The South African Dictionary of Sport", Books,google,co,uk, p, 163, Retrieved 10 October 2015,Jump up ^ Adam Gibson; Bill Wallace, "Competitive Karate", Books,google,co,uk, Retrieved 10 October 2015,Jump up ^ "World Koshiki Karatedo Federation", Koshiki,org, Retrieved 14 March 2013,Jump up ^ "Shinkaratedo Renmei", Shinkarate,net, Retrieved 14 March 2013,Jump up ^ "IOC approves five new sports for Olympic Games Tokyo 2020", IOC, Retrieved 4 August 2016,Jump up ^ "Olympics: Baseball/softball, sport climbing, surfing, karate, skateboarding at Tokyo 2020", BBC, Retrieved 4 August 2016,^ Jump up to: a b Schneiderman, R, M, (23 May 2009), "Contender Shores Up Karate's Reputation Among U,F,C, Fans", The New York Times, Retrieved 30 January 2010,Jump up ^ "Technique Talk: Stephen Thompson Retrofits Karate for MMA", MMA Fighting, Retrieved 23 May 2014,Jump up ^ "Lyoto Machida and the Revenge of Karate", Sherdog, Retrieved 13 February 2010,Jump up ^ Lead MMA Analyst (14 February 2014), "Lyoto Machida: Old-School Karate", Bleacher Report, Retrieved 23 May 2014,Jump up ^ Wickert, Marc, "Montreal's MMA Warrior", Knucklepit,com, Archived from the original on 13 June 2007, Retrieved 6 July 2007,Jump up ^ "Who is Michelle Waterson?", mmamicks,com, 8 June 2015,Jump up ^ Hokama, Tetsuhiro (2005), 100 Masters of Okinawan Karate, Okinawa: Ozata Print, p, 20,Jump up ^ Funakoshi, Gichin, "Karate-dō Kyohan – The Master Text" Tokyo, Kodansha International; 1973, Page 4Jump up ^ Funakoshi, Gichin, "Karate-dō Kyohan – The Master Text" Tokyo, Kodansha International; 1973,Jump up ^ Funakoshi, Gishin (1988), Karate-do Nyumon, Japan, p, 24, ISBN 4-7700-1891-6, Retrieved 15 July 2010,Jump up ^ "What's In A Name?", Newpaltzkarate,com, Archived from the original on 10 December 2004, Retrieved 5 March 2015,^ Jump up to: a b Robert, T, (2006), "no title given", Journal of Asian Martial Arts, this issue is not available as a back issue, 15 (4),[dead link]^ Jump up to: a b "Karate", The Canadian Encyclopedia – Historica-Dominion, 2010, Retrieved 20 July 2010,Jump up ^ Orr, Monty; Amae, Yoshihisa (December 2016), "Karate in Taiwan and South Korea: A Tale of Two Postcolonial Societies" (PDF), Taiwan in Comparative Perspective, Taiwan Research Programme, London School of Economics, 6: 1–16, ISSN 1752-7732,Jump up ^ "Academy", Tangsudo,com, 18 October 2011, Archived from the original on 10 December 2014, Retrieved 5 March 2015,^ Jump up to: a b c "History of Shotokan (Russian)", Retrieved 15 May 2007,Jump up ^ The Original Martial Arts Encyclopedia, John Corcoran and Emil Farkas, pgs, 170–197Jump up ^ "The Empty Hand | FIGHT! Magazine – Archives", Fightmagazine,com, Retrieved 23 May 2014,^ Jump up to: a b c d e f "Exclusive: UK Karate History", Bushinkai, Archived from the original on 23 February 2014,Jump up ^ "International Association of Shotokan Karate (IASK)", Karate-iask,com, Retrieved 14 March 2013,Jump up ^ "National Sports Authority, Ghana", Sportsauthority,com,gh, Retrieved 5 March 2015,Jump up ^ Resnekov, Liam (16 July 2014), "Love and Rebellion: How Two Karatekas Fought Apartheid | FIGHTLAND", Fightland,vice,com, Retrieved 5 March 2015,Jump up ^ Aggrey, Joe (6 May 1997), "Graphic Sports: Issue 624 May 6-12 1997", Graphic Communications Group, Retrieved 22 August 2017 – via Google Books,Jump up ^ For example, Ian Fleming's book Goldfinger (1959, p,91–95) describes the protagonist James Bond, an expert in unarmed combat, as utterly ignorant of Karate and its demonstrations, and describes the Korean 'Oddjob' in these terms: Goldfinger said, "Have you ever heard of Karate? No? Well that man is one of the three in the world who have achieved the Black Belt in Karate, Karate is a branch of judo, but it is to judo what a spandau is to a catapult,,,", Such a description in a popular novel assumed and relied upon Karate being almost unknown in the West,Jump up ^ "The Karate Generation", Newsweek, 18 February 2010,Jump up ^ "Jaden Smith Shines in The Karate Kid", Newsweek, 10 June 2010,Jump up ^ "International Karate Organization KYOKUSHINKAIKAN Domestic Black Belt List As of Oct,2000", Kyokushin karate sōkan : shin seishin shugi eno sōseiki e, Aikēōshuppanjigyōkyoku: 62–64, 2001, ISBN 4-8164-1250-6,Jump up ^ Rogers, Ron, "Hanshi's Corner 1106" (PDF), Midori Yama Budokai, Retrieved 20 August 2011,Jump up ^ Kungfu Magazine: E-Zine Feature Article, Ezine,kungfumagazine,com, Retrieved on 21 November 2011, Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine,Jump up ^ "Celebrity Fitness—Dolph Lundgren", Inside Kung Fu, Archived from the original on 29 November 2010, Retrieved 15 November 2010,Jump up ^ "Talking With…Michael Jai White", GiantLife, Retrieved 16 June 2010,Jump up ^ "Yasuaki Kurata Filmography", Retrieved 17 May 2017,Jump up ^ [1] Archived 28 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine,Jump up ^ "Martial Arts Legend", n,d, Retrieved 29 July 2013,Jump up ^ Black Belt Magazine March, 1994, p, 24, Books,google,com, March 1994, Retrieved 14 March 2013,Jump up ^ "Goju-ryu", n,d, Retrieved 24 June 2013,Jump up ^ "Yukari Oshima's Biography", Retrieved 24 June 2013,Jump up ^ "Goju-ryu", n,d, Retrieved 26 May 2014,Jump up ^ "Wesley Snipes: Action man courts a new beginning", Independent, London, 4 June 2010, Retrieved 10 June 2010,Jump up ^ "Why is he famous?", ASK MEN, Retrieved 15 June 2010,Jump up ^ "Martial arts biography - jim kelly", Retrieved 21 August 2013,Jump up ^ "Biography and Profile of Joe Lewis", Retrieved 12 August 2013,Jump up ^ [2] Archived 5 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine,Jump up ^ "Matt Mullins Biography", n,d, Retrieved 29 July 2013,Jump up ^ "`Ninja` Knockin`` Em Dead - Chicago Tribune", Articles,chicagotribune,com, 15 May 1986, Retrieved 5 March 2015,External links[edit]World Karate FederationOlympic Karate[show] v t eKarate[show] v t eJapanese martial arts[show] v t eMartial arts[show] v t eSummer Olympic sportsAuthority controlGND: 4029630-1 NDL: 00565037Categories: KarateJapanese martial artsHistory of Okinawa PrefectureMixed martial arts stylesSummer Olympic sports------------------------SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT JUDOJudoFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the martial art and sport, For the computer programming environment, see JUDO (computer programming environment),Judo柔道Judo,svgKyuzo Mifune (left) and Kanō Jigorō (right)Kyuzo Mifune (left) and Kanō Jigorō (right)FocusGrapplingHardnessFull contactCountry of origin JapanCreatorKanō JigorōFamous practitionersSee: List of