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1793 Greek Antique Book Plutarchs Moralische Abhandlungen, Rare Manuscript

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Seller: zephyrenterprises2011 (1,549) 100% Top-Rated Plus, Location: San Diego, California, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 112197636501 Check out my other items! FREE PRIORITY MAIL SHIPPING This is an old book. Good binding. Some of the pages could possibly have foxing as far as the time era and materials it was made out of. INTERESTING READREARE BOOK “Normal Wear - Normal wear is the minor and reasonable wear of an item that is endured in everyday, ordinary use. Normal wear includes items that can be cleaned up by the new owner and improved during reconditioning.” Plutarchs Moralische Abhandlungen 1793 European Antique Book & Manuscript Bibliographic InformationCompiled, Revised & Edited Internet Information Title Plutarchs moralische Abhandlungen: 1793, Publisher Hermann, 1793 Length 600 pages Plutarch was born in 46 AD [a] in the small town of Chaeronea, in the Greek region known as Boeotia. His family was wealthy. The name of Plutarch's father has not been preserved, but it was probably Nikarchus, from the common habit of Greek families to repeat a name in alternate generations. The name of Plutarch's grandfather was Lamprias, as he attested in Moralia[3] and in his Life of Antony. His brothers, Timon and Lamprias, are frequently mentioned in his essays and dialogues, where Timon is spoken of in the most affectionate terms. Rualdus, in his 1624 work Life of Plutarchus, recovered the name of Plutarch's wife, Timoxena, from internal evidence afforded by his writings. A letter is still extant, addressed by Plutarch to his wife, bidding her not give way to excessive grief at the death of their two year old daughter, who was named Timoxena after her mother. Interestingly, he hinted at a belief in reincarnation in that letter of consolation. The exact number of his sons is not certain, although two of them, Autobulus and second Plutarch, are often mentioned. Plutarch's treatise on the Timaeus of Plato is dedicated to them, and the marriage of his son Autobulus is the occasion of one of the dinner-parties recorded in the 'Table Talk.' Another person, Soklarus, is spoken of in terms which seem to imply that he was Plutarch's son, but this is nowhere definitely stated. His treatise on marriage questions, addressed to Eurydice and Pollianus, seems to speak of her as having been recently an inmate of his house, but without enabling us to form an opinion whether she was his daughter or not.[4] Plutarch studied mathematics and philosophy at the Academy of Athens under Ammonius from 66 to 67.[5] He had a number of influential friends, including Quintus Sosius Senecio and Fundanus, both important senators, to whom some of his later writings were dedicated.[citation needed] Plutarch travelled widely in the Mediterranean world, including central Greece, Sparta, Corinth, Patrae (Patras), Sardes, Alexandria, and two trips to Rome[b]. At some point, Plutarch took up Roman citizenship. As evidenced by his new name, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, his sponsor for citizenship was Lucius Mestrius Florus, a Roman of consular status whom Plutarch also used as an historical source for his Life of Otho.[6] "The soul, being eternal, after death is like a caged bird that has been released. If it has been a long time in the body, and has become tame by many affairs and long habit, the soul will immediately take another body and once again become involved in the troubles of the world. The worst thing about old age is that the soul's memory of the other world grows dim, while at the same time its attachment to things of this world becomes so strong that the soul tends to retain the form that it had in the body. But that soul which remains only a short time within a body, until liberated by the higher powers, quickly recovers its fire and goes on to higher things." Plutarch (The Consolation, Moralia) He lived most of his life at Chaeronea, and was initiated into the mysteries of the Greek god Apollo. However, his duties as the senior of the two priests of Apollo at the Oracle of Delphi (where he was responsible for interpreting the auguries of the Pythia) apparently occupied little of his time. He led an active social and civic life