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Charach Moba Very Rare Biblical Ancient Lead Token- 6Th Ce

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Seller: raysartifacts (248) 100%, Location: Cleveland, Ohio, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 152314356101 CHARACH MOBA RARE BIBLICAL PALESTINE ANCIENT LEAD Bishop TOKEN- 6TH CENTURY AD ..18MM/...2kings 3:5 that king of MOAB rebelled against the king of Israel../ MOA fortress named on the MADABA mosaic map. BYZANTINE BISHOP A site in ancient Moab situated above Wadi el-Kerak which drains the Moabite plateau into the Jordan valley. Name and Identification. The Arabic name al-Karak derives from Aramaic karka "the walled town, city"; the root krk,meaning "to circumvent; to enclose," is peculiar to Aramaic. The name of the site in the Hellenistic-Roman-Byzantine periods was Karakmoba "the fortress-city of Moab," attested, in various spellings (Charach-, Charak-) since Claudius Ptolemaeus (middle of 2d century A.D.; cf. Canova 1954: LXI). Presumably, the name Karakmoba derives from the Persian period, when Aramaic was the official language of the administration. The Moabite name of Kerak is unknown. Generally, the Moabite city (or cities) of Kir (Isa 15:1), Kir-heres (Jer 48:31, 36; Isa 16:11), and Kir-hareseth (Isa 16:7; 2 Kgs 3:25) are identified with Kerak (Musil 1907: 58; Glueck 1935: 4; Abel,GP 2: 418 19). This, however, is difficult to prove. Kir occurs only once (Isa 15:1), where it stands in parallelism with Ar. If Ar refers to a landscape, not to a city, Kir was probably the capital of this district. In Moabite, *qir denotes "city" (KAI 181.11, 12, 24, 29). Ar was probably the region between Wadi Mujib and Wadi Hasa (Weippert 1979: 18); its natural center is er-Rabbah, ancient Rabbathmoba. Kir-heres/Hareseth is used parallel to "Moab" in Isa 16:7, 11; Jer 48:31, 36. In Jer 46:38, "Moab" is a designation of a city, too, i.e., the capital city of Moab, which is in accordance with Late Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian usage. These texts attest that Kir-heres/Hareseth was, at a time, the capital of Moab. They do not say much about its location. The same holds true for 2 Kgs 3:25. In 2 Kgs 3:4 27, only vv 4 6 contain reliable information (Bartlett 1983: 145). What really happened in this war is documented in the inscription of Mesha (KAI 181). According to this inscription, Dibon was the capital of Moab in Mesha's days. If one should look for Kir-heres/Hareseth S of Wadi Mujib both er-Rabbah and el-Kerak are reasonable candidates for the location (cf. Iron Age evidence from er-Rabbah; Miller 1982). Only excavations at both sites could help to settle the question. Qir Harest-Heres probably means "city of the woodland" (cf. Arabichirs "wood"). If the absence of large-scale Iron Age settlement activity in the Wadi el-Kerak means that the wadi slopes were wooded in the Iron Age, the name could be an argument in favor of Kerak. There is, however, not enough information available from the Moabite plateau for the Iron Age. On the other hand, Kerak lay off the major roads of the Iron Age and the Roman-Byzantine periods; er-Rabba did not (Worschech and Knauf 1985). Description. Kerak occupies the upper ridge of a spur protruding into Wadi el-Kerak from the S. Steep slopes on the N, E, and W sides protect the settlement. A moat excavated by the Crusaders on the S side separates the town from the ridge, and adds to its natural strength. Apart from this, and according to the Madaba mosaic map, Byzantine Kerak had the same extent as had the Crusader through Ottoman city, the wall of which is still preserved. In order to reach their fields on the Moabite plateau or in Wadi el-Kerak, the inhabitants of Kerak had to cover wide distances. In the last century, some spent their summers in tents on their fields. For water, they depended on cisterns, or brought water from springs in Wadi el-Kerak. Bibliography: Bartlett, J. R. 1983. The 'United' Campaign against Moab in 2 Kings 3:4 27. Pp. 135 46 in Midian, Moab and Edom, ed. J. F. A. Sawyer and D. J. A. Clines. JSOTSup 24. Sheffield.. Canova, R. 1954. Iscrizioni e monumenti protocristiani del paese di Moab. Sussidi allo studio delle antichità cristiane 4. Vatican. Glueck, N. 1935.Explorations in Eastern Palestine II. AASOR 15. New Haven. Miller, J. M. 1982. Recent Archaeological Developments Relevant to Ancient Moab. Pp. 169 73 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan I, ed. A. Hadidi. Amman. Musil, A. 1907. Arabia Petraea I. Vienna. Piccirillo, M., and Spijkerman, A. 1978. The Coins of the Decapolis and Provincia Arabia. SBF.CMa 25. Jerusalem. Weippert, M. 1979. The Israelite "Conquest" and the Evidence from Transjordan. Pp. 15 34 in Symposia, ed. F. M. Cross. Cambridge, MA. Worschech, U., and Knauf, E. A. 1985. Alte Strassen in der nordwestlichen Ard el-Kerak, ZDPV 101: 128 33.Ernst Axel Knauf, The Anchor Bible Dictionary, ad v. "Kerak" (extract)

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