judokaParenthoodVarious koryū jujutsu schools, principally Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū and Kitō-ryūDescendant artsBrazilian jiu-jitsu, Kosen judo, SamboOlympic sportSince 1964[1] (men) and 1992[2] (women)Official websiteInternational Judo Federation (IJF)The KodokanJudo (柔道 jūdō, meaning "gentle way") was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎), It is generally categorized as a modern martial art which later evolved into a combat and Olympic sport, Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin, or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke, Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defenses are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata, 形) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori, 乱取り), A judo practitioner is called a judoka, The philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from koryū (古流, traditional schools), Contents [hide] 1History and philosophy1,1Early life of the founder1,2Founding of the Kodokan1,3Judo versus jujutsu2Judo waza (techniques)2,1Nage waza (throwing techniques)2,2Katame-waza (grappling techniques)2,3Atemi-waza (striking techniques)3Pedagogy3,1Randori (free practice)3,2Kata (forms)3,3Tandoku-renshu4Competitive judo4,1History of competitive judo4,2Current international contest rules4,2,1Weight divisions4,2,2Competition scoring4,2,3Penalties5In mixed martial arts6Alternative rulesets and derivative arts7Safety7,1Kansetsu and shime waza7,2Nage waza8Judoka (practitioner)9Judogi (uniform)10Organizations11Rank and grading12See also13Footnotes14Bibliography15Filmography16External linksHistory and philosophy[edit]Early life of the founder[edit] Jigoro KanoThe early history of judo is inseparable from its founder, Japanese polymath and educator Kanō Jigorō (嘉納 治五郎, Jigoro Kano, 1860–1938), born Shinnosuke Jigorō (新之助 治五郎, Jigorō Shinnosuke), Kano was born into a relatively affluent family, His father, Jirosaku, was the second son of the head priest of the Shinto Hiyoshi shrine in Shiga Prefecture, He married Sadako Kano, daughter of the owner of Kiku-Masamune sake brewing company and was adopted by the family, changing his name to Kano, He ultimately became an official in the Shogunal government,[3] Jigoro Kano had an academic upbringing and, from the age of seven, he studied English, shodō (書道, Japanese calligraphy) and the Four Confucian Texts (四書 Shisho) under a number of tutors,[4] When he was fourteen, Kano began boarding at an English-medium school, Ikuei-Gijuku in Shiba, Tokyo, The culture of bullying endemic at this school was the catalyst that caused Kano to seek out a Jūjutsu (柔術, Jujutsu) dōjō (道場, dojo, training place) at which to train,[4] Early attempts to find a jujutsu teacher who was willing to take him on met with little success, With the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate in the Meiji Restoration of 1868, jujutsu had become unfashionable in an increasingly westernised Japan, Many of those who had once taught the art had been forced out of teaching or become so disillusioned with it that they had simply given up, Nakai Umenari, an acquaintance of Kanō's father and a former soldier, agreed to show him kata, but not to teach him, The caretaker of Jirosaku's second house, Katagiri Ryuji, also knew jujutsu, but would not teach it as he believed it was no longer of practical use, Another frequent visitor, Imai Genshiro of Kyūshin-ryū (扱心流) school of jujutsu, also refused,[5] Several years passed before he finally found a willing teacher,[5] In 1877, as a student at the Tokyo-Kaisei school (soon to become part of the newly founded Tokyo Imperial University), Kano learned that many jujutsu teachers had been forced to pursue alternative careers, frequently opening Seikotsu-in (整骨院, traditional osteopathy practices),[6] After inquiring at a number of these, Kano was referred to Fukuda Hachinosuke (c,1828–1880),[7] a teacher of the Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū (天神真楊流) of jujutsu, who had a small nine mat dojo where he taught five students,[8] Fukuda is said to have emphasized technique over formal exercise, sowing the seeds of Kano's emphasis on randori (乱取り, randori, free practice) in judo, On Fukuda's death in 1880, Kano, who had become his keenest and most able student in both randori and kata (形, kata, pre-arranged forms), was given the densho (伝書, scrolls) of the Fukuda dojo,[9] Kano chose to continue his studies at another Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū school, that of Iso Masatomo (c,1820–1881), Iso placed more emphasis on the practice of "kata", and entrusted randori instruction to assistants, increasingly to Kano,[10] Iso died in June 1881 and Kano went on to study at the dojo of Iikubo Tsunetoshi (1835–1889) of Kitō-ryū (起倒流),[11] Like Fukuda, Iikubo placed much emphasis on randori, with Kitō-ryū having a greater focus on nage-waza (投げ技, throwing techniques),[12] Founding of the Kodokan[edit] Eisho-ji temple, TokyoIn February 1882, Kano founded a school and dojo at the Eisho-ji (永昌寺), a Buddhist temple in what was then the Shitaya ward of Tokyo (now the Higashi Ueno district of Taitō ward),[13] Iikubo, Kano's Kitō-ryū instructor, attended the dojo three days a week to help teach and, although two years would pass before the temple would be called by the name Kōdōkan (講道館, Kodokan, "place for expounding the way"), and Kano had not yet received his Menkyo (免許, certificate of mastery) in Kitō-ryū, this is now regarded as the Kodokan founding, The Eisho-ji dojo was a relatively small affair, consisting of a twelve mat training area, Kano took in resident and non-resident students, the first two being Tomita Tsunejirō and Shiro Saigo,[14] In August, the following year, the pair were granted shodan (初段, first rank) grades, the first that had been awarded in any martial art,[15] Judo versus jujutsu[edit] jūdō (柔道, "Judo"), written in kanjiCentral to Kano's vision for judo were the principles of seiryoku zen'yō (精力善用, maximum efficiency, minimum effort) and jita kyōei (自他共栄, mutual welfare and benefit), He illustrated the application of seiryoku zen'yō with the concept of jū yoku gō o seisu (柔よく剛を制す, softness controls hardness): In short, resisting a more powerful opponent will result in your defeat, whilst adjusting to and evading your opponent's attack will cause him to lose his balance, his power will be reduced, and you will defeat him, This can apply whatever the relative values of power, thus making it possible for weaker opponents to beat significantly