while producing an extensive body of writing, much of which is still extant. For many years Plutarch served as one of the two priests at the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the site of the famous Delphic Oracle, twenty miles from his home. By his writings and lectures Plutarch became a celebrity in the Roman empire, yet he continued to reside where he was born, and actively participated in local affairs, even serving as mayor. At his country estate, guests from all over the empire congregated for serious conversation, presided over by Plutarch in his marble chair. Many of these dialogues were recorded and published, and the 78 essays and other works which have survived are now known collectively as the Moralia. Work as Magistrate and Ambassador Statue of Plutarch, at the Museum of Delphi. In addition to his duties as a priest of the Delphic temple, Plutarch was also a magistrate in Chaeronea and he represented his home on various missions to foreign countries during his early adult years. Plutarch held the office of archon in his native municipality, probably only an annual one which he likely served more than once. He busied himself with all the little matters of the town and undertook the humblest of duties.[7] The Suda, a medieval Greek encyclopedia, states that emperor Trajan made Plutarch procurator of Illyria. However, most historians consider this unlikely, since Illyria was not a procuratorial province, and Plutarch probably did not speak Illyrian[citation needed]. According to the 10th century historian George Syncellus, late in Plutarch's life, emperor Hadrian appointed him nominal procurator of Achaea – a position that entitled him to wear the vestments and ornaments of a consul himself.[citation needed] Plutarch died between the years AD 119 and 127.[c] Lives of the Roman Emperors The first biographical works to be written by Plutarch were the Lives of the Roman Emperors from Augustus to Vitellius. Of these, only the Lives of Galba and Otho survive. The Lives of Tiberius and Nero are extant only as fragments, provided by Dasmascius (Life of Tiberius, cf. his Life of Isidore)[8] and Plutarch himself (Life of Nero, cf. Galba 2.1), respectively. These early emperors’ biographies were probably published under the Flavian dynasty or during the reign of Nerva (CE 96-98). There is reason to believe that the two Lives still extant, those of Galba and Otho, “ought to be considered as a single work.”[9] Therefore they do not form a part of the Plutarchian canon of single biographies – as represented by the Life of Aratus of Sicyon and the Life of Artaxerxes (the biographies of Hesiod, Pindar, Crates and Daiphantus were lost). Unlike in these biographies, in Galba-Otho the individual characters of the persons portrayed are not depicted for their own sake but instead serve as an illustration of an abstract principle; namely the adherence or non-adherence to Plutarch’s morally founded ideal of governing as a Princeps (cf. Galba 1.3; Moralia 328D-E). Arguing from the perspective of Platonian political philosophy (cf. Republic 375E, 410D-E, 411E-412A, 442B-C), in Galba-Otho Plutarch reveals the constitutional principles of the Principate in the time of the civil war after Nero’s death. While morally questioning the behavior of the autocrats, he also gives an impression of their tragic destinies, ruthlessly competing for the throne and finally destroying each other. “The Caesars’ house in Rome, the Palatium, received in a shorter space of time no less than four Emperors,” Plutarch writes, “passing, as it were, across the stage, and one making room for another to enter” (Galba 1).[10] Galba-Otho was handed down through different channels. It can be found in the appendix to Plutarch’s Parallel Lives as well as in various Moralia manuscripts, most prominently in Maximus Planudes’s edition where Galba and Otho appear as “Opera” XXV and XXVI. Thus it seems reasonable to maintain that Galba-Otho was from early on considered as an illustration of a moral-ethical approach, possibly even by Plutarch himself.