stronger ones, This is the theory of ju yoku go o seisu,[16] Kano realised that seiryoku zen'yō, initially conceived as a jujutsu concept, had a wider philosophical application, Coupled with the Confucianist-influenced jita kyōei, the wider application shaped the development of judo from a bujutsu (武術, martial art) to a budō (武道, martial way), Kano rejected techniques that did not conform to these principles and emphasised the importance of efficiency in the execution of techniques, He was convinced that practice of jujutsu while conforming to these ideals was a route to self-improvement and the betterment of society in general,[17] He was, however, acutely conscious of the Japanese public's negative perception of jujutsu: At the time a few bujitsu (martial arts) experts still existed but bujitsu was almost abandoned by the nation at large, Even if I wanted to teach jujitsu most people had now stopped thinking about it, So I thought it better to teach under a different name principally because my objectives were much wider than jujitsu,[18] Kano believed that "jūjutsu" was insufficient to describe his art: although Jutsu (術) means "art" or "means", it implies a method consisting of a collection of physical techniques, Accordingly, he changed the second character to dō (道), meaning way, road or path, which implies a more philosophical context than jutsu and has a common origin with the Chinese concept of tao, Thus Kano renamed it Jūdō (柔道, judo),[19] Judo waza (techniques)[edit]See also: List of judo techniques and List of Kodokan judo techniquesThere are three basic categories of waza (技, techniques) in judo: nage-waza (投げ技, throwing techniques), katame-waza (固技, grappling techniques) and atemi-waza (当て身技, striking techniques),[20] Judo is most known for nage-waza and katame-waza,[21] Judo practitioners typically devote a portion of each practice session to ukemi (受け身, break-falls), in order that nage-waza can be practiced without significant risk of injury, Several distinct types of ukemi exist, including ushiro ukemi (後ろ受身, rear breakfalls); yoko ukemi (横受け身, side breakfalls); mae ukemi (前受け身, front breakfalls); and zenpo kaiten ukemi (前方回転受身, rolling breakfalls)[22] The person who performs a Waza is known as tori (取り, literally "taker") and the person to whom it is performed is known as uke (受け, "receiver"),[23] Nage waza (throwing techniques)[edit]Nage waza include all techniques in which tori attempts to throw or trip uke, usually with the aim of placing uke on his back, Each technique has three distinct stages: Kuzushi (崩し), the initial balance break;[24]Tsukuri (作り), the act of turning in and fitting into the throw;[25]Kake (掛け), the execution and completion of the throw,[25]Before an effective kuzushi can be performed, it is important to establish a firm grip (組み方, kumi kata),[26] Nage waza are typically drilled by the use of uchi komi (内込), repeated turning-in, taking the throw up to the point of kake,[27] Traditionally, nage waza are further categorised into tachi-waza (立ち技, standing techniques), throws that are performed with tori maintaining an upright position, and sutemi-waza (捨身技, sacrifice techniques), throws in which tori sacrifices his upright position in order to throw uke,[28] Tachi-waza are further subdivided into te-waza (手技, hand techniques), in which tori predominantly uses his arms to throw uke; koshi-waza (腰技, hip techniques) throws that predominantly use a lifting motion from the hips; and ashi-waza (足技, foot and leg techniques), throws in which tori predominantly utilises his legs,[28] Harai goshi (払腰, sweeping hip), a koshi-wazaNage-waza (投げ技)throwing techniquesTachi-waza (立ち技)standing techniquesTe-waza (手技)hand techniquesKoshi-waza (腰技)hip techniquesAshi-waza (足技)foot and leg techniquesSutemi-waza (捨身技)sacrifice techniquesMa-sutemi-waza (真捨身技)rear sacrifice techniquesYoko-sutemi-waza (橫捨身技)side sacrifice techniquesKatame-waza (grappling techniques)[edit]Katame-waza is further categorised into osaekomi-waza (押込技, holding techniques), in which tori traps and pins uke on his back on the floor; shime-waza (絞技, strangulation techniques), in which tori attempts to force a submission by choking or strangling uke; and kansetsu-waza (関節技, joint techniques), in which tori attempts to submit uke by painful manipulation of his joints,[29] A related concept is that of ne-waza (寝技, prone techniques), in which waza are applied from a non-standing position,[30] In competitive judo, Kansetsu-waza is currently limited to elbow joint manipulation,[31] Manipulation and locking of other joints can be found in various kata, such as Katame-no-kata and Kodokan goshin jutsu,[32] Juji gatame (十字固, cross lock)(armbar), a kansetsu-wazaKatame-waza (固技)grappling techniquesOsaekomi-waza (押込技)holding or pinning techniquesShime-waza (絞技)strangulation techniquesKansetsu-waza (関節技)Joint techniques (locks)Atemi-waza (striking techniques)[edit]Atemi-waza are techniques in which tori disables uke with a strike to a vital point, Atemi-waza are not permitted outside of kata,[33] Pedagogy[edit]Randori (free practice)[edit]Judo pedagogy emphasizes randori (乱取り, literally "taking chaos", but meaning "free practice"), This term covers a variety of forms of practice, and the intensity at which it is carried out varies depending on intent and the level of expertise of the participants, At one extreme, is a compliant style of randori, known as Yakusoku geiko (約束稽古, prearranged practice), in which neither participant offers resistance to their partner's attempts to throw, A related concept is that of Sute geiko (捨稽古, throw-away practice), in which an experienced judoka allows himself to be thrown by his less-experienced partner,[34] At the opposite extreme from yakusoku geiko is the hard style of randori that seeks to emulate the style of judo seen in competition, While hard randori is the cornerstone of judo, over-emphasis of the competitive aspect is seen as undesirable by traditionalists if the intent of the randori is to "win" rather than to learn,[35] Kata (forms)[edit] Jigoro Kano and Yoshiaki Yamashita performing Koshiki-no-kataSee also: KataKata (形, kata, forms) are pre-arranged patterns of techniques and in judo, with the exception of the Seiryoku-Zen'yō Kokumin-Taiiku, they are all practised with a partner, Their purposes include illustrating the basic principles of judo, demonstrating the correct execution of a technique, teaching the philosophical tenets upon which judo is based, allowing for the practice of techniques that are not allowed in randori, and to preserve ancient techniques that are historically important but are no longer used in contemporary judo,[36] There are ten kata that are recognized by the Kodokan today:[37] Randori-no-kata (乱取りの形, Free practice forms), comprising two kata:Nage-no-kata (投の形, Forms of throwing) Fifteen throws, practiced both left- and right-handed, three each from the five categories of nage waza: te waza, koshi waza, ashi waza, ma sutemi waza and yoko sutemi waza,[38]Katame-no-kata (固の形, Forms of grappling or holding), Fifteen techniques in three sets of five, illustrating the three categories of katame waza: osaekomi waza, shime waza and kansetsu waza,[39]Kime-no-kata (極の形, Forms of decisiveness), Twenty techniques, illustrating the principles of defence in a combat situation, performed from kneeling and standing positions, Attacks are made unarmed and armed with a dagger and a sword, This kata utilises atemi waza, striking techniques, that are forbidden in randori,[40]Kōdōkan goshinjutsu (講道館護身術, Kodokan skills of self-defence), The most recent recognised kata, comprising twenty-one techniques of defence against attack from an unarmed assailant and one armed with a knife, stick and pistol, This kata incorporates various jujutsu techniques such as wrist locks and atemi waza,[41]Jū-no-kata (柔の形, Forms of gentleness & flexibility), Fifteen techniques, arranged in three sets of five, demonstrating the principle of Jū and its correct use in offence and defence,[42]Gō-no-kata (剛の形, Forms of force), One of the oldest kata, comprising ten forms that illustrate the efficient use of force and resistance, Now rarely practiced,[43]Itsutsu-no-kata (五の形, The five forms), An advanced kata, illustrating the principle of seiryoku zen'yō and the movements of the universe,[44] The kata predates the creation of Kodokan and originated in Tenjin Shinyō-ryū,[45]Koshiki-no-kata (古式の形, Traditional forms), Derived from Kitō-ryū Jujutsu, this kata was originally intended to be performed wearing armour, Kano chose to preserve it as it embodied the principles of judo,[46]Seiryoku Zen'yō Kokumin Taiiku (精力善用国家体育, Maximum-efficiency national physical education), A series of exercises designed to develop the physique for judo,[47]Joshi-goshinhō (女性護身法, Methods of self-defence for women), An exercise completed in 1943, and of which the development was ordered by Jiro Nango, the second Kodokan president,[48]In addition, there are a number of commonly practiced kata that are not recognised by the Kodokan, Some of the more common kata include: Go-no-sen-no-kata (後の先の形) A kata of counter techniques developed at Waseda University in Tokyo, popularised in the West by Mikinosuke Kawaishi,[49]Nage-waza-ura-no-kata (投げ技裏の形) Another kata of counter techniques, created by Kyuzo Mifune,[50]Katame-waza ura-no-kata (固め技裏の形, Forms of reversing controlling techniques) a kata of counter-attacks to controlling techniques, attributed to Kazuo Itō[51][52]Tandoku-renshu[edit]Personal work,[53]Competitive judo[edit]History of competitive judo[edit] Yoshihiko Yoshimatsu attempting to throw Toshiro Daigo with an uchi mata in the final of the 1951 All-Japan Judo Championshipsshiai or jiai with rendaku (試合, Contest) is a vitally important aspect of judo, In 1899, Kano was asked to chair a committee of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai to draw up the first formal set of contest rules for jujutsu, These rules were intended to cover contests between different various traditional schools of jujutsu as well as practitioners of Kodokan judo, Contests were 15 minutes long and were judged on the basis of nage waza and katame waza, excluding atemi waza, Wins were by two ippons, awarded in every four-main different path of winning alternatives, by "Throwing", where the opponent's back strikes flat onto the mat with sufficient force, by "Pinning" them on their back for a "sufficient" amount of time, or by Submission, which could be achieved via "Shime-waza" or "Kansetsu-waza", in which the opponent was forced to give himself or herself up or summon a referee's or corner-judge's stoppage, Finger, toe and ankle locks were prohibited,[54] In 1900, these rules were adopted by the Kodokan with amendments made to prohibit all joint locks for kyu grades and added wrist locks to the prohibited kansetsu-waza for dan grades, It was also stated that the ratio of tachi-waza to ne-waza should be between 70% to 80% for kyu grades and 60% to 70% for dan grades,[54] In 1916, additional rulings were brought in to further limit kansetsu waza with the prohibition of ashi garami and neck locks, as well as do jime,[55] These were further added to in 1925, The first time judo was seen in the Olympic Games was in an informal demonstration hosted by Kano at the 1932 Games,[56] However, Kano was ambivalent about judo's potential inclusion as an Olympic sport: I have been asked by people of various sections as to the wisdom and possibility of judo being introduced with other games and sports at the Olympic Games, My view on the matter, at present, is rather passive, If it be the desire of other member countries, I have no objection, But I do not feel inclined to take any initiative, For one thing, judo in reality is not a mere sport or game, I regard it as a principle of life, art and science, In fact, it is a means for personal cultural attainment, Only one of the forms of judo training, so-called randori or free practice can be classed as a form of sport, Certainly, to some extent, the same may be said of boxing and fencing, but today they are practiced and conducted as sports, Then the Olympic Games are so strongly flavored with nationalism that it is possible to be influenced by it and to develop "Contest Judo", a retrograde form as ju-jitsu was before the Kodokan was founded, Judo should be free as art and science from any external influences, political, national, racial, and financial or any other organized interest, And all things connected with it should be directed to its ultimate object, the "Benefit of Humanity", Human sacrifice is a matter of ancient history,[57] Nevertheless, judo became an Olympic sport for men in the 1964 Games in Tokyo, The Olympic Committee initially dropped judo for the 1968 Olympics, meeting protests,[58] Dutchman Anton Geesink won the first Olympic gold medal in the open division of judo by defeating Akio Kaminaga of Japan, The women's event was introduced at the Olympics in 1988 as a demonstration event, and an official medal event in 1992, Current international contest rules[edit] All-Japan Judo Championships, 