[11] Parallel Lives A page from the 1470 Ulrich Han printing of Plutarch's Parallel Lives. Main article: Parallel Lives Plutarch's best-known work is the Parallel Lives, a series of biographies of famous Greeks and Romans, arranged in pairs to illuminate their common moral virtues and vices. The surviving Lives contain 23 pairs, each with one Greek Life and one Roman Life, as well as four unpaired single Lives. As is explained in the opening paragraph of his Life of Alexander, Plutarch was not concerned with history so much as the influence of character, good or bad, on the lives and destinies of men. Whereas sometimes he barely touched on epoch-making events, he devoted much space to charming anecdote and incidental triviality, reasoning that this often said far more for his subjects than even their most famous accomplishments. He sought to provide rounded portraits, likening his craft to that of a painter; indeed, he went to tremendous effort (often leading to tenuous comparisons) to draw parallels between physical appearance and moral character. In many ways he must count among the earliest moral philosophers. Some of the Lives, such as those of Heracles, Philip II of Macedon and Scipio Africanus, no longer exist; many of the remaining Lives are truncated, contain obvious lacunae or have been tampered with by later writers. Extant Lives include those on Solon, Themistocles, Aristides, Pericles, Alcibiades, Nicias, Demosthenes, Pelopidas, Philopoemen, Timoleon, Dion of Syracuse, Alexander the Great, Pyrrhus of Epirus, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Coriolanus, Theseus, Aemilius Paullus, Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus, Gaius Marius, Sulla, Sertorius, Lucullus, Pompey, Julius Caesar, Cicero, Cato the Younger, Mark Antony, and Marcus Junius Brutus. Life of Alexander Plutarch's Life of Alexander, written as a parallel to that of Julius Caesar, is one of only five extant tertiary sources on the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great. It includes anecdotes and descriptions of events that appear in no other source, just as Plutarch's portrait of Numa Pompilius, the putative second king of Rome, holds much that is unique on the early Roman calendar. Plutarch devotes a great deal of space to Alexander's drive and desire, and strives to determine how much of it was presaged in his youth. He also draws extensively on the work of Lysippus, Alexander's favourite sculptor, to provide what is probably the fullest and most accurate description of the conqueror's physical appearance. When it comes to his character, however, Plutarch is often rather less accurate, ascribing inordinate amounts of self-control to a man who very often lost it.[12] It is significant, though, that the subject incurs less admiration from his biographer as the narrative progresses and the deeds that it recounts become less savoury. Much, too, is made of Alexander's scorn for luxury: "He desired not pleasure or wealth, but only excellence and glory." This is most true, for Alexander's tastes grew more extravagant as he grew older only in the last year of his life and only as a means of approaching the image of a ruler his Persian subjects were better accustomed to - thus making it easier for him to succeed in uniting the Greek and Persian worlds together, according to the plan he had announced in his famous Speech given in Opis in 324 BC. Life of Caesar Together with Suetonius's The Twelve Caesars this Life is the main account of Julius Caesar's feats by ancient historians. Plutarch starts by telling us the audacity of Caesar and his refusal of dismissing Cinna's daughter, Cornelia. Other important parts are these containing his military deeds, accounts of battles and Caesar's capacity of inspiring the soldiers. His soldiers showed such good will and zeal in his service that those who in their previous campaigns had been in no way superior to others were invincible and irresistible in confronting every danger to enhance Caesar's fame. Such a man, for instance, was Acilius, who, in the sea-fight at Massalia, boarded a hostile ship and had his right hand cut off with a sword, but clung with the other hand to his shield, and dashing it into the faces of his foes, routed them all and got possession of the vessel. Such a man, again, was Cassius Scaeva, who, in the battle at Dyrrhachium, had his eye struck out with an arrow, his shoulder transfixed with one javelin and his thigh with another, and received on his shield the blows of one hundred and thirty missiles. In this plight, he called the enemy to him as though he would surrender. Two of them, accordingly, coming up, he lopped off the shoulder of one with his sword, smote