2007 men's finalMain article: Judo rulesPenalties may be given for: passivity or preventing progress in the match; for safety infringements for example by using prohibited techniques, or for behavior that is deemed to be against the spirit of judo, Fighting must be stopped if a participant is outside the designated area on the mat,[59] Weight divisions[edit]There are currently seven weight divisions, subject to change by governing bodies, and may be modified based on the age of the competitors: Weight divisionsMenUnder 60 kg (130 lb; 9,4 st)60–66 kg (132–146 lb; 9,4–10,4 st)66–73 kg (146–161 lb; 10,4–11,5 st)73–81 kg (161–179 lb; 11,5–12,8 st)81–90 kg (179–198 lb; 12,8–14,2 st)90–100 kg (200–220 lb; 14–16 st)Over 100 kg (220 lb; 16 st)WomenUnder 48 kg (106 lb; 7,6 st)48–52 kg (106–115 lb; 7,6–8,2 st)52–57 kg (115–126 lb; 8,2–9,0 st)57–63 kg (126–139 lb; 9,0–9,9 st)63–70 kg (139–154 lb; 9,9–11,0 st)70–78 kg (154–172 lb; 11,0–12,3 st)Over 78 kg (172 lb; 12,3 st)Competition scoring[edit]A throw that places the opponent on his back with impetus and control scores an ippon (一本), winning the contest,[60] A lesser throw, where the opponent is thrown onto his back, but with insufficient force to merit an ippon, scores a waza-ari (技あり),[60] Formerly, two scores of waza-ari equalled an ippon waza-ari awasete ippon (技あり合わせて一本, ) and a throw that places the opponent onto his side scores a yuko (有効),[60] The International Judo Federation recently announced changes in evaluation of points, There will only be ippon and waza-ari scores given during a match with yuko scores now included within waza-ari, Multiple waza-ari scores are no longer converted into ippon scores,[61] Ippon is scored in ne-waza for pinning an opponent on his back with a recognised osaekomi-waza for 20 seconds or by forcing a submission through shime-waza or kansetsu-waza,[60] A submission is signalled by tapping the mat or the opponent at least twice with the hand or foot, or by saying maitta (まいった, I surrender),[60] A pin lasting for less than 20 seconds, but more than 10 seconds scores waza-ari (formerly waza-ari was awarded for holds of longer than 15 seconds and yuko for holds of longer than 10 seconds),[60] Formerly, there was an additional score that was lesser to yuko, that of Koka (効果),[60] This has since been removed,[62][63] If the scores are identical at the end of the match, the contest is resolved by the Golden Score rule, Golden Score is a sudden death situation where the clock is reset to match-time, and the first contestant to achieve any score wins, If there is no score during this period, then the winner is decided by Hantei (判定), the majority opinion of the referee and the two corner judges,[64] There have been changes to the scoring, In January 2013, the Hantei was removed and the "Golden Score" no longer has a time limit, The match would continue until a judoka scored through a technique or if the opponent is penalised (Shido), Penalties[edit]Two types of penalties may be awarded, A shido (指導 - literally "guidance") is awarded for minor rule infringements, A shido can also be awarded for a prolonged period of non-aggression, Recent rule changes allow for the first shidos to result in only warnings, If there is a tie, then and only then, will the number of shidos (if less than three) be used to determine the winner, After three shidos are given, the victory is given to the opponent, constituting an indirect hansoku-make (反則負け - literally "foul-play defeat"), but does not result in expulsion from the tournament, Note: Prior to 2017, the 4th shido was hansoku make, If hansoku make is awarded for a major rule infringement, it results not just in loss of the match, but in the expulsion from the tournament of the penalized player, In mixed martial arts[edit]Main article: Mixed martial artsSeveral judo practitioners have made an impact in mixed martial arts,[65][66][67] Notable judo-trained MMA fighters include Olympic medalists Hidehiko Yoshida (Gold, 1992), Naoya Ogawa (Silver, 1992), Paweł Nastula (Gold, 1996), Makoto Takimoto (Gold, 2000), Satoshi Ishii (Gold, 2008) and Ronda Rousey (Bronze, 2008), former Russian national judo championship Bronze medalist Fedor Emelianenko, Karo Parisyan, Don Frye, Antônio Silva, Oleg Taktarov, Rick Hawn, Hector Lombard, Daniel Kelly, Yoshihiro Akiyama and Dong-Sik Yoon,[68][69] Alternative rulesets and derivative arts[edit]Kano Jigoro's Kodokan judo is the most popular and well-known style of judo, but is not the only one, The terms judo and jujutsu were quite interchangeable in the early years, so some of these forms of judo are still known as jujutsu or jiu-jitsu either for that reason, or simply to differentiate them from mainstream judo, From Kano's original style of judo, several related forms have evolved—some now widely considered to be distinct arts: Kosen judo (高專柔道): Sometimes erroneously described as a separate style of judo, Kosen judo is a competition rules set of Kodokan judo that was popularized in the early 20th century for use in Japanese Special High Schools Championships held at Kyoto Imperial University,[70] The word "Kosen" is an acronym of Koto Senmon Gakko (高等専門学校, literally "Higher Professional School"), Kosen judo's focus on newaza has drawn comparisons with Brazilian jiu-jitsu,Russian judo: This distinctive style of judo was influenced by the Russian martial art called Sambo, It is represented by well-known coaches such as Alexander Retuinskih and Igor Yakimov, and mixed martial arts fighters such as Fedor Emelianenko and Karo Parisyan, In turn, Russian judo has influenced mainstream judo, with techniques such as the flying armbar being accepted into Kodokan judo,Sambo (especially Sport Sambo): Vasili Oshchepkov was the first European judo black belt under Kano, Oshchepkov went on to contribute his knowledge of judo as one of the three founders of Sambo, which also integrated various international and Soviet bloc wrestling styles and other combative techniques, Oshchepkov died during the political purges of 1937, In their History of Sambo, Brett Jacques and Scott Anderson wrote that in Russia "judo and SOMBO were considered to be the same thing"—albeit with a different uniform and some differences in the rules,[71]Brazilian jiu jitsuFreestyle Judo is a form of competitive judo practiced primarily in the USA, that retains techniques that have been removed from mainstream IJF rules,[72] Freestyle Judo is currently backed by the International Freestyle Judo Alliance (IFJA), The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) officially