the other in the face and put him to flight, and came off safely himself with the aid of his comrades. Again, in Britain, when the enemy had fallen upon the foremost centurions, who had plunged into a watery marsh, a soldier, while Caesar in person was watching the battle, dashed into the midst of the fight, displayed many conspicuous deeds of daring, and rescued the centurions, after the Barbarians had been routed. Then he himself, making his way with difficulty after all the rest, plunged into the muddy current, and at last, without his shield, partly swimming and partly wading, got across. Caesar and his company were amazed and came to meet the soldier with cries of joy; but he, in great dejection, and with a burst of tears, cast himself at Caesar's feet, begging pardon for the loss of his shield. Again, in Africa, Scipio captured a ship of Caesar's in which Granius Petro, who had been appointed quaestor, was sailing. Of the rest of the passengers Scipio made booty, but told the quaestor that he offered him his life. Granius, however, remarking that it was the custom with Caesar's soldiers not to receive but to offer mercy, killed himself with a blow of his sword. — Life of Caesar, XVI However, this Life shows few differences between Suetonius' work and Caesar's own works (see De Bello Gallico and De Bello Civili). Sometimes, Plutarch quotes directly from the De Bello Gallico and even tell us of the moments when Caesar was dictating his works. In the final part of this Life, Plutarch counts Caesar's assassination, and several details. The book ends on telling the destiny of his murderers, and says that Caesar's "great guardian-genius" avenged him after life. Life of Pyrrhus Plutarch's Life of Pyrrhus is a key text because it is the main historical account on Roman history for the period from 293 to 264 BC, for which neither Dionysius nor Livy have surviving texts.[13] Criticism of Parallel Lives "It is not histories I am writing, but lives; and in the most glorious deeds there is not always an indication of virtue or vice, indeed a small thing like a phrase or a jest often makes a greater revelation of a character than battles where thousands die." Plutarch (Life of Alexander/Life of Julius Caesar, Parallel Lives, [tr. E.L. Bowie]) Plutarch stretches and occasionally fabricates the similarities between famous Greeks and Romans in order to be able to write their biographies as parallel. The lives of Nicias and Crassus, for example, have nothing in common except that both were rich and both suffered great military defeats at the ends of their lives.[14] In his Life of Pompey, Plutarch praises Pompey's trustworthy character and tactful behaviour in order to conjure a moral judgement that opposes most historical accounts. Plutarch delivers anecdotes with moral points, rather than in-depth comparative analyses of the causes of the fall of the Achaemenid Empire and the Roman Republic,[15] and tends on occasion to fit facts to hypotheses rather than the other, more scholastically acceptable way round. On the other hand, he generally sets out his moral anecdotes in chronological order (unlike, say, his Roman contemporary Suetonius)[15] and is rarely narrow-minded and unrealistic, almost always prepared to acknowledge the complexity of the human condition where moralising cannot explain it. Moralia A bust of the early Greek historian Herodotus, whom Plutarch criticized in On the Malice of Herodotus. Main article: Moralia The remainder of Plutarch's surviving work is collected under the title of the Moralia (loosely translated as Customs and Mores). It is an eclectic collection of seventy-eight essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On Fraternal Affection—a discourse on honour and affection of siblings toward each other, On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great—an important adjunct to his Life of the great king, On the Worship of Isis and Osiris (a crucial source of information on Egyptian religious rites),[16] along with more philosophical treatises, such as On the Decline of the Oracles, On the Delays of the Divine Vengeance, On Peace of Mind and lighter fare, such as Odysseus and Gryllus, a humorous dialogue between Homer's Odysseus and one of Circe's enchanted pigs. The Moralia was composed first, while writing the Lives occupied much of the last two decades of Plutarch's own life. On the Malice of Herodotus In On the Malice of Herodotus Plutarch criticizes the historian Herodotus for all manner of prejudice and misrepresentation. It has been called the “first instance in literature of the slashing review.”