sanctions Freestyle Judo in the United States of America,[73]Safety[edit]Kano's vision for judo was one of a martial way that could be practiced realistically, Randori (free practice) was a central part of judo pedagogy and shiai (competition) a crucial test of a judoka's understanding of judo,[74] Safety necessitated some basic innovations that shaped judo's development, Atemi waza (striking techniques) were entirely limited to kata (prearranged forms) early in judo's history, Kansetsu waza (joint manipulation techniques) were limited to techniques that focused on the elbow joint, Various throwing techniques that were judged to be too dangerous to practice safely were also prohibited in shiai, To maximise safety in nage waza (throwing techniques), judoka trained in ukemi (break falls) and practiced on tatami (rice straw mats),[citation needed] Kansetsu and shime waza[edit]The application of joint manipulation and strangulation/choking techniques is generally safe under controlled conditions typical of judo dojo and in competition, It is usual for there to be age restrictions on the practice and application of these types of techniques, but the exact nature of these restrictions will vary from country to country and from organization to organization,[citation needed] Nage waza[edit]Safety in the practice of throwing techniques depends on the skill level of both tori and uke, Inexpertly applied throws have the potential to injure both tori and uke, for instance when tori compensates for poor technique by powering through the throw, Similarly, poor ukemi can result in injury, particularly from more powerful throws that uke lacks the skill to breakfall from, For these reasons, throws are normally taught in order of difficulty for both tori and uke, This is exemplified in the Gokyo (五教, literally "five teachings"), a traditional grouping of throws arranged in order of difficulty of ukemi, Those grouped in Dai ikkyo (第一教, literally "first teaching") are relatively simple to breakfall from whereas those grouped in dai gokyo (第五教, literally "fifth teaching") are difficult to breakfall from,[citation needed] Judoka (practitioner)[edit]A practitioner of judo is known as a judoka (柔道家), The modern meaning of "judoka" in English is a judo practitioner of any level of expertise,[75] but traditionally those below the rank of 4th dan were called kenkyu-sei (研究生, trainees); and only those of 4th dan or higher were called "judoka", (The suffix -ka (家), when added to a noun, means a person with expertise or special knowledge on that subject), A judo teacher is called sensei (先生),[75] The word sensei comes from sen or saki (before) and sei (life) – i,e, one who has preceded you, In Western dojo, it is common to call an instructor of any dan grade sensei, Traditionally, that title was reserved for instructors of 4th dan and above,[citation needed] Judogi (uniform)[edit]Main article: Judogi The judogi is made from a heavy weave to withstand the strength of throwing and grappling,Judo practitioners traditionally wear white uniforms called 稽古着 (keikogi, keikogi) practice clothing or jūdōgi (柔道着, judogi, judo clothing),[76] sometimes abbreviated in the west as "gi", It comprises a heavy cotton kimono-like jacket called an uwagi (上衣, jacket), similar to traditional hanten (半纏, workers jackets) fastened by an obi (帯, obi, belt), coloured to indicate rank, and cotton draw-string zubon (ズボン, trousers),[77] Early examples of keikogi had short sleeves and trouser legs and the modern long-sleeved judogi was adopted in 1906,[78] The modern use of the blue judogi for high level competition was first suggested by Anton Geesink at the 1986 Maastricht IJF DC Meeting,[79] For competition, a blue judogi is worn by one of the two competitors for ease of distinction by judges, referees, and spectators, In Japan, both judoka use a white judogi and the traditional red obi (based on the colors of the Japanese flag) is affixed to the belt of one competitor, Outside Japan, a colored obi may also be used for convenience in minor competitions, the blue judogi only being mandatory at the regional or higher levels, depending on organization, Japanese practitioners and traditionalists tend to look down on the use of blue because of the fact that judo is considered a pure sport, and replacing the pure white judogi for the impure blue is an offense,[79] For events organized under the auspices of the International judo Federation (IJF), judogi have to bear the IJF Official Logo Mark Label, This label demonstrates that the judogi has passed a number of quality control tests to ensure it conforms to construction regulations ensuring it is not too stiff, flexible, rigid or slippery to allow the opponent to grip or to perform techniques,[80] Organizations[edit]Main article: List of judo organizationsThe international governing body for judo is the International Judo Federation (IJF), founded in 1951, Members of the IJF include the African Judo Union (AJU), the Pan-American Judo Confederation (PJC), the Judo Union of Asia (JUA), the European Judo Union (EJU) and the Oceania Judo Union (OJU), each comprising a number of national judo associations, The IJF is responsible for organising international competition and hosts the World Judo Championships and is involved in running the Olympic Judo events,[81] Rank and grading[edit]Main article: Rank in Judo Two children training in judo techniquesJudo is a hierarchical art, where seniority of judoka is designated by what is known as the kyū (級, kyū) -dan (段, dan) ranking system, This system was developed by Jigoro Kano and was based on the ranking system in the board game Go, [82] Beginning students progress through kyu grades towards dan grades, A judoka's position within the kyu-dan ranking system is displayed by the color of their belt, Beginning students typically wear a white belt, progressing through descending kyu ranks until they are deemed to have achieved a level of competence sufficient to be a dan grade, at which point they wear the kuro obi (黒帯, black belt), The kyu-dan ranking system has since been widely adopted by modern martial arts,[83] The ninth degree black belt kudan, and higher ranks, have no formal requirements and are decided by the president of the Kodokan, currently Kano Jigoro's grandson Yukimitsu Kano, As of 2011, fifteen Japanese men have been promoted to the tenth degree black belt judan by the Kodokan, three of whom are still alive;[83] the IJF and Western and Asian national federations have promoted another eleven