[17] The 19th century English historian George Grote considered this essay a serious attack upon the works of Herodotus, and speaks of the "honourable frankness which Plutarch calls his malignity."[18] Plutarch makes some palpable hits, catching Herodotus out in various errors, but it is also probable that it was merely a rhetorical exercise, in which Plutarch plays devil's advocate to see what could be said against so favourite and well-known a writer.[4] According to Plutarch scholar R. H. Barrow, Herodotus’ real failing in Plutarch’s eyes was to advance any criticism at all of those states that saved Greece from Persia. “Plutarch,” he concluded, “is fanatically biased in favor of the Greek cities; they can do no wrong.”[19] Questions Book IV of the Moralia contains the Roman and Greek Questions. The customs of Romans and Greeks are illuminated in little essays that pose questions such as 'Why were patricians not permitted to live on the Capitoline?' (no. 91) and then suggests answers to them, often several mutually exclusive. Pseudo-Plutarch Main article: Pseudo-Plutarch Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. Some editions of the Moralia include several works now known to be pseudepigrapha: among these are the Lives of the Ten Orators (biographies of the Ten Orators of ancient Athens, based on Caecilius of Calacte), The Doctrines of the Philosophers, and On Music. One "pseudo-Plutarch" is held responsible for all of these works, though their authorship is of course unknown.[citation needed] The thoughts and opinions recorded are not Plutarch's and come from a slightly later era, though they are all classical in origin. Lost Works The Romans loved the Lives, and enough copies were written out over the centuries so that a copy of most of the lives managed to survive to the present day. Some scholars, however, believe that only a third to one-half of Plutarch’s corpus is extant.[citation needed] The lost works of Plutarch are determined by references in his own texts to them and from other authors' references over time. There are traces of twelve more Lives that are now lost.[20] Plutarch's general procedure for the Lives was to write the life of a prominent Greek, then cast about for a suitable Roman parallel, and end with a brief comparison of the Greek and Roman lives. Currently, only nineteen of the parallel lives end with a comparison while possibly they all did at one time. Also missing are many of his Lives which appear in a list of his writings, those of Hercules, the first pair of Parallel Lives, Scipio Africanus and Epaminondas, and the companions to the four solo biographies. Even the lives of such important figures as Augustus, Claudius and Nero have not been found and may be lost forever.[17][21] Philosophy Plutarch was a Platonist, but was open to the influence of the Peripatetics, and in some details even to Stoicism despite his polemics against their principles.[22] He rejected absolutely only Epicureanism.[22] He attached little importance to theoretical questions and doubted the possibility of ever solving them.[23] He was more interested in moral and religious questions.[23] In opposition to Stoic materialism and Epicurean "atheism" he cherished a pure idea of God that was more in accordance with Plato.[23] He adopted a second principle (Dyad) in order to explain the phenomenal world.[23] This principle he sought, however, not in any indeterminate matter but in the evil world-soul which has from the beginning been bound up with matter, but in the creation was filled with reason and arranged by it.[23] Thus it was transformed into the divine soul of the world, but continued to operate as the source of all evil.[23] He elevated God above the finite world, and thus daemons became for him agents of God's influence on the world. He strongly defends freedom of the will, and the immortality of the soul.[23] Platonic-Peripatetic ethics were upheld by Plutarch against the opposing theories of the Stoics and Epicureans.[23] The most characteristic feature of Plutarch's ethics is, however, its close connection with religion.[24] However pure Plutarch's idea of God is, and however vivid his description of the vice and corruption which superstition causes, his warm religious feelings and his distrust of human powers of knowledge led him to believe that God comes to our aid by direct revelations, which we perceive the more clearly the more completely that we refrain in "enthusiasm" from all action; this made it possible for him to justify popular belief in divination in the way which had long been usual among the Stoics.[24] His attitude to popular religion was similar. The gods of different peoples are merely different names for one and the same divine Being and the powers that serve it.[24] The myths contain philosophical truths which can be interpreted allegorically.[24] Thus Plutarch sought to combine the philosophical and religious conception of things and to remain as close as possible to tradition.[24] Moralia Wikipedia Print Cite Share Plutarch Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus Μέστριος Πλούταρχος Bust of Plutarch located at the Archaeological Museum of Delphi. Born Circa 46 CEChaeronea, Boeotia Died Circa 120 CE (aged 74)Delphi, Phocis Resting place Occupation Biographer, essayist, priest, ambassador, magistrate Nationality Roman (Greek ethnicity) Subjects Biography, various Literary movement Middle Platonism, Hellenistic literature The Moralia (ancient Greek Ἠθικά — loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of the 1st-century Greek scholar Plutarch of Chaeronea is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches. They give an insight into Roman and Greek life, but often are also fascinating timeless observations in their own right. Many generations of Europeans have read or imitated them, including Montaigne and the Renaissance Humanists and Enlightenment philosophers. The Moralia include On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On the Worship of Isis and Osiris (a crucial source of information on Egyptian religious rites), and On the Malice of Herodotus (which may, like the orations on Alexander's accomplishments, have been a rhetorical exercise), in which Plutarch criticizes what he sees as systematic bias in the Father of History's work; along with more philosophical treatises, such as On the Decline of the Oracles, On the Delays of the Divine Vengeance, On Peace of Mind and lighter fare, such as Odysseus and Gryllus, a humorous dialog between Homer's Odysseus and one of Circe's enchanted pigs. The Moralia were composed first, while writing the Lives occupied much of the last two decades of Plutarch's own life. Some editions of the Moralia include several works now known to be pseudepigrapha: among these are the Lives of the Ten Orators (biographies of the Ten Orators of ancient Athens, based on Caecilius of Calacte), The Doctrines of the Philosophers, and On Music. One "pseudo-Plutarch" is held responsible for all of these works, though their authorship is of course unknown. Though the thoughts and opinions recorded are not Plutarch's and come from a slightly later era, they are all classical in origin and have value to the historian. The book is famously the first reference to the problem of the Chicken and the egg. Contents 1 Reincarnation 2 Mind 3 Books 4 Editions 5 References 6 External links Reincarnation Moralia asserts a belief in reincarnation: "The soul, being eternal, after death is like a caged bird that has been released. If it has been a long time in the body, and has become tame by many affairs and long habit, the soul will immediately take another body and once again become involved in the troubles of the world. The worst thing about old age is that the soul's memory of the other world grows dim, while at the same time its attachment to things of this world becomes so strong that the soul tends to retain the form that it had in the body. But that soul which remains only a short time within a body, until liberated by the higher powers, quickly recovers its fire and goes on to higher things." (From The Consolation.) Mind Mind or Nous (pronounced /ˈnuːs/, Greek: νοῦς) is a philosophical term for intellect. In Moralia, Plutarch agrees with Plato that the soul is more divine than the body while nous is more divine than the soul. The mix of soul and body produces pleasure and pain; the conjunction of mind and soul produces reason which is the cause or the source of virtue and vice. (From: “On the Face in the Moon”) [1] Books Since the