who are not recognized (at that level of rank) by the Kodokan, On July 28, 2011, the promotion board of USA Judo awarded Keiko Fukuda the rank of 10th dan, who was the first woman to be promoted to judo's highest level, albeit not a Kodokan-recognized rank, Although dan ranks tend to be consistent between national organizations there is more variation in the kyū grades, with some countries having more kyū grades, Although initially kyū grade belt colours were uniformly white, today a variety of colours are used, The first black belts to denote a dan rank in the 1880s, initially the wide obi was used; as practitioners trained in kimono, only white and black obi were used, It was not until the early 1900s, after the introduction of the judogi, that an expanded colored belt system of awarding rank was created,[83] See also[edit]flagJapan portaliconCulture portalMartial arts portalJudo by countryList of celebrity judokaList of judo techniques, partial list of judo techniquesList of judokaList of World Champions in JudoFootnotes[edit]Jump up ^ Inman (2005) p, 10Jump up ^ The first Olympic competition to award medals to women judoka was in 1992; in 1988, women competed as a demonstration sport, Inman (2005) p, 11Jump up ^ Kano (2008) pp, 46–47^ Jump up to: a b Kano (2008) p, 1; Hoare (2009) p, 43^ Jump up to: a b Kano (2008) p, 2Jump up ^ Hoare (2009) p, 44Jump up ^ Fukuda (2004) p, 145Jump up ^ Kano (2008) pp, 3–4; Hoare (2009) pp, 45–47; Fukuda (2004) pp, 145–152, Keiko Fukuda 9th Dan (born 1913) is the granddaughter of Fukuda Hachinosuke, and is the last surviving direct student of Kano: Davis, Simon, "Be Strong, Be Gentle, Be Beautiful - Keiko Fukuda", United States Judo Federation, archived from the original on March 8, 2011, retrieved March 12, 2011Jump up ^ Kano (2008) p, 6; Hoare (2009) p, 47Jump up ^ Kano (2008) pp, 9–10Jump up ^ Kano (2008) p, 11Jump up ^ Kano (2005) p, 23Jump up ^ Hoare (2009) pp, 52–53, For location of Eisho-ji temple, see:"Way to Eisho-Ji Temple", Kodokan, archived from the original on March 11, 2011, retrieved March 14, 2011Jump up ^ Kano (2008) p, 20Jump up ^ Lowry (2006) p, 49Jump up ^ Kano (2005) pp, 39–40Jump up ^ For Kano's opinions on the wider applicability of jita kyōei to life see for example, Kano (2008) p, 107Jump up ^ Hoare (2009) p, 56Jump up ^ Judo had been used before then, as in the case of a jujutsu school that called itself Chokushin-ryū Jūdō (直信流柔道, Sometimes rendered as Jikishin-ryū Jūdō), but its use was rare,Jump up ^ Daigo (2005) p, 8Jump up ^ Numerous texts exist that describe the waza of judo in detail, Daigo (2005); Inokuma and Sato (1987); Kano (1994); Mifune (2004); and Ohlenkamp (2006) are some of the better examplesJump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 45–54Jump up ^ Ishikawa and Draeger (1999) p, 179Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 42–43; Mifune (2004) pp, 41–43^ Jump up to: a b Kano (1994) p, 44; Mifune (2004) p, 44Jump up ^ Tello, Rodolfo (2016), Judo: Seven Steps to Black Belt, Arlington, VA: Amakella Publishing, p, 33,Jump up ^ Takahashi (2005) pp, 39–43^ Jump up to: a b Daigo (2005) p, 10Jump up ^ For full coverage of katame waza techniques extant in current judo competition rules see Adams (1991), Kashiwazaki (1992) and Kashiwazaki (1997)Jump up ^ Koizumi, Gunji, "Ne-waza (Groundwork) and Atemi-waza (blows) in Judo", Judo, Budokwai Judo Quarterly Bulletin, Retrieved 11 September 2012,Jump up ^ Adams (1991)Jump up ^ Otaki & Draeger (1983) pp, 398–405; Kano (1982) pp, 192–203Jump up ^ Daigo (2005) p, 9; Harrison (1952) pp, 162–168Jump up ^ Ishikawa and Draeger (1999) p, 84Jump up ^ Kano (1994) p, 142; Ishikawa and Draeger (1999) p, 84Jump up ^ "What is a Kata?", umich,edu,Jump up ^ For a review of the ten official Kodokan kata, see Jones and Hanon (2010)Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 148–159; Otaki and Draeger, pp, 73–109, 139–266Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 160–172; Otaki and Draeger, pp, 110–138, 267–405Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 173–191Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 192–203Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 204–219; Fukuda (2004) pp, 1–144Jump up ^ De Crée and Jones (2009a, 2009b, 2009c)Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 220–223Jump up ^ De Crée (2012) pp, 56–107Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 224–238Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 239–251Jump up ^ De Crée and Jones (2011a, 2011b, 2011c)Jump up ^ Fromm and Soames (1982) pp, 71–72, 109Jump up ^ Mifune (2004) pp, 211–220Jump up ^ De Crée (2015) pp, 155–174Jump up ^ Itō (1970) pp, 1–111Jump up ^ Cf, Jigoro Kano, Kodokan Judo, Kodansha, USA, 2013, § Tandoku-renshu,^ Jump up to: a b Hoare (2005) pp, 4–7Jump up ^ Hoare (2009) p, 109Jump up ^ "The Contribution of Judo to Education by Jigoro Kano", Judoinfo,com, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ Koizumi (1947)Jump up ^ Black Belt Vol, 2, No, 2, Active Interest Media, Inc, Mar 1964, p, 27,Jump up ^ Administrator, "Judo Rules: Basic Rules of Judo", rulesofsport,com,^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Takahashi (2005) pp, 18–20Jump up ^ "Wide consensus for the adapted rules of the next Olympic Cycle", IJF,org, December 9, 2016, retrieved June 2, 2017Jump up ^ "INT, JUDO FEDERATION : IJF Referee Commission : REFEREEING RULES ALTERATIONS : TEST EVENT ON WC JUNIOR BANGKOK'08" (PDF), Judoinfo,com, Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ "Evolution of Judo Contest Rules", Judoinfo,com, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ "Extended match (e,g, Golden Score Contest) | Judo Channel", Judo-ch,jp, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ "MMA Fan's Guide to Grappling: Judo", Bloody Elbow, 2013-07-15, Retrieved 2016-02-22,Jump up ^ Anthony Fusco (2012-08-20), "Judo "The Gentle Way": Why Judo Is so Underrated in MMA Today", Bleacher Report, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ Jonathan Snowden (2012-04-06), "The Gentle Way: Strikeforce Champion Ronda Rousey and the Birth of a Judo st*r", Bleacher Report, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ Jonathan Snowden (2012-04-11), "The Gentle Way Part II: Olympians Ronda Rousey and Rick Hawn Adapt to MMA", Bleacher Report, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ Erickson, Matt, "Is Ronda Rousey the savior judo has been waiting for?", MMAjunkie,com, Retrieved 2016-02-22,Jump up ^ Kashiwazaki (1997) pp, 14–15Jump up ^ "The History of