Stephanus edition of 1572, the Moralia have traditionally been arranged in 14 books, as in the following list which includes the English, the original Greek and the Latin title: I. 1. On the Education of Children (Περὶ παίδων ἀγωγῆς - De liberis educandis) 2. How the Young Man Should Study Poetry (Πῶς δεῖ τὸν νέον ποιημάτων ἀκούειν - Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat) 3. On Hearing (Περὶ τοῦ ἀκούειν - De recta ratione audiendi) 4. How to Tell a Flatterer from a Friend (Πῶς ἂν τις διακρίνοιε τὸν κόλακα τοῦ φίλου - Quomodo adulator ab amico internoscatur) 5. How a Man May Become Aware of his Progress in Virtue (Πῶς ἂν τις αἴσθοιτο ἑαυτοῦ προκόπτοντος ἐπ᾿ ἀρετῇ - Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus) II. 6. How to Profit by One's Enemies (Πῶς ἂν τις ὑπ᾿ ἐχθρῶν ὠφελοῖτο - De capienda ex inimicis utilitate) 7. On Having Many Friends (Περὶ πολυφιλίας - De amicorum multitudine) 8. On Chance (Περὶ τύχης - De fortuna) 9. On Virtue and Vice (Περὶ ἀρετῆς καὶ κακίας - De virtute et vitio) 10. Letter of Condolence to Apollonius (Παραμυθητικὸς πρὸς Ἀπολλώνιον - Consolatio ad Apollonium) 11. Advice about Keeping Well (Ὑγιεινὰ παραγγέλματα - De tuenda sanitate praecepta) 12. Advice to Bride and Groom (Γαμικὰ παραγγέλματα - Coniugalia praecepta) 13. Dinner of the Seven Wise Men (Ἑπτά σοφῶν συμπόσιον - Septem sapientium convivium) 14. On Superstition (Περὶ δεισιδαιμονίας - De superstitione) III. 15. Sayings of Kings and Commanders (Βασιλέων ἀποφθέγματα καὶ στρατηγών - regum et imperatorem apophthegmata) 16. Sayings of the Spartans (Ἀποφθέγματα Λακωνικά - apophthegmata Laconica) 17. Institutions of the Spartans (Τὰ παλαιὰ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων ἐπιτηδεύματα - instituta Laconica) 18. Sayings of the Spartan Women (Λακαινῶν αποφθέγματα - Lacaenarum apophthegmata) 19. Virtues of Women (Γυναικῶν ἀρεταί - Mulierum virtutes) IV. 20. Roman Questions (Αἴτια Ῥωμαϊκά - Quaestiones Romanae) 21. Greek Questions (Αἴτια Ἑλληνικά - Quaestiones Graecae) 22. Greek and Roman Parallel Stories (Συναγωγὴ ἱστοριῶν παραλλήλων Ἑλληνικῶν καὶ Ρωμαϊκῶν - Parallela minora) (pseudo-Plutarch) 23. On the Fortune of the Romans (Περὶ τῆς Ῥωμαίων τύχης - De fortuna Romanorum) 24. On the Fortune or Virtue of Alexander the Great (Περὶ τῆς Ἀλεξάνδρου τύχης ἢ ἀρετῆς - De Alexandri magni fortuna aut virtute) 25. On the Glory of the Athenians (Πότερον Ἀθηναῖοι κατὰ πόλεμον ἢ κατὰ σοφίαν ἐνδοξότεροι - De gloria Atheniensium) V. 26. On Isis and Osiris [2] (Περί Ίσιδος και Οσίριδος - De Iside et Osiride) 27. On the EI at Delphi (Περί τού Εί τού έν Δελφοίς - De E apud Delphos) 28. Oracles at Delphi no Longer Given in Verse (Περί του μη χραν έμμετρα νυν την Πυθίαν - De Pythiae oraculis) 29. On the Obsolescence of Oracles (Περί των εκλελοιπότων χρηστηρίων - De defectu oraculorum) VI. 30. Can Virtue be Taught? (Εἰ διδακτὸν ἡ ἀρετή - An virtus doceri possit) 31. On Moral Virtue (Περί ηθικής αρετής - De virtute morali) 32. On the Control of Anger (Περί αοργησίας - De cohibenda ira) 33. On Tranquility of Mind (Περί ευθυμίας - De tranquillitate animi) 34. On Brotherly Love (Περί φιλαδελφίας - De fraterno amore) 35. On Affection for Offspring (Περί της εις τα έγγονα φιλοστοργίας - De amore prolis) 36. Whether Vice is Sufficient to Cause Unhappiness (Ει αυτάρκης η κακία προς κακοδαιμονίαν - An vitiositas ad infelicitatem sufficiat) 37. Whether Affections of the Soul are Worse than Those of the Body (Περί του πότερον τα ψυχής ή τα σώματος πάθη χείρονα - Animine an corporis affectiones sint peiores) 38. On Talkativeness (Περί αδολεσχίας - De garrulitate) 39. On Being a Busybody (Περί πολυπραγμοσύνης - De curiositate) VII. 40. On Love of Wealth (Περί φιλοπλουτίας - De cupiditate divitiarum) 41. On Compliancy (Περί δυσωπίας - De vitioso pudore) 42. On Envy and Hate (Περί φθόνου και μίσους - De invidia et odio) 43. On Praising Oneself Inoffensively (Περί του εαυτόν επαινείν ανεπιφθόνως - De laude ipsius) 44. On the Delays of Divine Vengeance (Περί των υπό του θείου βραδέως τιμωρουμένων - De sera numinis vindicta) 45. On Fate (Περί ειμαρμένης - De fato) (pseudo-Plutarch) 46. On the Sign of Socrates (Περί του Σωκράτους δαιμονίου - De genio Socratis) 47. On Exile (Περὶ φυγῆς - De exilio) 48. Consolation to his Wife (Παραμυθητικός προς την γυναίκα - Consolatio ad uxorem) VIII. 49. Table Talk (Συμποσιακά - Quaestiones convivales) IX. 50. Dialogue