Sombo", Members,tripod,com, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ http://image,aausports,org/dnn/judo/2016/2016JudoHandbook,pdfJump up ^ http://www,freestylejudo,org/Jump up ^ Kano, Jigoro, "The Contribution of Judo to Education", Judoinfo,com, Retrieved 10 September 2012,^ Jump up to: a b Inokuma and Sato (1987) p, 253Jump up ^ Inokuma and Sato (1987) p, 253; Lowry (2006) pp, 35–61Jump up ^ Lowry (2006) p, 39Jump up ^ Hoare (2005) p, 8^ Jump up to: a b "Introduction of the Blue Judogi", International Judo Federation, Archived from the original on 2007-09-12,Jump up ^ "Judogi Guidace", International Judo Federation, January 2011, retrieved March 11, 2011Jump up ^ International Judo Federation, retrieved March 13, 2011Jump up ^ "Go Ranks", Mechner, Retrieved 18 September 2017,^ Jump up to: a b c Ohlenkamp, Neil (March 25, 2007), "The Judo Rank System", JudoInfo,com, Retrieved 2007-10-15,Bibliography[edit]Adams, Neil (1991), Armlocks, Judo Masterclass Techniques, London: Ippon BooksCachia, Jeffrey (2009), Effective Judo, Sarasota, FL: Elite PublishingDaigo, Toshiro (2005), Kodokan Judo Throwing Techniques, Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha InternationalDe Crée, Carl (2015), "Kōdōkan jūdō's three orphaned forms of counter techniques – Part 3: The Katame-waza ura-no-kata ―"Forms of reversing controlling techniques"", Archives of Budo, 11: 155–174De Crée, Carl (2012), The origin, inner essence, biomechanical fundamentals, and current teaching and performance anomalies of Kōdōkan jūdō’s esoteric sixth kata: The Itsutsu-no-kata ―"Forms of five", Rome, Italy: University of RomeDe Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2009a), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Elusive Tenth Kata: The Gō-no-kata - "Forms of Proper Use of Force" - Part 1", Archives of Budo, 5: 55–73De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2009b), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Elusive Tenth Kata: The Gō-no-kata - "Forms of Proper Use of Force" - Part 2", Archives of Budo, 5: 74–82De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2009c), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Elusive Tenth Kata: The Gō-no-kata - "Forms of Proper Use of Force" - Part 3", Archives of Budo, 5: 83–95De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2011a), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Inauspicious Ninth Kata: The Joshi goshinhō - "Self-defense methods for females" - Part 1", Archives of Budo, 7: 105–123De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2011b), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Inauspicious Ninth Kata: The Joshi goshinhō - "Self-defense methods for females" - Part 2", Archives of Budo, 7: 125–137De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2011c), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Inauspicious Ninth Kata: The Joshi goshinhō - "Self-defense methods for females" - Part 3", Archives of Budo, 7: 137–139Fromm, Alan; Soames, Nicolas (1982), Judo - The Gentle Way, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul LtdFukuda, Keiko (2004), Ju-No-Kata, Berkeley, California: North Atlantic BooksHarrison, E,J, (1952), Manual of Judo, London: FoulshamHoare, Syd (2005), "Development of judo competition rules" (PDF), sydhoare,com, retrieved September 16, 2012Hoare, Syd (2009), A History of Judo, London: Yamagi BooksInman, Roy (2005), The Judo Handbook, UK: Silverdale BooksInokuma, Isao; Sato, Noboyuki (1987), Best Judo, Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha InternationalIshikawa, Takahiko; Draeger, Donn F, (1999), Judo Training Methods, Boston, Massachusetts: Tuttle PublishingItō, Kazuo (1970), Jūdō no nage- to katame-no-ura-waza, Tōkyō: Seibunkan ShotenJones, Llyr C,; Hanon, Michael J, (2010), "The way of kata in Kodokan Judo", Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 19: 8–37Kano, Jigoro (1994), Kodokan Judo, Tokyo, Japan: KodanshaKano, Jigoro (2005), Naoki, Murata, ed,, Mind Over Muscle: Writings from the founder of Judo, Tokyo, Japan: KodanshaKano, Jigoro (2008), Watson, Brian N,, ed,, Judo Memoirs of Jigoro Kano, Victoria, BC: Trafford PublishingKashiwazaki, Katsuhiko (1992), Shimewaza, Judo Masterclass Techniques, London: Ippon BooksKashiwazaki, Katsuhiko (1997), Osaekomi, Judo Masterclass Techniques, London: Ippon BooksKoizumi, Gunji (April 1947), "1936 Conversation with Jigoro Kano", Budokwai BulletinLaw, Mark (2007), The Pyjama Game, A Journey Into Judo, London, UK: Aurum Press LtdLowry, Dave (2006), In the dojo, A guide to the rituals and etiquette of the Japanese martial arts, Boston, MA: WeatherhillMifune, Kyuzo (2004), The Canon of Judo: Classic teachings on principles and techniques, Tokyo, Japan: KodanshaOhlenkamp, Neil (2006), Judo Unleashed: Essential Throwing & Grappling Techniques for Intermediate to Advanced Martial Artists, Maidenhead: McGraw-HillOtaki, Tadao; Draeger, Donn F, (1997), Judo Formal Techniques: Complete guide to Kodokan randori no kata (reprint ed,), Clarendon, Vermont: Tuttle PublishingTakahashi, Masao (2005), Mastering Judo, Champaign, Illinois: Human KineticsFilmography[edit]Akira Kurosawa, Sanshiro Sugata (姿三四郎 Sugata Sanshirō, aka Judo Saga), 1943,Akira Kurosawa, Sanshiro Sugata Part II (續姿三四郎 Zoku Sugata Sanshirō, aka Judo Saga II), 1945,External links[edit]Find more aboutJudoat Wikipedia's sister projectsDefinitions from WiktionaryMedia from Wikimedia CommonsNews from WikinewsQuotations from WikiquoteTexts from WikisourceData from WikidataInternational Judo Federation (IJF)—The worldwide governing body for judoAll judoka profiles at Judoinside,comKodokan Judo Institute—Headquarters of judo (Kano Jigoro's school)[show]Articles and topics related to judoAuthority controlGND: 4028822-5Categories: JudoDōCombat sportsGendai budoSummer Olympic sportsJapanese martial artsSport in JapanGrapplingMixed martial arts stylesSports originating in Japan THANKS FOR LOOKING!!! Track Page Views With Auctiva's FREE Counter Condition: Good, Condition: Good Condition, Format: Paperback, Subject: Sports & Recreation, Topic: Martial Arts, Country/Region of Manufacture: United States, Author: Yeon Hwan Park, Publication Year: 2013, Language: English, Special Attributes: Illustrated

PicClick Insights PicClick Exclusive
  •  Popularity - 1,486 views, 24.8 views per day, 60 days on eBay. Super high amount of views. 0 sold, 1 available.
  •  Price -
  •  Seller - 2,494+ items sold. 1% negative feedback. Great seller with very good positive feedback and over 50 ratings.
Similar Items