on Love (Έρωτικός - Amatorius) X. 51. Love Stories (Ερωτικαί διηγήσεις - Amatoriae narrationes) 52. A Philosopher Ought to Converse Especially with Men in Power (Περί του ότι μάλιστα τοις ηγεμόσιν δει τον φιλόσοφον διαλέγεσθαι - Maxime cum principibus philosopho esse disserendum) 53. To an Uneducated Ruler (Προς ηγεμόνα απαίδευτον - Ad principem ineruditum) 54. Whether an Old Man Should Engage in Public Affairs (Ει πρεσβυτέρω πολιτευτέον - An seni respublica gerenda sit) 55. Precepts of Statecraft (Πολιτικά παραγγέλματα - Praecepta gerendae reipublicae) 56. On Monarchy, Democracy and Oligarchy (Περί μοναρχίας και δημοκρατίας και ολιγαρχίας - De unius in republica dominatione, populari statu, et paucorum imperio) 57. That we Ought Not to Borrow (Περί του μη δειν δανείζεσθαι - De vitando aere alieno) 58. Lives of the Ten Orators (Βίοι των δέκα ρητόρων - Vitae decem oratorum) (pseudo-Plutarch) 59. Comparison between Aristophanes and Menander (Συγκρίσεως Αριστοφάνους και Μενάνδρου επιτομή - Comparationis Aristophanis et Menandri compendium) XI. 60. On the Malice of Herodotus (Περί της Ήροδότου κακοηθείας - De malignitate Herodoti) 61. On the Opinions of the Philosophers (Περί των αρεσκόντων φιλοσόφοις φυσικών δογμάτων - De placitis philosophorum) 62. Causes of Natural Phenomena (Αίτια φυσικά - Quaestiones naturales) XII. 63. On the Face Which Appears in the Orb of the Moon [3] (Περὶ τοῦ ἐμφαινομένου προσώπου τῷ κύκλῳ τῆς σελήνης - De facie in orbe lunae) 64. On the Principle of Cold (Περί του πρώτως ψυχρού - De primo frigido) 65. Whether Fire or Water is More Useful (Πότερον ύδωρ ή πυρ χρησιμότερον - Aquane an ignis sit utilior) 66. Whether Land or Sea Animals are Cleverer (Πότερα των ζώων φρονιμώτερα, τα χερσαία ή τα ένυδρα - De sollertia animalium) 67. Beasts are Rational (Περί του τα άλογα λόγω χρήσθαι - Bruta animalia ratione uti) 68. On the Eating of Flesh (Περί σαρκοφαγίας - De esu carnium) XIII. 69. Platonic Questions (Πλατωνικά ζητήματα - Platonicae quaestiones) 70. On the Birth of the Spirit in Timaeus (Περί της εν Τιμαίω ψυχογονίας - De animae procreatione in Timaeo) 71. Summary of the Birth of the Spirit (Επιτομή του περί της εν τω Τιμαίω ψυχογονίας - Epitome libri de animae procreatione in Timaeo) 72. On Stoic Self-Contradictions (Περί Στωικών εναντιωμάτων - De Stoicorum repugnantiis) 73. The Stoics Speak More Paradoxically than the Poets (Ότι παραδοξότερα οι Στωικοί των ποιητών λέγουσιν - Stoicos absurdiora poetis dicere) 74. On Common Conceptions against the Stoics (Περί των κοινών εννοιών προς τους Στωικούς - De communibus notitiis adversus Stoicos) XIV. 75. It is Impossible to Live Pleasantly in the Manner of Epicurus (Ότι ουδέ ηδέως ζην έστιν κατ’ Επίκουρον - Non posse suaviter vivi secundum Epicurum) 76. Against Colotes (Προς Κωλώτην - Adversus Colotem) 77. Is the Saying "Live in Obscurity" Right? (Ει καλώς είρηται το λάθε βιώσας - An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum) 78. On Music (Περί μουσικής - De musica) (pseudo-Plutarch) v · d · eThe Works of Plutarch Works Parallel Lives · Moralia · Pseudo-Plutarch Lives Alcibiades and Coriolanus1 · Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar · Aratus of Sicyon & Artaxerxes and Galba & Otho2 · Aristides and Cato the Elder1 · Crassus and Nicias1 · Demetrius and Antony1 · Demosthenes and Cicero1 · Dion and Brutus1 · Fabius and Pericles1 · Lucullus and Cimon1 · Lysander and Sulla1 · Numa and Lycurgus1 · Pelopidas and Marcellus1 · Philopoemen and Flamininus1 · Phocion and Cato the Younger · Pompey and Agesilaus1 · Poplicola and Solon1 · Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius · Romulus and Theseus1 · Sertorius and Eumenes1 · Tiberius Gracchus & Gaius Gracchus and Agis & Cleomenes1 · Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus1 · Themistocles and Camillus Translators and editors John Dryden · Thomas North · Jacques Amyot · Philemon Holland · Arthur Hugh Clough 1 Comparison extant · 2 Four unpaired Lives Condition: This is an old book. Good binding. Some of the pages could possibly have foxing as far as the time era and materials it was made out of. “Normal Wear - Normal wear is the minor and reasonable wear of an item that is endured in everyday, ordinary use. Normal wear includes items that can be cleaned up by the new owner and improved during reconditioning.”

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